|Constitution of Mongolia|
|Original title||Монгол Улсын|
|Ratified||13 January 1992|
|Date effective||12 February 1992|
|System||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Head of state||President|
(State Great Khural)
|Executive||Prime Minister led cabinet|
|Judiciary||Constitutional Court Supreme Court|
|First legislature||20 July 1992|
|First executive||6 June 1993 (President)|
21 July 1992 (PM)
|Last amended||14 November 2019|
|Commissioned by||People's Great Khural|
|Supersedes||Constitution of the Mongolian People's Republic|
The current Constitution of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол Улсын Үндсэн Хууль, Mongol Ulsyn Ündsen Khuuli, "Fundamental Law of Mongolia") was adopted on 13 January 1992, put into force on 12 February, and amended in 1999, 2000 and 2019. The new constitution established a representative democracy in Mongolia, guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression, unalienable rights, government setup, election cycle, and other matters. It was written after the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 and dissolved the People's Republic of Mongolia. It consists of a preamble followed by six chapters divided into 70 articles.
It is very close to and/or inspired by Western constitutions in terms of freedom of press, inalienable rights, freedom to travel, and other rights.
Main article: Constitutions of the Mongolian People's Republic
Previous constitutions had been adopted in 1924, 1940 and 1960.
Declares the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Mongolian state. Defines relationship between religion and state. Defines Mongolian emblem, flag, and anthem.
Specifies the civil, political, and human rights of the individual. Freedom of speech, religion, of expression, of the press, the right to vote. Equality before the law. The right to Health care, education, and intellectual property. Also lists duties of the citizen, including paying taxes and serving in the armed forces.
Defines the structure of the legal system and form of the republic. Describes the structure of the government.
Codifies the administrative districts of Mongolia and describes the relationship between national and local government.
Establishes a Constitutional Court to make rulings on interpretation of the constitution.
Describes the amendment process for changing the constitution.
Mongolia has amended its constitution strengthening the powers of the prime minister in a bid to end years of political instability and economic stagnation. With the amendments, presidential term has also been shortened to single 6-year term, which could take effect in 2020 allowing current President Khaltmaagiin Battulga to run for another term in 2021.
The amendments in the constitution are supposed to enhance the economic opportunities of the Mongolian citizenry and give them better control over how the country's vast natural resources and the revenues earned from them are maintained. Furthermore, the amendments increased the independence of the judiciary by stripping the president of his power to appoint judges in key posts, and establish parliamentary rather than executive oversight over judicial matters. The amendments featured vigorous participation of ordinary people as well as incumbent politicians. Proportional representation as a system to elect lawmakers were rejected, though the constitutional changes guaranteed that election laws are not changed a year before polls are held.
In 2022, lawmakers started to look into updating the constitution and strengthen democracy while touting the virtues of the Westminster system. If the amendment is ratified, the president would be stripped of much of his power.
((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)