Concordia, standing with a patera and two cornucopiae, on the reverse of this coin of Aquilia Severa.

In ancient Roman religion, Concordia (means "concord" or "harmony" in Latin) is the goddess who embodies agreement in marriage and society. Her Greek equivalent is usually regarded as Harmonia, with musical harmony a metaphor for an ideal of social concord or entente in the political discourse of the Republican era. She was thus often associated with Pax ("Peace") in representing a stable society.[1] As such, she is more closely related to the Greek concept of homonoia (likemindedness), which was also represented by a goddess.[2]

Concordia Augusta was cultivated in the context of Imperial cult. Dedicatory inscriptions to her, on behalf of emperors and members of the imperial family, were common.[3]

In art and numismatics

In Roman art, Concordia was depicted sitting, wearing a long cloak and holding onto a patera (sacrificial bowl), a cornucopia (symbol of prosperity), or a caduceus (symbol of peace). She was often shown in between two other figures, such as standing between two members of the Imperial family shaking hands. She was associated with a pair of female deities, such as Pax and Salus, or Securitas and Fortuna. She was also paired with Hercules and Mercury, representing "Security and Luck" respectively.[4]

Italy, 1000 lire "Roma capitale", 1970. Obverse (Laura Cretara): image of the Goddess Concordia inside a beaded circle, which was taken from a Roman denar of the Gens Aemilia. Reverse (Guerrino Mattia Monassi): reproduction of the pavement of Piazza del Campidoglio, by Michelangelo at the top and the value with mintmark at right below. Composition: silver (.835). Weight: 14.6 g. Diameter:31.4 mm. Thickness: 2.4 mm.

Several imperial coins depicted the goddess Concordia, such as those issued by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.[citation needed] The representation of Concordia on a Roman coin of the gens Aemilia (denarius of Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus) inspired Laura Cretara for the obverse of Italy's commemorative 1000 lire of 1970, "Roma Capitale".


The oldest Temple of Concord, built in 367 BC by Marcus Furius Camillus,[5] stood on the Roman Forum. Other temples and shrines in Rome dedicated to Concordia were largely geographically related to the main temple, and included (in date order):

In Pompeii, the high priestess Eumachia dedicated a building to Concordia Augusta.[11]

Modern religion

Harmonians and some Discordians equate Concordia with Aneris.[12] Her opposite is thus Discordia, or the Greek Eris.


The asteroid 58 Concordia is named after her.

There is a temple named after her in Agrigento, Sicily. It's located in the Valley of the Temples.


  1. ^ Carlos F. Noreña, Imperial Ideals in the Roman West: Representation, Circulation, Power (Cambridge University Press, 2011), p. 132.
  2. ^ Anna Clark, Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome (Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 31.
  3. ^ H.L. Wilson (1912). "A New Collegium at Rome". American Journal of Archaeology. 16 (1). Archaeological Institute of America: 94–96. doi:10.2307/497104. JSTOR 497104. S2CID 191390675.
  4. ^ Claridge, Amanda. Rome: An Oxford Archaeological Guide. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. (The section about the Temple of Concordia Augusta)
  5. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Concordia (goddess)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 834.
  6. ^ Liv. IX.46; Plin. NH XXXIII.19; Jord. I.2.339.
  7. ^ Liv. XXII.33.7; cf. XXVI.23.4.
  8. ^ Liv. XXIII.21.7; Hemerol. Praen. ad Non. Feb., Concordiae in Arce;1 CIL I2 p233, 309; p138Fast. Ant. ap. NS 1921, 86, Concordiae in Capitolio; Hermes 1875, 288; Jord. I.2.112.
  9. ^ Cass. Dio XLIV.4.
  10. ^ Flory, Marleen Boudreau (1984). "Sic Exempla Parantur: Livia's Shrine to Concordia and the Porticus Liviae". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. 33 (3): 310. JSTOR 4435892.
  11. ^ Dunn,Jackie and Bob Dunn. Pompeii In Pictures. Inscription from the Eumachia Building
  12. ^ "Mythics of Harmonia". Retrieved 2007-12-20.