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Egyptian Police vehicle in Aswan.

Crime in Egypt is moderate, but still occurs in various forms.[1] Forms of crime include drug trafficking, money laundering, fraud, corruption, and black marketeering.

Current crimes

White-collar crime, smuggling, black marketeering, and other economic crimes like embezzlement, tax evasion, kickbacks and bribery increased when Anwar El Sadat and Hosni Mubarak were the President of Egypt.[2] In 2015, reports of sexual harassment highly increased in tourist attractions in Egypt, including at the Pyramids of Giza. Threats of terrorism also occur as the United States has assessed Cairo to be critical location for terrorist activity.

Crime by type

Honor killing

Honor killings in Egypt can occur due to reasons such as a woman meeting an unrelated man, even if this is only an allegation; or adultery (real or suspected). The exact number of honor killings is not known, but a report in 1995 estimated about 52 honor killings that year.[3] In 2013, a woman and her two daughters were murdered by 10 male relatives, who strangled and beat them, and then threw their bodies in the Nile. Honor killings are illegal in Egypt and five of the ten men were arrested.[4][5]

Petty crime

During the 1980s, petty crime was a significant problem in Egypt, but has been declining since then.[2]Incidence of Crime Federal Research Division].[2] Motor vehicle theft, crime by women and juveniles and incidents of kidnappings were increased in Cairo in 1988.[2] In an interview in 1989, the director of security for Cairo described poor economic conditions, high unemployment, population growth, and changes in social norms as the reasons behind higher crime rates.[2] Bank robberies, gang violence, and other violent crime were less common.[2]

Corruption

Main article: Corruption in Egypt

Sadat established commissions for the investigation of corruption among government officials.[2] Mubarak replaced many cabinet members for inability in detecting corruption.[2] Despite such measures, economic crimes continued to be widespread.[2]

Law enforcement have been reported to be dangerously corrupt, making affiliations with tuktuk and taxi drivers break traffic laws for a charge. Also, making false warrants and unlawful arrests on suspects who are filed with cases made by paying rivals.

Sexual violence

Further information: Rape in Egypt and Mass sexual assault in Egypt

Rape is one of the most common crimes in Egypt.[6] The Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights (ECWR) has called the problem "social cancer" and suggested that dress code is no deterrent at all. ECWR carried out a survey in 2008 which found that 83 percent of Egyptian women and 98 percent of foreign women within Egypt had experienced sexual harassment at some time, and only 12% had gone to the police for complaining such issue.[7]

Mass rapes have been carried out during festivals and the Egyptian protests, and include the public rapes of women, and female journalists.[8]

Drug trafficking

Egypt is a party to the 1961, 1971, and 1988 international drug control conventions. Its national drug control laws are generally assessed as adequate. However, Drug trafficking is still a persistent problem in Egypt. Egypt is a country for cannabis, heroin and opium destined for Europe, Israel, and North Africa.[9] According to a 2003 research undertaken by the Egyptian government, the narcotics problem costs the Egyptian economy roughly $800 million per year, including amounts spent on illegal drugs and government expenditures to tackle the problem.[10][11]

Human trafficking

Main article: Human trafficking in Egypt

Egypt serves as a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe to Israel for commercial sexual exploitation.[9] Men and women from countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are believed to be trafficked through the Sinai Desert to Israel and Europe for labor.[9] Many Egyptian children from rural areas are trafficked to other areas in Egypt as domestic servants or laborers in the agriculture industry.[9]

Terrorism and Religious Violence

Main article: Terrorism in Egypt

Egypt suffers from religious violence and terrorism, infrequent attacks both on tourists and religious minorities. Notable examples include the Luxor massacre (1997), the 2004 Sinai bombings, 2005 attacks in Cairo and in Sharm el-Sheikh, the 2006 Dahab bombings and the 2011 Alexandria bombing.

References

  1. ^ "Consular Information Sheet: Egypt". Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. Retrieved 2017-06-24. Bureau of Consular Affairs
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Incidence of Crime Federal Research Division, Library of Congress
  3. ^ Khafagy, Fatma. "Honour Killing In Egypt" (PDF). UN Division for the Advancement of Women. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  4. ^ "Three Egyptian Women Killed In 'Honor Killing,' Five Men Arrested". The Inquisitr News. 25 May 2013. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  5. ^ "News". Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
  6. ^ "Egyptian woman goes public about alleged police rape in rare TV interview". Associated Press. 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
  7. ^ "Egyptian jailed three years for groping". 21 October 2008. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Dutch female reporter gang-raped by 5 men in violent Egyptian protests". NY Post. 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
  9. ^ a b c d "CIA World Factbook - Egypt". CIA World Factbook.
  10. ^ "Egypt" (PDF).
  11. ^ Yassa, H. A.; Shehata, M. M.; Abdel-Hady, R. H.; Abdel-Aal, K. M. (2009). "Risk factors for bango abuse in upper Egypt". Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 28 (3): 397–402. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2009.07.003. PMID 21784033.