This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Croatian. (October 2015) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Croatian article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Croatian Wikipedia article at [[:hr:Starohrvatska kruna]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|hr|Starohrvatska kruna)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Crown of Zvonimir" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Crown of Zvonimir (Croatia).svg

The Crown of Zvonimir was bestowed on King Dmitar Zvonimir of Croatia in 1076 by the papal legate. Zvonimir ruled Croatia until 1089 after which the crown was used in the coronation of his successor Stjepan II and presumably by the numerous Hungarian monarchs after the unification of the Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary in 1102.

It is quite possible that the crown was lost during the 1520s when the Ottoman Turks captured and sacked the royal capitals of Solin and Knin. It is not known whether the medieval Crown of Zvonimir still exists.

A stylised version of this crown is used on several provincial and county flags in modern Croatia and is consistently of the design illustrated here which is taken from an 11th-century engraving found in a baptistry in Split.[1] The distinctive long sides could be hanging pendilia as found adorning the Holy Crown of Hungary which was also an 11th-century papal gift.

World War II appropriation

In 1941, the fascist Ustaše regime assumed control of Croatia and decided to reinstate a monarchy in the Independent State of Croatia, also appropriating the symbols of the medieval Croatian state. They created another "Crown of Zvonimir", though with little resemblance to the original, described as "a wreath of golden clover leaves surmounted by a cross".[2] That crown, as well as an orb in the form of an apple, was then presented to Victor Emmanuel III of Italy with the request he choose a suitable member of the House of Savoy to be elevated to the proposed Croatian throne as king. He chose the Duke of Spoleto who was then named "King Tomislav II". It seems likely he came into possession of the regalia, though he was never crowned. It is unknown whether this crown remains in existence.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1] Archived November 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Crown of Zvonimir". Newsletter. 2009 Time Inc. 1941-05-26. Archived from the original on June 26, 2007. Retrieved 2009-11-30.