Constitution of Mongolia
Original titleМонгол Улсын
Үндсэн Хууль
Ratified13 January 1992
Date effective12 February 1992
SystemUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
Government structure
Head of statePresident
(State Great Khural)
ExecutivePrime Minister led cabinet
JudiciaryConstitutional Court Supreme Court
Electoral collegeNo
First legislature20 July 1992[1]
First executive6 June 1993 (President)
21 July 1992 (PM)
Last amended14 November 2019
Commissioned byPeople's Great Khural
SupersedesConstitution of the Mongolian People's Republic

The current Constitution of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол Улсын Үндсэн Хууль, Mongol Ulsyn Ündsen Khuuli, "Fundamental Law of Mongolia") was adopted on 13 January 1992, put into force on 12 February, and amended in 1999, 2000 and 2019.[2] The new constitution established a representative democracy in Mongolia, guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression, unalienable rights, government setup, election cycle, and other matters. It was written after the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 and dissolved the People's Republic of Mongolia. It consists of a preamble followed by six chapters divided into 70 articles.[3]

It is very close to and/or inspired by Western constitutions in terms of freedom of press, inalienable rights, freedom to travel, and other rights.

Constitutional history

Main article: Constitutions of the Mongolian People's Republic

Previous constitutions had been adopted in 1924, 1940 and 1960.


Chapter One

Declares the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Mongolian state. Defines relationship between religion and state. Defines Mongolian emblem, flag, and anthem.[4]

Chapter Two

Specifies the civil, political, and human rights of the individual. Freedom of speech, religion, of expression, of the press, the right to vote. Equality before the law. The right to Health care, education, and intellectual property. Also lists duties of the citizen, including paying taxes and serving in the armed forces.[5]

Chapter Three

Defines the structure of the legal system and form of the republic. Describes the structure of the government.

Chapter Four

Codifies the administrative districts of Mongolia and describes the relationship between national and local government.[5]

Chapter Five

Establishes a Constitutional Court to make rulings on interpretation of the constitution.[5]

Chapter Six

Describes the amendment process for changing the constitution.[5]

2019 Constitutional amendments

Mongolia has amended its constitution strengthening the powers of the prime minister in a bid to end years of political instability and economic stagnation.[2] With the amendments, presidential term has also been shortened to single 6-year term, which could take effect in 2020 allowing current President Khaltmaagiin Battulga to run for another term in 2021.[6][7]

The amendments in the constitution are supposed to enhance the economic opportunities of the Mongolian citizenry and give them better control over how the country's vast natural resources and the revenues earned from them are maintained. Furthermore, the amendments increased the independence of the judiciary by stripping the president of his power to appoint judges in key posts, and establish parliamentary rather than executive oversight over judicial matters. The amendments featured vigorous participation of ordinary people as well as incumbent politicians.[8] Proportional representation as a system to elect lawmakers were rejected, though the constitutional changes guaranteed that election laws are not changed a year before polls are held.[9]

In 2022, lawmakers started to look into updating the constitution and strengthen democracy while touting the virtues of the Westminster system. If the amendment is ratified, the president would be stripped of much of his power.[10]

See also


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b "Mongolia amends constitution in bid to end political instability". Reuters. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  3. ^ Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 38
  4. ^ Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 38-39
  5. ^ a b c d Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 39
  6. ^ "Preserving the political status quo in Mongolia". East Asia Forum. 10 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Welcome to President Battulga's rule in 2020s". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  8. ^ "Mongolia's long,participatory route to constitutional reforms".
  9. ^ "Mongolia amends constitution in bid to amend political instability". Reuters.
  10. ^ Adiya, Amar (30 June 2022). "Mongolia Looks Into New Parliamentary System". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 1 July 2022.

Further reading