This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Commandant" rank – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Commandant (/ˌkɒmənˈdɑːnt/, /ˌkɒmənˈdænt/, /ˈkʌmədənt/) is a military or police rank. In the French, Spanish, Irish and Monegasque armed forces it is a rank equivalent to major while in Belgium captain-commandant is a distinct rank, junior to major but sharing NATO rank-equivalence with it. In South Africa for most of the second half of the 20th century, commandant was a rank equivalent to lieutenant-colonel.

Canada

Commandant d'aviation was the Canadian French term for the air force rank of squadron leader (prior to the 2014 amendment of the National Defence Act).[citation needed] The rank of squadron leader itself had not been held by active duty personnel in the Canadian Forces since 1968 when it was replaced by major.

Ireland

Commandant (Comdt) (Irish: Ceannfort) is a military rank in both the Irish Army and Irish Air Corps.[1] It is equivalent to major and squadron leader. In the Irish Naval Service, the equivalent rank is lieutenant commander.

France

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Commandant
Commandant
Army-FRA-OF-03.svg
France-Airforce-OF-3 Sleeve.svg
Army and air force insignia
Country France
Service branchArmy
Air Force
Gendarmerie
AbbreviationCDT
Rank groupSenior officer
NATO rank codeOF-3
Next higher rankLieutenant colonel
Next lower rankCaptain
Equivalent ranksCorvette captain

Commandant (shortened from capitaine-commandant, i.e. a "captain commanding" (a battalion)), is an officer-grade rank of the Military of France,[2] specifically the French Army and the French Air and Space Force, which is equivalent to major.

The commandant is also styled chef de bataillon ("battalion leader") in the infantry, chef d'escadrons ("squadrons leader") in the armoured cavalry and chef d'escadron ("squadron leader") in the artillery and the Gendarmerie.

Commandant is also the style, but not the rank, of the senior officers of the French Navy (capitaine de corvette, capitaine de frégate and capitaine de vaisseau).

Prior to the French Revolution, the major was the officer appointed by the King to keep track of the expenditures and readiness of a regiment. He could have a deputy (an aide-major) and could be either a commoner or a nobleman. A major was graded as a commissar, not an officer. The officer at commandant rank level was the chef de bataillon or chef d'escadron.

Major is now, however, the most senior warrant officer rank, above adjudant-chef.

Spain

In the Spanish Army and Spanish Air Force, the rank of comandante is senior to a captain and junior to a lieutenant colonel, making it equivalent to the rank of major or squadron leader in English-speaking countries.

Latin America

Comandante ("commandant") is a military officer rank used in some Latin American countries.[citation needed] The Chilean Air Force uses the rank of comandante de escuadrilla ("squadron commandant") as a rank equivalent to the British rank of squadron leader. The Peruvian Air Force uses the rank of comandante as an equivalent to lieutenant-colonel or wing commander.

Comandante can be translated into English either as "commandant" or as "commander". The rank may also be found in numerous paramilitary organizations, such as the Sandinistas.

South Africa

South African army commandant insignia1950-1994
South African army commandant insignia
1950-1994

In South Africa, commandant was the title of the commanding officer of a commando (militia) unit, initially in the Cape Colony and later also in the Boer republics.

From 1950 to 1994 commandant was the official designation of the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the South African Army, South African Air Force, and South African Medical Service.

From 1950 to 1957, the rank insignia for a commandant (Kommandant in Afrikaans) was a crown over a five-pointed star.[3][4] In 1957 the crown was replaced by a pentagonal castle device based on the floor plan of the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town, South Africa's oldest military building.[4] In 1994, the rank of commandant / kommandant reverted to lieutenant colonel.[5]

From 1968 to 1970, a related rank, chief commandant (hoofkommandant), existed in the Commando Forces [the rural part-time, territorial reserve, roughly equivalent to a National Guard or Home Guard].[6] This rank of chief commandant existed purely in the army and slotted in between commandant and colonel. The rank was only used by officers commanding commando groups (i.e. a small formation consisting of two or more commando units).

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the term commandant usually refers to an appointment, not a rank. However, between 1922 and 1928 the rank of brigadier-general was replaced by colonel-commandant. This was not well received, and was replaced by brigadier.

Later, senior commandant and chief commandant were Auxiliary Territorial Service ranks equivalent to major and lieutenant-colonel respectively used between 1939 and May 1941, when they were replaced by senior and chief commander. The Commanding Officers of individual battalions of the Brigade of Gurkhas was designated a Commandant, rather than a commanding officer; and so with the Bermuda Militia Artillery (1895-1965). These ranks were also used in the Women's Auxiliary Air Force until December 1939, when they were replaced by squadron officer and wing officer (equating to squadron leader and wing commander) respectively. The rank was also used for senior commanders of the Ulster Special Constabulary (B Specials).

Gallery

Army insignia

References

  1. ^ a b "Army Rank Markings". military.ie. Defence Forces (Ireland). Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  2. ^ a b Instruction N° 10300/DEF/EMAT/LOG/ASH (PDF) (in French). Staff of the French Army. 13 June 2005. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  3. ^ Jooste, L. (1996). "Die politieke koerswending van 1948 besorg 'n nuwe identiteit aan die Unieverdedigingsma" [The political turnaround of 1948 brings a new identity to the Union Defense Force]. Militaria (in Afrikaans). 26 (2): 113–128.
  4. ^ a b Radburn, A. (1990). "South African Army Ranks and Insignia". Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies. 20 (2).
  5. ^ Salut. 1 (1): 4. May 1994. ((cite journal)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ Retief, J.J. (December 1997). "Die rang van hoofkommandant in die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag". Military History Journal (in Afrikaans). 10 (6).
  7. ^ "Ranks". mdn.dz. Ministry of National Defence (Algeria). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  8. ^ "LOI N° 2005-43 DU 26 JUIN 2006" (PDF). ilo.org (in French). National Assembly (Benin). 26 June 2006. pp. 19–20, 35–36. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  9. ^ "LOI N° 037-2016/AN PORTANT CONDITIONS D'AVANCEMENT DES PERSONNELS D'ACTIVE DES FORCES ARMEES NATIONALES" (PDF) (in French). 2015. pp. 17–21. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Grades appellations distinctions". defense.gouv.cg (in French). Ministry of National Defense (Republic of the Congo). Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  11. ^ "GRADES / APPELLATIONS / DISTINCTIONS". defense.gouv.ci (in French). Ministère de la Défense. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  12. ^ "LOI N° 96-029 portant Statut Général des Militaires" (PDF). defense.gov.mg (in French). Ministry of Defence (Madagascar). 15 November 1996. p. 2. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  13. ^ "2011 - Plaquette sur les insignes et blasons des Forces Armées du Mali" (in French). 23 April 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  14. ^ Ehrenreich, Frederich (1985). "National Security". In Nelson, Harold D. (ed.). Morocco: a country study. Area Handbook (5th ed.). Washington, D.C. pp. 350–351. LCCN 85600265.
  15. ^ Bureau international des droits des enfants (December 2012). "État des Lieux: Formation des forces de défense et de sécurité sur les droit de l'enfant au Niger" (PDF) (in French). p. 34. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  16. ^ "Army Ranks & Insignia". ejercito.defensa.gob.es. Ministry of Defence (Spain). Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Journal officiel de la république togolaise" (PDF) (in French). 12 February 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  18. ^ "Décret n° 72-380 du 6 décembre 1972, portant Statut particulier des militaires". legislation-securite.tn (in French). Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance. 6 December 1972. Retrieved 22 December 2021.