The earliest Crimean Tatar literary works are dated back to the times of the Golden Horde (13th-15th centuries), while its golden era took place in the times of Crimean Khanate (15th-18th centuries).

History

Middle Ages

"The poem about Yusuf and Zuleykha" by Mahmud Qırımlı from 13th century is regarded as the oldest work in Crimean Tatar.[1] Among other prominent authors of that time were Ali (d. 1232),[2] Mahmud (13-14 c.),[2] Mevlana Receb bin Ibrahim (d. 1386),[3] Mevlana Şerefeddin bin Kemal (d. 1438) and Kemal Ummi (d. 1475).[4]

Classical period

During the Golden Horde period after Crimean Tatars adopted Islam, Divan poetry or Palace poetry (Crimean: saray edebiyatı) started to form. Its authors were khans and aristocrats. Famous poets of that time were Abdul-Mecid Efendi, Usein Kefeviy, Meñli I Giray, Ğazı II Giray, Ramel Hoca, Aşıq Ümer, Mustafa Cevheriy, Leyla Bikeç, Aşıq Arif, Canmuhammed, and Edip Efendi. Ğazı II Giray in particular was known for his poetry, love of literature and works on music.[5] The Bahadır I Giray's wife Han-zade-hanum was also known as a poet. In the 15th-17th centuries anthologies of Crimean poetry appeared.

All literary works of that period were written in Arabic script. The language of poetry was influenced by Arabic and Persian as it used long and short vowels rhymes while Turkic language didn't differentiate vowels this way.[6] At the same time, a more colloquial language with few borrowings was used in folklore (e.g. "Çorabatır", "Kör oğlu", "Tair ve Zore").

Other works include writings about historic events and multiple yarlıqs.[7]

After the Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Empire in 1783, Crimean Tatar literature was frozen as the principal patrons of its development were Crimean khans.

New period

Crimean literature revival is closely related to Ismail Gasprinsky who laid the foundations of the story and the novel in Crimean Tatar literature. In his newspaper "Terciman", Gasprinsky was publishing works of new Crimean Tatar writers. Among prominent poets of early 20th century were Eşref Şemi-zade, Bekir Çoban-zade, Abdulla Dermenci, Şevqiy Bektöre, Abdulla Latif-zade, Amdi Giraybay. In 1901, Abdulla Özenbaşlı published the first Crimean Tatar drama "Olcağa çare almaz".

Crimean Tatar literary process was interrupted by the Soviet Deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944. Since that time and until the 1970s in the Soviet Union Crimean Tatar literature has been suppressed.

Some of the modern authors include Şamil Aladin, Cengiz Dağcı, Ümer İpçi, Yusuf Bolat, Ayder Osman, Ervin Ümerov, Rustem Müyedin, Şakir Selim, Yunus Qandım, Seyran Suleyman, Nuzet Ümerov.

See also

References

  1. ^ Emiramzaieva, A. S. (2020). "ТВОРЧІСТЬ ТА ЖИТТЯ МАХМУДА КИРИМЛИ У ЛІТЕРАТУРОЗНАВЧОМУ ВИСВІТЛЕННІ: ІСТОРІЯ ТА ПЕРСПЕКТИВИ ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ" [MAKHMUD KIRIMLI’S LIFE AND WORKS IN LITERARY ASPECT: HISTORY AND PERSPECTIVES OF STUDY] (PDF). Scientific notes of Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, series Philology. Social Communications. 4 (1): 110–114. doi:10.32838/2663-6069/2020.1-4/20.
  2. ^ a b Kurnaz C., Çeltik H. Osmanlı Donemi Kırım edebiyatı. — Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı, 2000.
  3. ^ Bursalı M. T. Kırım müellifleri. — Istanbul, 1919.
  4. ^ Banarlı N. S. Resimli türk edebiyatı tarihı. C.C.I-II. — Istanbul: Milli egitim basimevi, 1987.
  5. ^ Kent, Neil (2016). Crimea: A History. Hurst. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-1-84904-463-9.
  6. ^ Меметов И. Периодизация истории развития крымскотатарского литературного языка
  7. ^ Материалы для истории Крымского ханства, извлеченные, по распоряжению имп. Академии наук, из Московского главного архива Министерства иностранных дел. Издал В. В. Вельяминов-Зернов. — СПб., 1864. −1109 с.