This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article may rely excessively on sources too closely associated with the subject, potentially preventing the article from being verifiable and neutral. Please help improve it by replacing them with more appropriate citations to reliable, independent, third-party sources. (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Common Language Runtime" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The Common Language Runtime (CLR), the virtual machine component of Microsoft .NET Framework, manages the execution of .NET programs. Just-in-time compilation converts the managed code (compiled intermediate language code) into machine instructions which are then executed on the CPU of the computer.[1] The CLR provides additional services including memory management, type safety, exception handling, garbage collection, security and thread management. All programs written for the .NET Framework, regardless of programming language, are executed in the CLR. All versions of the .NET Framework include CLR. The CLR team was started June 13, 1998.

CLR implements the Virtual Execution System (VES) as defined in the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) standard, initially developed by Microsoft itself. A public standard defines the Common Language Infrastructure specification.[2]

During the transition from legacy .NET technologies like the .NET Framework and its proprietary runtime to the community-developed .NET Core, the CLR was dubbed CoreCLR.[3] Today, it is simply called the .NET runtime.[4]

Overview of the Common Language Runtime release history[1]
CLR version .NET version
1.0 1.0
1.1 1.1
2.0 2.0, 3.0, 3.5
4 4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8

See also


  1. ^ a b "Common Language Runtime (CLR)". MSDN Library. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  2. ^ "ECMA C# and Common Language Infrastructure Standards". Visual Studio Developer Center. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  3. ^ "Understanding .NET Framework, .NET Core, .NET Standard And Future .NET". Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  4. ^ ".NET is a cross-platform runtime for cloud, mobile, desktop, and IoT apps". GitHub. Retrieved November 5, 2023.