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Dalian dialect
大连话
Pronunciation/tɑ52 lien24 huɑ52/
RegionLiaodong Peninsula
Native speakers
~6.69 million (date unknown)
Language codes
ISO 639-1zh
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone

The Dalian dialect (simplified Chinese: 大连话; traditional Chinese: 大連話; pinyin: Dàliánhuà, Romaji: Dairen-ben) is a dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken on the Liaodong Peninsula, China including the city of Dalian and parts of Dandong and Yingkou. The Dalian dialect shares many similarities with the Qingdao dialect spoken on Shandong Peninsula (Jiaodong Peninsula) across Bohai Strait; hence the name Jiao Liao Mandarin. The Dalian dialect is notable among Chinese dialects for loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation.[1]

Notable words in the Dalian dialect include ("foolish") and ("to cheat or deceive").

Voice

Comparing with Mandarin on pronunciation

Contrast of Dalianian and Mandarin on pronunciation
Mandarin → Dalianian Example
zh, ch, sh, r → z, c, s, y 中國人 zhōng guó rén → zōng guó yín
d, t, n, l, z, c, s + uei, uan, uen → d, t, n, l, z, c, s + ei, an, en 對 dù(e)i → dèi
o and individual uo → e 胳膊 gē bo → gĕ be
脫 tuō → tĕ
suffix "子" → e 孩子 hái zi → hái e
w+a, ai, ei, an, en, ang, eng → v+a, ai, ei, an, en, ang, eng
wu and wo don't change
晚飯 wǎn fàn → vǎn fàn
numeral "二" → àr 王二小 wáng èr xiǎo → váng àr xiǎo
瑞 → suèi
崖 → ái
瑞士 rùi shì → suèi si
泡崖 pào yá → pào ái
n+i,iang,ie,ian,iao,iu,in,ing,ü,üe → gn+i,iang,ie,ian,iao,iu,in,ing,ü,üe
nu doesn't change
你 nǐ → gnǐ
虐 nüè → gnüè
z, c, s+en[ən], eng[əŋ] → z, c, s+en[ɿn], eng[ɿŋ]
other consonants+en, eng don't change
森 sēn[sən] → sēn[sɿn]

Syllables that don't exist in standard Mandarin

Erizational vowels

Basic vowels ai 蓋 an 碗 (i)an 邊 (ü)an 院 i ei 輩 en 根 ü a (i)e 碟 (ü)e o 窩
Erizational vowels ar
[ aʅ ]
(ü)anr
[ œ̜ʯ ]
er
[ əʅ ]
ür
[ yʯ ]
a'r
[ äʅ ]
(i)e'r
[ ɛʅ ]
(ü)e'r
[ øʯ ]
or
[ ǫʯ ]
Basic vowels e 歌 u 肚 ao 包 ou 頭 ang 缸 (u)ang 光 ong eng 燈
Erizational vowels e'r
[ ɤʅ ]
ur
[ uʯ ]
ao'r
[ ɑʊʯ ]
ou'r
[ ǫʊʯ ]
angr
[ ɑŋʅ̃ ]
(u)angr
[ ɔŋʯ̃ ]
ongr
[ ʊŋʯ̃ ]
engr
[ əŋʅ̃ ]

Tones

Tones of Dalianian
Tone No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Not marked
  • Dalian dialect
Yinping (LowMid falling) Yangping (Middle rising) Shangsheng (Middle concave) Yinqu (HighMid falling) Zhongqu (Middle level/Low rising) Yangqu (Low falling) Qingsheng
31 24 213 52 33/13 21 --
Yinping (High level) Yangping (High rising) Shangsheng (High concave) Qusheng (High falling) Qingsheng
55 35 214 51 --

In Dalianian,

Writing system

Logograms

Main article: Chinese characters

Syllabaries

There are 15 vowels (3 nasal vowels), 15 consonants (1 zero consonant "h"), no affricates ("gh", "kx", "dz", "ts", "bv", "pf") and no entering tone in the Dalian dialect. From the first open vowels "a" to the last close vowels "m", there are 366 syllabaries (183 uppercase and 183 lowercase).

Mandarin: ji, qi, xi = Dalianian: d-ii, t-ii, s-ii

Mandarin: zhi, chi, shi, ri, zi, ci, si = Dalianian: d-i, t-i, s-i, z-i

There are no differences between voiced and voiceless consonants in Mandarin and Dalianian, but there is distinction between aspirated and unaspirated consonants in them.

Mandarin and Dalianian: g[g] = g[k], d[d] = d[t], b[b] = b[p]

Mandarin and Dalianian: k[gh] = k[kh], t[dh] = t[th], p[bh] = p[ph]

New tablation of syllabaries

183 syllabaries Vowels
Back Front
Open Mid Close Open Mid Close
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
Consonants Dorsal Fricative Tenuis a[ɑ] / ha[ɣɑ] ao[ɒ] e[ɤ̞] ou[o̞] -i[ɯ] u[u] ai[a] uai[ɶ] ei[e̞] uei[ø̞] i[i] ü[y]
Aspirated xa[xɑ] xao[xɒ] xe[xɤ̞] xou[xo̞] x-i[xɯ] xu[xu] xai[xa] xuai[xɶ] xei[xe̞] xuei[xø̞] xi[xi] xü[xy]
Stop Tenuis ga[ɡɑ] gao[ɡɒ] ge[ɡɤ̞] gou[ɡo̞] g-i[ɡɯ] gu[ɡu] gai[ɡa] guai[ɡɶ] gei[ɡe̞] guei[ɡø̞] gi[ɡi] gü[ɡy]
Aspirated ka[kɑ] kao[kɒ] ke[kɤ̞] kou[ko̞] k-i[kɯ] ku[ku] kai[ka] kuai[kɶ] kei[ke̞] kuei[kø̞] ki[ki] kü[ky]
Nasal Prefix nga[ŋɑ] ngao[ŋɒ] nge[ŋɤ̞] ngou[ŋo̞] ng-i[ŋɯ] ngu[ŋu] ngai[ŋa] nguai[ŋɶ] ngei[ŋe̞] nguei[ŋø̞] ngi[ŋi] ngü[ŋy]
Suffix ng[ŋ]
Coronal Fricative Tenuis za[zɑ] / la[lɑ] zao[zɒ] ze[zɤ̞] zou[zo̞] z-i[zɯ] zu[zu] zai[za] zuai[zɶ] zei[ze̞] zuei[zø̞] zi[zi] zü[zy]
Aspirated sa[sɑ] sao[sɒ] se[sɤ̞] sou[so̞] s-i[sɯ] su[su] sai[sa] suai[sɶ] sei[se̞] suei[sø̞] si[si] sü[sy]
Stop Tenuis da[dɑ] dao[dɒ] de[dɤ̞] dou[do̞] d-i[dɯ] du[du] dai[da] duai[dɶ] dei[de̞] duei[dø̞] di[di] dü[dy]
Aspirated ta[tɑ] tao[tɒ] te[tɤ̞] tou[to̞] t-i[tɯ] tu[tu] tai[ta] tuai[tɶ] tei[te̞] tuei[tø̞] ti[ti] tü[ty]
Nasal Prefix na[nɑ] nao[nɒ] ne[nɤ̞] nou[no̞] n-i[nɯ] nu[nu] nai[na] nuai[nɶ] nei[ne̞] nuei[nø̞] ni[ni] nü[ny]
Suffix n[n]
Labial Fricative Tenuis va[vɑ] vao[vɒ] ve[vɤ̞] vou[vo̞] v-i[vɯ] vu[vu] vai[va] vuai[vɶ] vei[ve̞] vuei[vø̞] vi[vi] vü[vy]
Aspirated fa[fɑ] fao[fɒ] fe[fɤ̞] fou[fo̞] f-i[fɯ] fu[fu] fai[fa] fuai[fɶ] fei[fe̞] fuei[fø̞] fi[fi] fü[fy]
Stop Tenuis ba[bɑ] bao[bɒ] be[bɤ̞] bou[bo̞] b-i[bɯ] bu[bu] bai[ba] buai[bɶ] bei[be̞] buei[bø̞] bi[bi] bü[by]
Aspirated pa[pɑ] pao[pɒ] pe[pɤ̞] pou[po̞] p-i[pɯ] pu[pu] pai[pa] puai[pɶ] pei[pe̞] puei[pø̞] pi[pi] pü[py]
Nasal Prefix ma[mɑ] mao[mɒ] me[mɤ̞] mou[mo̞] m-i[mɯ] mu[mu] mai[ma] muai[mɶ] mei[me̞] muei[mø̞] mi[mi] mü[my]
Suffix m[m]

Vocabulary

Dalianian of full oyster flavor
Dalianian Meaning Dalianian Meaning Dalianian Meaning Dalianian Meaning Dalianian Meaning
xiĕ extremely cháo'r stupid / outdated huǐ le Oh, no! bái hu extemporaneous / to blatter zuǒ suo to waste
làng coxcombry biāo foolish kē'r le can't help it guán duō'r always dè se flighty
shòu'r piquant / Cool! bài don't zī shi natty gniàn yang show dissatisfaction tactfully xián hu not very gratified / to disdain
gān jing Great! vā'r low level zhāngr chengr capable hǎ hu dress sb down bú lǎi xuán understated
kāi le expressing dissatisfaction xuán le too many sá me peep gè yang disgusting cī máo'r juē dìng rude

Grammar

According to the predicate structure analysis method of the British linguists Ricci, the Dalian dialect is the same as English and Mandarin - the sentence is generally composed of S+V+O, that is subject + predicate + object of the order, but there are special circumstances, such as the older generation of Dalian people will say "Jiǎ zóu ba! Jiǎ zóu ba! (家走吧!家走吧!)" instead of "Húi jiā ba! Húi jiā ba! (回家吧!回家吧!)". At this time, the sentence is not S+V+O, but S+O+V, that is, subject + object + predicate.

Others

Classification

Distribution

References

  1. ^ 大連方言について (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
  2. ^ The Tone No.1 in Dalianese is a kind of falling tone, not a high level tone in Mandarin.
  3. ^ The extraordinary nature of some reiteratives and some onomatopoeias.