The 2022 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map      Full democracies .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  9.01–10.00   8.01–9.00    Flawed democracies   7.01–8.00   6.01–7.00    Hybrid regimes   5.01–6.00   4.01–5.00    Authoritarian regimes   3.01–4.00   2.01–3.00   1.01–2.00   0.00–1.00    No data   
The 2022 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index map

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the research division of the Economist Group, a UK-based private company which publishes the weekly newspaper The Economist. Akin to a Human Development Index but centrally concerned with political institutions and freedoms, the index attempts to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries and territories, of which 166 are sovereign states and 164 are UN member states.

The index is based on 60 indicators grouped in five categories, measuring pluralism, civil liberties and political culture. In addition to a numeric score and a ranking, the index categorizes each country into one of four regime types: full democracies, flawed democracies, hybrid regimes, and authoritarian regimes. The first Democracy Index report was published in 2006. Reports were published every two years until 2010 and annually thereafter.

Methodology

As described in the report,[1] the Democracy Index produces a weighted average based on the answers to 60 questions, each one with either two or three permitted answers. Most answers are experts' assessments. Some answers are provided by public-opinion surveys from the respective countries. In the case of countries for which survey results are missing, survey results for similar countries and expert assessments are used in order to fill in gaps.

The questions are grouped into five categories:

Each answer is converted to a score, either 0 or 1, or for the three-answer questions, 0, 0.5 or 1. With the exceptions mentioned below, within each category, the scores are added, multiplied by ten, and divided by the total number of questions within the category. There are a few modifying dependencies, which are explained much more precisely than the main rule procedures. In a few cases, an answer yielding zero for one question voids another question; e.g. if the elections for the national legislature and head of government are not considered free (question 1), then the next question, "Are elections... fair?", is not considered, but automatically scored zero. Likewise, there are a few questions considered so important that a low score on them yields a penalty on the total score sum for their respective categories, namely:

  1. "Whether national elections are free and fair";
  2. "The security of voters";
  3. "The influence of foreign powers on government";
  4. "The capability of the civil servants to implement policies".

The five category indices, which are listed in the report, are then averaged to find the overall score for a given country. Finally, the score, rounded to two decimals, decides the regime-type classification of the country.

The report discusses other indices of democracy, as defined, e.g. by Freedom House, and argues for some of the choices made by the team from the Economist Intelligence Unit. In this comparison, a higher emphasis is placed on the public opinion and attitudes, as measured by surveys, but on the other hand, economic living-standards are not weighted as one criterion of democracy (as seemingly some other investigators have done).[2][3]

The report is widely cited in the international press as well as in peer-reviewed academic journals.[4]

Definitions

Full democracies are nations where civil liberties and fundamental political freedoms are not only respected but also reinforced by a political culture conducive to the thriving of democratic principles. These nations have a valid system of governmental checks and balances, an independent judiciary whose decisions are enforced, governments that function adequately, and diverse and independent media. These nations have only limited problems in democratic functioning.[5]

Flawed democracies are nations where elections are fair and free and basic civil liberties are honoured but may have issues (e.g. media freedom infringement and minor suppression of political opposition and critics). These nations can have significant faults in other democratic aspects, including underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[5]

Hybrid regimes are nations with regular electoral frauds, preventing them from being fair and free democracies. These nations commonly have governments that apply pressure on political opposition, non-independent judiciaries, widespread corruption, harassment and pressure placed on the media, anaemic rule of law, and more pronounced faults than flawed democracies in the realms of underdeveloped political culture, low levels of participation in politics, and issues in the functioning of governance.[5]

Authoritarian regimes are nations where political pluralism is nonexistent or severely limited. These nations are often absolute monarchies or dictatorships, may have some conventional institutions of democracy but with meagre significance, infringements and abuses of civil liberties are commonplace, elections (if they take place) are not fair or free (including sham elections), the media is often state-owned or controlled by groups associated with the ruling regime, the judiciary is not independent, and censorship and suppression of governmental criticism are commonplace.[5]

By regime type

The following table indicates the number of nations and the percentage of World population for each type of regime. Some microstates are not considered in the calculation.

Year 2021[6]
Type of regime Score Countries Proportion of
World population (%)
Number (%)
Full democracies
  9.01–10.00
  8.01–9.00
21 12.6% 6.4%
Flawed democracies
  7.01–8.00
  6.01–7.00
53 31.7% 39.3%
Hybrid regimes
  5.01–6.00
  4.01–5.00
34 20.4% 17.2%
Authoritarian regimes
  3.01–4.00
  0–3.00
59 35.3% 37.1%

List by region

The following table lists the average of each country scored by geographic region.

Region Coun­tries 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2006
North America 2 8.37 8.36 8.58 8.59 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.56 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.59 8.63 8.64 8.64
Western Europe 21 8.36 8.23 8.29 8.35 8.35 8.38 8.40 8.42 8.41 8.41 8.44 8.40 8.45 8.61 8.60
Latin America and the Caribbean 24 5.79 5.83 6.09 6.13 6.24 6.26 6.33 6.37 6.36 6.38 6.36 6.35 6.37 6.43 6.37
Asia and Australasia 28 5.46 5.46 5.62 5.67 5.67 5.63 5.74 5.74 5.70 5.61 5.56 5.51 5.53 5.58 5.44
Central and Eastern Europe 28 5.39 5.36 5.36 5.42 5.42 5.40 5.43 5.55 5.58 5.53 5.51 5.50 5.55 5.67 5.76
Sub-Saharan Africa 44 4.14 4.12 4.16 4.26 4.36 4.35 4.37 4.38 4.34 4.36 4.33 4.32 4.23 4.28 4.24
Middle East and North Africa 20 3.34 3.41 3.44 3.53 3.54 3.54 3.56 3.58 3.65 3.68 3.73 3.62 3.52 3.48 3.54
World 167 5.29 5.28 5.37 5.44 5.48 5.48 5.52 5.55 5.55 5.53 5.52 5.49 5.46 5.55 5.52

The following table lists the number of countries in each of the four democracy classifications.

Year 2022
Rank Region Countries Authoritarian Hybrid regime Flawed democracy Full democracy Average score
1 North America 2 0 0 1 1 8.37
2 Western Europe 21 0 1 6 14 8.36
3 Latin America and the Caribbean 24 4 8 9 3 5.79
4 Asia and Australasia 28 7 7 9 5 5.46
5 Central and Eastern Europe 28 8 4 16 0 5.39
6 Sub-Saharan Africa 44 23 14 6 1 4.14
7 Middle East and North Africa 20 17 2 1 0 3.34
World 167 59 36 48 24 5.29

List by country

The following table shows each nation's score over the years. The regions are assigned by the Economist Intelligence Unit, and may differ from conventional classifications (for example, Turkey is grouped in Western Europe).

Region 2022 rank Country Regime type 2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2008 2006
North America 12  Canada Full democracy 8.88 8.87 9.24 9.22 9.15 9.15 9.15 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.08 9.07 9.07
30  United States Flawed democracy 7.85 7.85 7.92 7.96 7.96 7.98 7.98 8.05 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.11 8.18 8.22 8.22
Western Europe 20  Austria Full democracy 8.20 8.07 8.16 8.29 8.29 8.42 8.41 8.54 8.54 8.48 8.62 8.49 8.49 8.49 8.69
36  Belgium Flawed democracy 7.64 7.51 7.51 7.64 7.78 7.78 7.77 7.93 7.93 8.05 8.05 8.05 8.05 8.16 8.15
37  Cyprus Flawed democracy 7.38 7.43 7.56 7.59 7.59 7.59 7.65 7.53 7.40 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.29 7.70 7.60
6  Denmark Full democracy 9.28 9.09 9.15 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.20 9.11 9.11 9.38 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52 9.52
5  Finland Full democracy 9.29 9.27 9.20 9.25 9.14 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.06 9.06 9.19 9.25 9.25
22  France Full democracy 8.07 7.99 7.99 8.12 7.80 7.80 7.92 7.92 8.04 7.92 7.88 7.77 7.77 8.07 8.07
14  Germany Full democracy 8.80 8.67 8.67 8.68 8.68 8.61 8.63 8.64 8.64 8.31 8.34 8.34 8.38 8.82 8.82
25  Greece Flawed democracy 7.97 7.56 7.39 7.43 7.29 7.29 7.23 7.45 7.45 7.65 7.65 7.65 7.92 8.13 8.13
3  Iceland Full democracy 9.52 9.18 9.37 9.58 9.58 9.58 9.50 9.58 9.58 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.65 9.71
8  Ireland Full democracy 9.13 9.00 9.05 9.24 9.15 9.15 9.15 8.85 8.72 8.68 8.56 8.56 8.79 9.01 9.01
34  Italy Flawed democracy 7.69 7.68 7.74 7.52 7.71 7.98 7.98 7.98 7.85 7.85 7.74 7.74 7.83 7.98 7.73
13  Luxembourg Full democracy 8.81 8.68 8.68 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.81 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 8.88 9.10 9.10
33  Malta Flawed democracy 7.70 7.57 7.68 7.95 8.21 8.15 8.39 8.39 8.39 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.28 8.39 8.39
9  Netherlands Full democracy 9.00 8.88 8.96 9.01 8.89 8.89 8.80 8.92 8.92 8.84 8.99 8.99 8.99 9.53 9.66
1  Norway Full democracy 9.81 9.75 9.81 9.87 9.87 9.87 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.93 9.80 9.80 9.68 9.55
28  Portugal Flawed democracy 7.95 7.82 7.90 8.03 7.84 7.84 7.86 7.79 7.79 7.65 7.92 7.81 8.02 8.05 8.16
22  Spain Full democracy 8.07 7.94 8.12 8.29 8.08 8.08 8.30 8.30 8.05 8.02 8.02 8.02 8.16 8.45 8.34
4  Sweden Full democracy 9.39 9.26 9.26 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.39 9.45 9.73 9.73 9.73 9.50 9.50 9.88 9.88
7  Switzerland Full democracy 9.14 8.90 8.83 9.03 9.03 9.03 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.15 9.02
103  Turkey Hybrid regime 4.35 4.35 4.48 4.09 4.37 4.88 5.04 5.12 5.12 5.63 5.76 5.73 5.73 5.69 5.70
18  United Kingdom Full democracy 8.28 8.10 8.54 8.52 8.53 8.53 8.36 8.31 8.31 8.31 8.21 8.16 8.16 8.15 8.08
Central and Eastern Europe 64  Albania Flawed democracy 6.41 6.11 6.08 5.89 5.98 5.98 5.91 5.91 5.67 5.67 5.67 5.81 5.86 5.91 5.91
82  Armenia Hybrid regime 5.63 5.49 5.35 5.54 4.79 4.11 3.88 4.00 4.13 4.02 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.09 4.15
134  Azerbaijan Authoritarian 2.87 2.68 2.68 2.75 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.71 2.83 3.06 3.15 3.15 3.15 3.19 3.31
153  Belarus Authoritarian 1.99 2.41 2.59 2.48 3.13 3.13 3.54 3.62 3.69 3.04 3.04 3.16 3.34 3.34 3.34
97  Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime 5.00 5.04 4.84 4.86 4.98 4.87 4.87 4.83 4.78 5.02 5.11 5.24 5.32 5.70 5.78
57  Bulgaria Flawed democracy 6.53 6.64 6.71 7.03 7.03 7.03 7.01 7.14 6.73 6.83 6.72 6.78 6.84 7.02 7.10
59  Croatia Flawed democracy 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.57 6.57 6.63 6.75 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.93 6.73 6.81 7.04 7.04
25  Czech Republic Flawed democracy 7.97 7.74 7.67 7.69 7.69 7.62 7.82 7.94 7.94 8.06 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.19 8.17
27  Estonia Flawed democracy 7.96 7.84 7.84 7.90 7.97 7.79 7.85 7.85 7.74 7.61 7.61 7.61 7.68 7.68 7.74
90  Georgia Hybrid regime 5.20 5.12 5.31 5.42 5.50 5.93 5.93 5.88 5.82 5.95 5.53 4.74 4.59 4.62 4.90
56  Hungary Flawed democracy 6.64 6.50 6.56 6.63 6.63 6.64 6.72 6.84 6.90 6.96 6.96 7.04 7.21 7.44 7.53
127  Kazakhstan Authoritarian 3.08 3.08 3.14 2.94 2.94 3.06 3.06 3.06 3.17 3.06 2.95 3.24 3.30 3.45 3.62
116  Kyrgyzstan Authoritarian 3.62 3.62 4.21 4.89 5.11 5.11 4.93 5.33 5.24 4.69 4.69 4.34 4.31 4.05 4.08
38  Latvia Flawed democracy 7.37 7.31 7.24 7.49 7.38 7.25 7.31 7.37 7.48 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.23 7.37
39  Lithuania Flawed democracy 7.31 7.18 7.13 7.50 7.50 7.41 7.47 7.54 7.54 7.54 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.36 7.43
69  Moldova Flawed democracy 6.23 6.10 5.78 5.75 5.85 5.94 6.01 6.35 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.32 6.33 6.50 6.50
61  Montenegro Flawed democracy 6.45 6.02 5.77 5.65 5.74 5.69 5.72 6.01 5.94 5.94 6.05 6.15 6.27 6.43 6.57
72  North Macedonia Flawed democracy 6.10 6.03 5.89 5.97 5.87 5.57 5.23 6.02 6.25 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.16 6.21 6.33
46  Poland Flawed democracy 7.04 6.80 6.85 6.62 6.67 6.67 6.83 7.09 7.47 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.05 7.30 7.30
61  Romania Flawed democracy 6.45 6.43 6.40 6.49 6.38 6.44 6.62 6.68 6.68 6.54 6.54 6.54 6.60 7.06 7.06
146  Russia Authoritarian 2.28 3.24 3.31 3.11 2.94 3.17 3.24 3.31 3.39 3.59 3.74 3.92 4.26 4.48 5.02
68  Serbia Flawed democracy 6.33 6.36 6.22 6.41 6.41 6.41 6.57 6.71 6.71 6.67 6.33 6.33 6.33 6.49 6.62
43  Slovakia Flawed democracy 7.07 7.03 6.97 7.17 7.10 7.16 7.29 7.29 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.35 7.33 7.40
31  Slovenia Flawed democracy 7.75 7.54 7.54 7.50 7.50 7.50 7.51 7.57 7.57 7.88 7.88 7.76 7.69 7.96 7.96
157  Tajikistan Authoritarian 1.94 1.94 1.94 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.89 1.95 2.37 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.51 2.45 2.45
161  Turkmenistan Authoritarian 1.66 1.66 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.83
87  Ukraine Hybrid regime 5.42 5.57 5.81 5.90 5.69 5.69 5.70 5.70 5.42 5.84 5.91 5.94 6.30 6.94 6.94
149  Uzbekistan Authoritarian 2.12 2.12 2.12 2.01 2.01 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.45 1.72 1.72 1.74 1.74 1.74 1.85
Latin America and the Caribbean 50  Argentina Flawed democracy 6.85 6.81 6.95 7.02 7.02 6.96 6.96 7.02 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.84 6.63 6.63
100  Bolivia Hybrid regime 4.51 4.65 5.08 4.84 5.70 5.49 5.63 5.75 5.79 5.79 5.84 5.84 5.92 6.15 5.98
51  Brazil Flawed democracy 6.78 6.86 6.92 6.86 6.97 6.86 6.90 6.96 7.38 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.38 7.38
19  Chile Full democracy 8.22 7.92 8.28 8.08 7.97 7.84 7.78 7.84 7.80 7.80 7.54 7.54 7.67 7.89 7.89
53  Colombia Flawed democracy 6.72 6.48 7.04 7.13 6.96 6.67 6.67 6.62 6.55 6.55 6.63 6.63 6.55 6.54 6.40
17  Costa Rica Full democracy 8.29 8.07 8.16 8.13 8.07 7.88 7.88 7.96 8.03 8.03 8.10 8.10 8.04 8.04 8.04
139  Cuba Authoritarian 2.65 2.59 2.84 2.84 3.00 3.31 3.46 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52
65  Dominican Republic Flawed democracy 6.39 6.45 6.32 6.54 6.54 6.66 6.67 6.67 6.67 6.74 6.49 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.13
81  Ecuador Hybrid regime 5.69 5.71 6.13 6.33 6.27 6.02 5.81 5.87 5.87 5.87 5.78 5.72 5.77 5.64 5.64
93  El Salvador Hybrid regime 5.06 5.72 5.90 6.15 5.96 6.43 6.64 6.64 6.53 6.53 6.47 6.47 6.47 6.40 6.22
98  Guatemala Hybrid regime 4.68 4.62 4.97 5.26 5.60 5.86 5.92 5.92 5.81 5.81 5.88 5.88 6.05 6.07 6.07
67  Guyana Flawed democracy 6.34 6.25 6.01 6.15 6.67 6.46 6.25 6.05 5.91 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.05 6.12 6.15
135  Haiti Authoritarian 2.81 3.48 4.22 4.57 4.91 4.03 4.02 3.94 3.82 3.94 3.96 4.00 4.00 4.19 4.19
91  Honduras Hybrid regime 5.15 5.10 5.36 5.42 5.63 5.72 5.92 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.84 5.76 6.18 6.25
42  Jamaica Flawed democracy 7.13 7.13 7.13 6.96 7.02 7.29 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.39 7.13 7.21 7.21 7.34
89  Mexico Hybrid regime 5.25 5.57 6.07 6.09 6.19 6.41 6.47 6.55 6.68 6.91 6.90 6.93 6.93 6.78 6.67
143  Nicaragua Authoritarian 2.50 2.69 3.60 3.55 3.63 4.66 4.81 5.26 5.32 5.46 5.56 5.56 5.73 6.07 5.68
49  Panama Flawed democracy 6.91 6.85 7.18 7.05 7.05 7.08 7.13 7.19 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.08 7.15 7.35 7.35
77  Paraguay Hybrid regime 5.89 5.86 6.18 6.24 6.24 6.31 6.27 6.33 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.40 6.40 6.40 6.16
75  Peru Hybrid regime 5.92 6.09 6.53 6.60 6.60 6.49 6.65 6.58 6.54 6.54 6.47 6.59 6.40 6.31 6.11
48  Suriname Flawed democracy 6.95 6.82 6.82 6.98 6.98 6.76 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.77 6.65 6.65 6.65 6.58 6.52
41  Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy 7.16 7.16 7.16 7.16 7.16 7.04 7.10 7.10 6.99 6.99 6.99 7.16 7.16 7.21 7.18
11  Uruguay Full democracy 8.91 8.85 8.61 8.38 8.38 8.12 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.10 8.08 7.96
147  Venezuela Authoritarian 2.23 2.11 2.76 2.88 3.16 3.87 4.68 5.00 5.07 5.07 5.15 5.08 5.18 5.34 5.42
Asia and Australasia 167  Afghanistan Authoritarian 0.32 0.32 2.85 2.85 2.97 2.55 2.55 2.77 2.77 2.48 2.48 2.48 2.48 3.02 3.06
15  Australia Full democracy 8.71 8.90 8.96 9.09 9.09 9.09 9.01 9.01 9.01 9.13 9.22 9.22 9.22 9.09 9.09
73  Bangladesh Hybrid regime 5.99 5.99 5.99 5.88 5.57 5.43 5.73 5.73 5.78 5.86 5.86 5.86 5.87 5.52 6.11
84  Bhutan Hybrid regime 5.54 5.71 5.71 5.30 5.30 5.08 4.93 4.93 4.87 4.82 4.65 4.57 4.68 4.30 2.62
121  Cambodia Authoritarian 3.18 2.90 3.10 3.53 3.59 3.63 4.27 4.27 4.78 4.60 4.96 4.87 4.87 4.87 4.77
156  China Authoritarian 1.94 2.21 2.27 2.26 3.32 3.10 3.18 3.14 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.14 3.14 3.04 2.97
83  Fiji Hybrid regime 5.55 5.61 5.72 5.85 5.85 5.85 5.64 5.69 5.61 3.61 3.67 3.67 3.62 5.11 5.66
88  Hong Kong Hybrid regime 5.28 5.60 5.57 6.02 6.15 6.31 6.42 6.50 6.46 6.42 6.42 5.92 5.92 5.85 6.03
46  India Flawed democracy 7.04 6.91 6.61 6.90 7.23 7.23 7.81 7.74 7.92 7.69 7.52 7.30 7.28 7.80 7.68
54  Indonesia Flawed democracy 6.71 6.71 6.30 6.48 6.39 6.39 6.97 7.03 6.95 6.82 6.76 6.53 6.53 6.34 6.41
16  Japan Full democracy 8.33 8.15 8.13 7.99 7.99 7.88 7.99 7.96 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.08 8.25 8.15
159  Laos Authoritarian 1.77 1.77 1.77 2.14 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.21 2.21 2.21 2.32 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.10
40  Malaysia Flawed democracy 7.30 7.24 7.19 7.16 6.88 6.54 6.54 6.43 6.49 6.49 6.41 6.19 6.19 6.36 5.98
66  Mongolia Flawed democracy 6.35 6.42 6.48 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.62 6.62 6.62 6.51 6.35 6.23 6.36 6.60 6.60
166  Myanmar Authoritarian 0.74 1.02 3.04 3.55 3.83 3.83 4.20 4.14 3.05 2.76 2.35 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.77
101    Nepal Hybrid regime 4.49 4.41 5.22 5.28 5.18 5.18 4.86 4.77 4.77 4.77 4.16 4.24 4.24 4.05 3.42
2  New Zealand Full democracy 9.61 9.37 9.25 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.26 9.19 9.01
165  North Korea Authoritarian 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.86 1.03
107  Pakistan Hybrid regime 4.13 4.31 4.31 4.25 4.17 4.26 4.33 4.40 4.64 4.64 4.57 4.55 4.55 4.46 3.92
74  Papua New Guinea Hybrid regime 5.97 6.10 6.10 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.03 6.36 6.32 6.32 6.54 6.54 6.54
52  Philippines Flawed democracy 6.73 6.62 6.56 6.64 6.71 6.71 6.94 6.84 6.77 6.41 6.30 6.12 6.12 6.12 6.48
70  Singapore Flawed democracy 6.22 6.23 6.03 6.02 6.38 6.32 6.38 6.14 6.03 5.92 5.88 5.89 5.89 5.89 5.89
24  South Korea Full democracy 8.03 8.16 8.01 8.00 8.00 8.00 7.92 7.97 8.06 8.06 8.13 8.06 8.11 8.01 7.88
60  Sri Lanka Flawed democracy 6.47 6.14 6.14 6.27 6.19 6.48 6.48 6.42 5.69 5.69 5.75 6.58 6.64 6.61 6.58
10  Taiwan Full democracy 8.99 8.99 8.94 7.73 7.73 7.73 7.79 7.83 7.65 7.57 7.57 7.46 7.52 7.82 7.82
55  Thailand Flawed democracy 6.67 6.04 6.04 6.32 4.63 4.63 4.92 5.09 5.39 6.25 6.55 6.55 6.55 6.81 5.67
44  East Timor Flawed democracy 7.06 7.06 7.06 7.19 7.19 7.19 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.16 7.22 7.22 7.22 6.41
138  Vietnam Authoritarian 2.73 2.94 2.94 3.08 3.08 3.08 3.38 3.53 3.41 3.29 2.89 2.96 2.94 2.53 2.75
Middle East and North Africa 113  Algeria Authoritarian 3.66 3.77 3.77 4.01 3.50 3.56 3.56 3.95 3.83 3.83 3.83 3.44 3.44 3.32 3.17
142  Bahrain Authoritarian 2.52 2.52 2.49 2.55 2.71 2.71 2.79 2.79 2.87 2.87 2.53 2.92 3.49 3.38 3.53
131  Egypt Authoritarian 2.93 2.93 2.93 3.06 3.36 3.36 3.31 3.18 3.16 3.27 4.56 3.95 3.07 3.89 3.90
154  Iran Authoritarian 1.96 1.95 2.20 2.38 2.45 2.45 2.34 2.16 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.94 2.83 2.93
124  Iraq Authoritarian 3.13 3.51 3.62 3.74 4.06 4.09 4.08 4.08 4.23 4.10 4.10 4.03 4.00 4.00 4.01
29  Israel Flawed democracy 7.93 7.97 7.84 7.86 7.79 7.79 7.85 7.77 7.63 7.53 7.53 7.53 7.48 7.48 7.28
122  Jordan Authoritarian 3.17 3.49 3.62 3.93 3.93 3.87 3.96 3.86 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.89 3.74 3.93 3.92
111  Kuwait Authoritarian 3.83 3.91 3.80 3.93 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.85 3.78 3.78 3.78 3.74 3.88 3.39 3.09
115  Lebanon Authoritarian 3.64 3.84 4.16 4.36 4.63 4.72 4.86 4.86 5.12 5.05 5.05 5.32 5.82 5.62 5.82
151  Libya Authoritarian 2.06 1.95 1.95 2.02 2.19 2.32 2.25 2.25 3.80 4.82 5.15 3.55 1.94 2.00 1.84
95  Morocco Hybrid regime 5.04 5.04 5.04 5.10 4.99 4.87 4.77 4.66 4.00 4.07 4.07 3.83 3.79 3.88 3.90
125  Oman Authoritarian 3.12 3.00 3.00 3.06 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.04 3.15 3.26 3.26 3.26 2.86 2.98 2.77
110  Palestine Authoritarian 3.86 3.94 3.83 3.89 4.39 4.46 4.49 4.57 4.72 4.80 4.80 4.97 5.44 5.83 6.01
114  Qatar Authoritarian 3.65 3.65 3.24 3.19 3.19 3.19 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.18 3.09 2.92 2.78
150  Saudi Arabia Authoritarian 2.08 2.08 2.08 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.93 1.82 1.82 1.71 1.77 1.84 1.90 1.92
144  Sudan Authoritarian 2.47 2.47 2.54 2.70 2.15 2.15 2.37 2.37 2.54 2.54 2.38 2.38 2.42 2.81 2.90
163  Syria Authoritarian 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.43 1.74 1.86 1.63 1.99 2.31 2.18 2.36
85  Tunisia Hybrid regime 5.51 5.99 6.59 6.72 6.41 6.32 6.40 6.72 6.31 5.76 5.67 5.53 2.79 2.96 3.06
133  United Arab Emirates Authoritarian 2.90 2.90 2.70 2.76 2.76 2.69 2.75 2.75 2.64 2.52 2.58 2.58 2.52 2.60 2.42
155  Yemen Authoritarian 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 1.95 2.07 2.07 2.24 2.79 2.79 3.12 2.57 2.64 2.95 2.98
Sub-Saharan Africa 109  Angola Authoritarian 3.96 3.37 3.66 3.72 3.62 3.62 3.40 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.35 3.32 3.32 3.35 2.41
104  Benin Hybrid regime 4.28 4.19 4.58 5.09 5.74 5.61 5.67 5.72 5.65 5.87 6.00 6.06 6.17 6.06 6.16
32  Botswana Flawed democracy 7.73 7.73 7.62 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.87 7.87 7.87 7.98 7.85 7.63 7.63 7.47 7.60
127  Burkina Faso Authoritarian 3.08 3.84 3.73 4.04 4.75 4.75 4.70 4.70 4.09 4.15 3.52 3.59 3.59 3.60 3.72
148  Burundi Authoritarian 2.13 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.33 2.33 2.40 2.49 3.33 3.41 3.60 4.01 4.01 4.51 4.51
35  Cape Verde Flawed democracy 7.65 7.65 7.65 7.78 7.88 7.88 7.94 7.81 7.81 7.92 7.92 7.92 7.94 7.81 7.43
140  Cameroon Authoritarian 2.56 2.56 2.77 2.85 3.28 3.61 3.46 3.66 3.41 3.41 3.44 3.41 3.41 3.46 3.27
164  Central African Republic Authoritarian 1.35 1.43 1.32 1.32 1.52 1.52 1.61 1.57 1.49 1.49 1.99 1.82 1.82 1.86 1.61
160  Chad Authoritarian 1.67 1.67 1.55 1.61 1.61 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.62 1.62 1.52 1.52 1.65
120  Comoros Authoritarian 3.20 3.20 3.09 3.15 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.71 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.52 3.41 3.58 3.90
136  Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 2.79 2.79 3.11 3.11 3.31 3.25 2.91 2.91 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.89 2.94 3.19
106  Ivory Coast Hybrid regime 4.22 4.22 4.11 4.05 4.15 3.93 3.81 3.31 3.53 3.25 3.25 3.08 3.02 3.27 3.38
162  Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 1.48 1.40 1.13 1.13 1.49 1.61 1.93 2.11 1.75 1.83 1.92 2.15 2.15 2.28 2.76
137  Djibouti Authoritarian 2.74 2.74 2.71 2.77 2.87 2.76 2.83 2.90 2.99 2.96 2.74 2.68 2.20 2.37 2.37
158  Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.92 1.81 1.70 1.77 1.66 1.77 1.83 1.77 1.84 2.19 2.09
152  Eritrea Authoritarian 2.03 2.03 2.15 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.37 2.44 2.40 2.40 2.34 2.31 2.31 2.31
129  Eswatini Authoritarian 3.01 3.08 3.08 3.14 3.03 3.03 3.03 3.09 3.09 3.20 3.20 3.26 2.90 3.04 2.93
122  Ethiopia Authoritarian 3.17 3.30 3.38 3.44 3.35 3.42 3.60 3.83 3.72 3.83 3.72 3.79 3.68 4.52 4.72
118  Gabon Authoritarian 3.40 3.40 3.54 3.61 3.61 3.61 3.74 3.76 3.76 3.76 3.56 3.48 3.29 3.00 2.72
102  Gambia Hybrid regime 4.47 4.41 4.49 4.33 4.31 4.06 2.91 2.97 3.05 3.31 3.31 3.38 3.38 4.19 4.39
63  Ghana Flawed democracy 6.43 6.50 6.50 6.63 6.63 6.69 6.75 6.86 6.33 6.33 6.02 6.02 6.02 5.35 5.35
145  Guinea Authoritarian 2.32 2.28 3.08 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.14 3.01 2.84 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.09 2.02
140  Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian 2.56 2.75 2.63 2.63 1.98 1.98 1.98 1.93 1.93 1.26 1.43 1.99 1.99 1.99 2.00
94  Kenya Hybrid regime 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.18 5.11 5.11 5.33 5.33 5.13 5.13 4.71 4.71 4.71 4.79 5.08
71  Lesotho Flawed democracy 6.19 6.30 6.30 6.54 6.64 6.64 6.59 6.59 6.66 6.66 6.66 6.33 6.02 6.29 6.48
86  Liberia Hybrid regime 5.43 5.43 5.32 5.45 5.35 5.23 5.31 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 5.07 5.07 5.25 5.22
80  Madagascar Hybrid regime 5.70 5.70 5.70 5.64 5.22 5.11 5.07 4.85 4.42 4.32 3.93 3.93 3.94 5.57 5.82
76  Malawi Hybrid regime 5.91 5.74 5.74 5.50 5.49 5.49 5.55 5.55 5.66 6.00 6.08 5.84 5.84 5.13 4.97
119  Mali Authoritarian 3.23 3.48 3.93 4.92 5.41 5.64 5.70 5.70 5.79 5.90 5.12 6.36 6.01 5.87 5.99
108  Mauritania Hybrid regime 4.03 4.03 3.92 3.92 3.82 3.82 3.96 3.96 4.17 4.17 4.17 4.17 3.86 3.91 3.12
21  Mauritius Full democracy 8.14 8.08 8.14 8.22 8.22 8.22 8.28 8.27 8.17 8.17 8.17 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.04
117  Mozambique Authoritarian 3.51 3.51 3.51 3.65 3.85 4.02 4.02 4.60 4.66 4.77 4.88 4.90 4.90 5.49 5.28
58  Namibia Flawed democracy 6.52 6.52 6.52 6.43 6.25 6.31 6.31 6.31 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.24 6.23 6.48 6.54
112  Niger Authoritarian 3.73 3.22 3.29 3.29 3.76 3.76 3.96 4.62 4.02 4.08 4.16 4.16 3.38 3.41 3.54
105  Nigeria Hybrid regime 4.23 4.11 4.10 4.12 4.44 4.44 4.50 3.85 3.76 3.77 3.77 3.83 3.47 3.53 3.52
126  Rwanda Authoritarian 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.16 3.35 3.19 3.07 3.07 3.25 3.38 3.36 3.25 3.25 3.71 3.82
79  Senegal Hybrid regime 5.72 5.53 5.67 5.81 6.15 6.15 6.21 6.08 6.15 6.15 6.09 5.51 5.27 5.37 5.37
96  Sierra Leone Hybrid regime 5.03 4.97 4.86 4.86 4.66 4.66 4.55 4.55 4.56 4.64 4.71 4.51 4.51 4.11 3.57
45  South Africa Flawed democracy 7.05 7.05 7.05 7.24 7.24 7.24 7.41 7.56 7.82 7.90 7.79 7.79 7.79 7.91 7.91
92  Tanzania Hybrid regime 5.10 5.10 5.10 5.16 5.41 5.47 5.76 5.58 5.77 5.77 5.88 5.64 5.64 5.28 5.18
130  Togo Authoritarian 2.99 2.80 2.80 3.30 3.10 3.05 3.32 3.41 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45 2.43 1.75
99  Uganda Hybrid regime 4.55 4.48 4.94 5.02 5.20 5.09 5.26 5.22 5.22 5.22 5.16 5.13 5.05 5.03 5.14
78  Zambia Hybrid regime 5.80 5.72 4.86 5.09 5.61 5.68 5.99 6.28 6.39 6.26 6.26 6.19 5.68 5.25 5.25
132  Zimbabwe Authoritarian 2.92 2.92 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.16 3.05 3.05 2.78 2.67 2.67 2.68 2.64 2.53 2.62

Components

The following table shows the five parameters that made up the score of each nation in 2022 and the changes that had occurred since 2021.

Year 2022
Rank Δ Rank Country Regime type Overall score Δ Score Elec­toral pro­cess
and plura­lism
Func­tioning
of govern­ment
Poli­tical
partici­pation
Poli­tical
cul­ture
Civil
liber­ties
Full democracies
1 Steady  Norway Full democracy 9.81 Increase 0.06 10.00 9.64 10.00 10.00 9.41
2 Steady  New Zealand Full democracy 9.61 Increase 0.14 10.00 9.29 10.00 8.75 10.00
3 Increase 2  Iceland Full democracy 9.52 Increase 0.34 10.00 9.64 8.89 9.38 9.71
4 Steady  Sweden Full democracy 9.39 Increase 0.13 9.58 9.64 8.33 10.00 9.41
5 Decrease 2  Finland Full democracy 9.29 Increase 0.02 10.00 9.64 8.33 8.75 9.71
6 Steady  Denmark Full democracy 9.28 Increase 0.19 10.00 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.41
7 Increase 2  Switzerland Full democracy 9.14 Increase 0.24 9.58 9.29 8.33 9.38 9.12
8 Decrease 1  Ireland Full democracy 9.13 Increase 0.13 10.00 8.21 8.33 10.00 9.12
9 Increase 2  Netherlands Full democracy 9.00 Increase 0.12 9.58 8.93 8.33 8.75 9.41
10 Decrease 2  Taiwan Full democracy 8.99 Steady 10.00 9.64 7.78 8.13 9.41
11 Increase 2  Uruguay Full democracy 8.91 Increase 0.06 10.00 8.93 7.78 8.13 9.71
12 Steady  Canada Full democracy 8.88 Increase 0.01 10.00 8.57 8.89 8.13 8.82
13 Increase 1  Luxembourg Full democracy 8.81 Increase 0.13 10.00 8.93 6.67 8.75 9.71
14 Increase 1  Germany Full democracy 8.80 Increase 0.13 9.58 8.57 8.33 8.13 9.41
15 Decrease 6  Australia Full democracy 8.71 Decrease 0.19 10.00 8.57 7.78 7.50 9.71
16 Increase 1  Japan Full democracy 8.33 Increase 0.18 9.17 8.57 6.67 8.13 9.12
17 Increase 3  Costa Rica Full democracy 8.29 Increase 0.22 9.58 7.50 7.78 6.88 9.71
18 Steady  United Kingdom Full democracy 8.28 Increase 0.18 9.58 7.50 8.33 6.88 9.12
19 Increase 6  Chile Full democracy 8.22 Increase 0.30 9.58 8.21 6.67 7.50 9.12
20 Steady  Austria Full democracy 8.20 Increase 0.13 9.58 7.14 8.89 6.88 8.53
21 Decrease 2  Mauritius Full democracy 8.14 Increase 0.06 9.17 7.86 6.11 8.75 8.82
22 Steady  France Full democracy 8.07 Increase 0.08 9.58 7.86 7.78 6.88 8.24
Increase 2  Spain Full democracy 8.07 Increase 0.13 9.58 7.50 7.22 7.50 8.53
24 Decrease 8  South Korea Full democracy 8.03 Decrease 0.13 9.58 8.57 7.22 6.25 8.53
Flawed democracies
25 Increase 4  Czech Republic Flawed democracy 7.97 Increase 0.23 9.58 6.43 7.22 7.50 9.12
Increase 9  Greece Flawed democracy 7.97 Increase 0.41 10.00 7.14 6.67 7.50 8.53
27 Steady  Estonia Flawed democracy 7.96 Increase 0.12 9.58 7.86 6.67 6.88 8.82
28 Steady  Portugal Flawed democracy 7.95 Increase 0.13 9.58 7.50 6.67 6.88 9.12
29 Decrease 6  Israel Flawed democracy 7.93 Decrease 0.04 9.58 7.86 9.44 6.88 5.88
30 Decrease 4  United States Flawed democracy 7.85 Steady 9.17 6.43 8.89 6.25 8.53
31 Increase 4  Slovenia Flawed democracy 7.75 Increase 0.21 9.58 7.14 7.22 6.25 8.53
32 Decrease 2  Botswana Flawed democracy 7.73 Steady 9.17 6.79 6.67 7.50 8.53
33 Steady  Malta Flawed democracy 7.70 Increase 0.13 9.17 7.14 5.56 8.13 8.53
34 Decrease 3  Italy Flawed democracy 7.69 Increase 0.01 9.58 6.79 7.22 7.50 7.35
35 Decrease 3  Cape Verde Flawed democracy 7.65 Steady 9.17 7.00 6.67 6.88 8.53
36 Steady  Belgium Flawed democracy 7.64 Increase 0.13 9.58 8.21 5.00 6.88 8.53
37 Steady  Cyprus Flawed democracy 7.38 Decrease 0.05 9.17 5.36 6.67 6.88 8.82
38 Steady  Latvia Flawed democracy 7.37 Increase 0.06 9.58 6.07 6.11 6.25 8.82
39 Increase 1  Lithuania Flawed democracy 7.31 Increase 0.13 9.58 6.43 6.11 5.63 8.82
40 Decrease 1  Malaysia Flawed democracy 7.30 Increase 0.06 9.58 7.86 7.22 6.25 5.59
41 Steady  Trinidad and Tobago Flawed democracy 7.16 Steady 9.58 7.14 6.11 5.63 7.35
42 Steady  Jamaica Flawed democracy 7.13 Steady 8.75 7.14 5.00 6.25 8.53
43 Increase 2  Slovakia Flawed democracy 7.07 Increase 0.04 9.58 6.07 5.56 5.63 8.53
44 Decrease 1  East Timor Flawed democracy 7.06 Steady 9.58 5.93 5.56 6.88 7.35
45 Decrease 1  South Africa Flawed democracy 7.05 Steady 7.42 7.14 8.33 5.00 7.35
46 Steady  India Flawed democracy 7.04 Increase 0.13 8.67 7.50 7.22 5.63 6.18
Increase 5  Poland Flawed democracy 7.04 Increase 0.24 9.17 6.07 6.67 6.25 7.06
48 Increase 1  Suriname Flawed democracy 6.95 Increase 0.13 9.58 6.43 6.11 5.00 7.65
49 Decrease 1  Panama Flawed democracy 6.91 Increase 0.06 9.58 6.07 7.22 3.75 7.94
50 Steady  Argentina Flawed democracy 6.85 Steady 9.17 5.00 7.78 4.38 7.94
51 Decrease 4  Brazil Flawed democracy 6.78 Decrease 0.08 9.58 5.00 6.67 5.00 7.65
52 Increase 2  Philippines Flawed democracy 6.73 Increase 0.11 9.17 5.00 7.78 4.38 7.35
53 Increase 6  Colombia Flawed democracy 6.72 Increase 0.25 9.17 6.07 6.67 3.75 7.94
54 Decrease 2  Indonesia Flawed democracy 6.71 Steady 7.92 7.86 7.22 4.38 6.18
55 Increase 17  Thailand Flawed democracy 6.67 Increase 0.63 7.42 6.07 8.33 5.63 5.88
56 Steady  Hungary Flawed democracy 6.64 Increase 0.14 8.33 6.79 4.44 6.88 6.76
57 Decrease 4  Bulgaria Flawed democracy 6.53 Decrease 0.11 9.17 5.36 6.11 4.38 7.65
58 Decrease 3  Namibia Flawed democracy 6.52 Steady 7.00 5.36 6.67 5.63 7.94
59 Decrease 3  Croatia Flawed democracy 6.50 Steady 9.17 6.07 6.11 4.38 6.76
60 Increase 7  Sri Lanka Flawed democracy 6.47 Increase 0.33 7.00 5.71 7.22 6.25 6.18
61 Increase 13  Montenegro Flawed democracy 6.45 Increase 0.43 7.42 6.79 7.22 3.75 7.06
Steady  Romania Flawed democracy 6.45 Increase 0.02 9.17 6.43 5.56 3.75 7.35
63 Decrease 7  Ghana Flawed democracy 6.43 Decrease 0.07 8.33 5.00 6.67 6.25 5.88
64 Increase 4  Albania Flawed democracy 6.41 Increase 0.30 7.00 6.43 5.00 6.25 7.35
65 Decrease 5  Dominican Republic Flawed democracy 6.39 Decrease 0.06 9.17 5.36 7.22 3.13 7.06
66 Decrease 4  Mongolia Flawed democracy 6.35 Decrease 0.07 8.75 5.36 6.11 5.63 5.88
67 Decrease 2  Guyana Flawed democracy 6.34 Increase 0.09 6.92 6.07 6.67 5.00 7.06
68 Decrease 5  Serbia Flawed democracy 6.33 Decrease 0.03 7.83 6.07 6.67 3.75 7.35
69 Steady  Moldova Flawed democracy 6.23 Increase 0.13 7.42 5.36 7.22 4.38 6.76
70 Decrease 4  Singapore Flawed democracy 6.22 Decrease 0.01 4.83 7.86 4.44 7.50 6.47
71 Decrease 7  Lesotho Flawed democracy 6.19 Decrease 0.11 9.17 4.14 5.56 5.63 6.47
72 Increase 1  North Macedonia Flawed democracy 6.10 Increase 0.07 7.83 6.07 6.11 3.13 7.35
Hybrid regimes
73 Increase 2  Bangladesh Hybrid regime 5.99 Steady 7.42 6.07 5.56 5.63 5.29
74 Decrease 5  Papua New Guinea Hybrid regime 5.97 Decrease 0.13 6.92 6.07 3.89 5.63 7.35
75 Decrease 4  Peru Hybrid regime 5.92 Decrease 0.17 8.75 5.71 5.56 3.13 6.47
76 Increase 2  Malawi Hybrid regime 5.91 Increase 0.17 7.00 4.29 5.56 6.25 6.47
77 Steady  Paraguay Hybrid regime 5.89 Increase 0.03 8.75 5.36 6.11 1.88 7.35
78 Increase 1  Zambia Hybrid regime 5.80 Increase 0.08 7.92 3.64 5.00 6.88 5.59
79 Increase 9  Senegal Hybrid regime 5.72 Increase 0.19 6.58 5.71 4.44 6.25 5.59
80 Increase 3  Madagascar Hybrid regime 5.70 Steady 7.92 3.57 6.67 5.63 4.71
81 Steady  Ecuador Hybrid regime 5.69 Decrease 0.02 8.75 5.00 6.67 1.88 6.18
82 Increase 7  Armenia Hybrid regime 5.63 Increase 0.14 7.92 5.71 6.11 3.13 5.29
83 Increase 1  Fiji Hybrid regime 5.55 Decrease 0.06 6.58 5.00 5.56 5.63 5.00
84 Decrease 3  Bhutan Hybrid regime 5.54 Decrease 0.24 8.75 5.93 3.33 5.00 4.71
85 Decrease 10  Tunisia Hybrid regime 5.51 Decrease 0.48 6.17 4.64 6.11 5.63 5.00
86 Increase 4  Liberia Hybrid regime 5.43 Steady 7.42 2.71 6.11 5.63 5.29
87 Decrease 1  Ukraine Hybrid regime 5.42 Decrease 0.15 6.50 2.71 7.22 6.25 4.41
88 Decrease 3  Hong Kong Hybrid regime 5.28 Decrease 0.32 2.75 3.29 5.56 6.88 7.94
89 Decrease 3  Mexico Hybrid regime 5.25 Decrease 0.32 6.92 4.64 7.22 1.88 5.59
90 Increase 1  Georgia Hybrid regime 5.20 Increase 0.08 7.00 3.57 6.11 3.75 5.59
91 Increase 1  Honduras Hybrid regime 5.15 Increase 0.05 8.75 3.93 5.00 2.50 5.59
92 Steady  Tanzania Hybrid regime 5.10 Steady 4.83 5.00 5.00 6.25 4.41
93 Decrease 14  El Salvador Hybrid regime 5.06 Decrease 0.66 8.33 3.57 5.56 3.13 4.71
94 Steady  Kenya Hybrid regime 5.05 Steady 3.50 5.36 6.67 5.63 4.12
95 Steady  Morocco Hybrid regime 5.04 Steady 5.25 4.64 5.56 5.63 4.12
96 Increase 1  Sierra Leone Hybrid regime 5.03 Increase 0.06 6.58 2.86 4.44 6.25 5.00
97 Decrease 2  Bosnia and Herzegovina Hybrid regime 5.00 Decrease 0.04 7.00 4.00 5.00 3.13 5.88
98 Increase 1  Guatemala Hybrid regime 4.68 Increase 0.06 6.92 3.93 3.89 2.50 6.18
99 Increase 1  Uganda Hybrid regime 4.55 Increase 0.07 3.42 3.57 3.89 6.88 5.00
100 Decrease 2  Bolivia Hybrid regime 4.51 Decrease 0.14 4.75 4.29 6.67 1.25 5.59
101 Steady    Nepal Hybrid regime 4.49 Decrease 0.08 4.83 5.36 4.44 2.50 5.29
102 Decrease 1  Gambia Hybrid regime 4.47 Increase 0.06 4.42 4.29 3.89 5.63 4.12
103 Steady  Turkey Hybrid regime 4.35 Steady 3.50 5.00 5.56 5.63 2.06
104 Increase 2  Benin Hybrid regime 4.28 Increase 0.09 1.67 5.71 3.33 6.25 4.41
105 Increase 2  Nigeria Hybrid regime 4.23 Increase 0.12 5.17 3.93 3.89 3.75 4.41
106 Decrease 1  Ivory Coast Hybrid regime 4.22 Steady 4.33 2.86 4.44 5.63 3.82
107 Decrease 3  Pakistan Hybrid regime 4.13 Decrease 0.18 5.67 5.00 2.78 2.50 4.71
108 Steady  Mauritania Hybrid regime 4.03 Steady 3.50 3.57 5.56 3.13 4.41
Authoritarian regimes
109 Increase 13  Angola Authoritarian 3.96 Increase 0.59 4.50 3.21 4.44 5.00 2.65
110 Decrease 1  Palestine Authoritarian 3.86 Decrease 0.08 2.92 0.14 8.33 4.38 3.53
111 Decrease 1  Kuwait Authoritarian 3.83 Decrease 0.08 3.17 3.93 4.44 4.38 3.24
112 Increase 13  Niger Authoritarian 3.73 Decrease 0.07 2.92 1.50 3.89 5.63 4.71
113 Steady  Algeria Authoritarian 3.66 Decrease 0.11 3.08 2.50 3.89 5.00 3.82
114 Steady  Qatar Authoritarian 3.65 Steady 1.50 4.29 3.33 5.63 3.53
115 Decrease 4  Lebanon Authoritarian 3.64 Decrease 0.20 3.50 0.79 6.67 3.13 4.12
116 Decrease 1  Kyrgyzstan Authoritarian 3.62 Steady 4.33 1.50 4.44 3.13 4.71
117 Decrease 1  Mozambique Authoritarian 3.51 Steady 2.58 1.43 5.00 5.00 3.53
118 Increase 3  Gabon Authoritarian 3.40 Steady 2.17 1.86 4.44 5.00 3.53
119 Steady  Mali Authoritarian 3.23 Decrease 0.25 1.17 0.00 5.56 5.63 3.82
120 Increase 6  Comoros Authoritarian 3.20 Steady 2.08 2.21 4.44 3.75 3.53
121 Increase 13  Cambodia Authoritarian 3.18 Increase 0.28 0.00 3.21 5.00 5.63 2.06
122 Increase 1  Ethiopia Authoritarian 3.17 Decrease 0.13 0.42 2.86 6.11 5.00 1.47
Decrease 4  Jordan Authoritarian 3.17 Decrease 0.32 2.67 3.21 3.89 3.13 2.94
124 Decrease 8  Iraq Authoritarian 3.13 Decrease 0.38 5.25 0.00 6.11 3.13 1.18
125 Increase 5  Oman Authoritarian 3.12 Increase 0.12 0.08 3.93 2.78 5.00 3.82
126 Increase 1  Rwanda Authoritarian 3.10 Steady 1.42 4.29 2.78 4.38 2.65
127 Decrease 16  Burkina Faso Authoritarian 3.08 Decrease 0.76 0.00 2.50 5.00 4.38 3.53
Increase 1  Kazakhstan Authoritarian 3.08 Steady 0.50 3.21 5.00 3.75 2.94
129 Decrease 1  Eswatini Authoritarian 3.01 Decrease 0.07 0.92 2.50 2.78 5.63 3.24
130 Increase 6  Togo Authoritarian 2.99 Increase 0.07 0.92 2.14 3.33 5.63 2.94
131 Increase 1  Egypt Authoritarian 2.93 Steady 1.33 3.21 3.33 5.00 1.76
132 Increase 1  Zimbabwe Authoritarian 2.92 Steady 0.00 2.50 3.89 5.00 3.24
133 Increase 1  United Arab Emirates Authoritarian 2.90 Steady 0.00 4.29 2.22 5.63 2.35
134 Increase 7  Azerbaijan Authoritarian 2.87 Increase 0.19 0.50 2.86 3.33 5.00 2.65
135 Decrease 16  Haiti Authoritarian 2.81 Decrease 0.67 0.00 0.00 2.78 6.25 5.00
136 Increase 1  Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 2.79 Steady 0.00 2.50 4.44 3.75 3.24
137 Increase 2  Djibouti Authoritarian 2.74 Steady 0.00 1.29 4.44 5.63 2.35
138 Decrease 7  Vietnam Authoritarian 2.73 Decrease 0.21 0.00 3.93 3.33 3.75 2.65
139 Increase 3  Cuba Authoritarian 2.65 Increase 0.06 0.00 3.21 3.33 3.75 2.94
140 Increase 3  Cameroon Authoritarian 2.56 Steady 0.33 2.14 3.89 4.38 2.06
Decrease 2  Guinea-Bissau Authoritarian 2.56 Decrease 0.19 4.00 0.00 3.33 3.13 2.35
142 Increase 2  Bahrain Authoritarian 2.52 Steady 0.42 2.71 3.33 4.38 1.76
143 Decrease 3  Nicaragua Authoritarian 2.50 Decrease 0.19 0.00 2.14 3.33 4.38 2.65
144 Increase 1  Sudan Authoritarian 2.47 Steady 0.00 1.43 4.44 5.00 1.47
145 Increase 2  Guinea Authoritarian 2.32 Increase 0.04 0.83 0.43 3.33 4.38 2.65
146 Decrease 22  Russia Authoritarian 2.28 Decrease 0.96 0.92 2.14 2.22 3.75 2.35
147 Increase 4  Venezuela Authoritarian 2.23 Increase 0.12 0.00 1.07 5.56 1.88 2.65
148 Increase 1  Burundi Authoritarian 2.13 Steady 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 1.76
149 Increase 1  Uzbekistan Authoritarian 2.12 Steady 0.08 1.86 2.78 5.00 0.88
150 Increase 2  Saudi Arabia Authoritarian 2.08 Steady 0.00 3.57 2.22 3.13 1.47
151 Increase 3  Libya Authoritarian 2.06 Increase 0.11 0.00 0.00 3.89 3.75 2.65
152 Increase 1  Eritrea Authoritarian 2.03 Steady 0.00 2.14 0.56 6.88 0.59
153 Decrease 7  Belarus Authoritarian 1.99 Decrease 0.42 0.00 0.79 3.33 4.38 1.47
154 Steady  Iran Authoritarian 1.96 Decrease 0.25 0.00 2.50 3.33 2.50 1.47
155 Decrease 1  Yemen Authoritarian 1.95 Steady 0.00 0.00 3.89 5.00 0.88
156 Decrease 8  China Authoritarian 1.94 Decrease 0.27 0.00 3.21 2.78 3.13 0.59
Increase 1  Tajikistan Authoritarian 1.94 Steady 0.00 2.21 2.22 4.38 0.88
158 Steady  Equatorial Guinea Authoritarian 1.92 Steady 0.00 0.43 3.33 4.38 1.47
159 Steady  Laos Authoritarian 1.77 Steady 0.00 2.86 1.67 3.75 0.59
160 Steady  Chad Authoritarian 1.67 Steady 0.00 0.00 2.22 3.75 2.35
161 Steady  Turkmenistan Authoritarian 1.66 Steady 0.00 0.79 2.22 5.00 0.29
162 Increase 2  Democratic Republic of the Congo Authoritarian 1.48 Increase 0.08 1.17 0.00 2.22 3.13 0.88
163 Decrease 1  Syria Authoritarian 1.43 Steady 0.00 0.00 2.78 4.38 0.00
164 Decrease 2  Central African Republic Authoritarian 1.35 Decrease 0.08 0.83 0.00 1.67 1.88 2.35
165 Steady  North Korea Authoritarian 1.08 Steady 0.00 2.50 1.67 1.25 0.00
166 Steady  Myanmar Authoritarian 0.74 Decrease 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.56 3.13 0.00
167 Steady  Afghanistan Authoritarian 0.32 Steady 0.00 0.07 0.00 1.25 0.29

Recent changes

In 2016, the United States was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy;[7] its score, which had been declining for some years, crossed the threshold from 8.05 in 2015 to 7.98 in 2016. The report stated that this was caused by myriad factors dating back to at least the late 1960s which have eroded Americans' trust in governmental institutions.[8][9]

The 2017 Democracy Index registered, at the time, the worst year for global democracy since 2010–11. Asia was the region with the largest decline since 2016. Venezuela was downgraded from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime. In China, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), further entrenched his power by writing his contribution to the CCP's ideology, dubbed Xi Jinping Thought, into the party's constitution. Moldova was downgraded from a flawed democracy to a hybrid regime as a result of problematic elections. By contrast, Armenia was re-upgraded from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime as a result of constitutional changes that shifted power from the presidency to parliament.[10] In 2017, the Gambia was upgraded again from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime after Yahya Jammeh, who was president from 1996 to 2017, was defeated by Adama Barrow, an opposition candidate in the 2016 presidential elections.

In 2019, France, Portugal and Chile were upgraded from flawed democracies to full democracies. In fact, this was not a new experience for the former two, which suffered from the eurozone crisis many years before. By contrast, Malta was downgraded from a full democracy to a flawed democracy. Thailand and Albania were upgraded from hybrid regimes to flawed democracies.[11] Algeria was upgraded again from an authoritarian regime to a hybrid regime.

In 2020, Taiwan was upgraded from flawed democracy to full democracy following reforms in the judiciary,[12] and soared to 11th position from its previous position at 33. Japan and South Korea were also upgraded again to a full democracy, while France and Portugal were once again relegated to flawed democracies. Hong Kong was downgraded from a flawed democracy to a hybrid regime. Algeria was downgraded again from a hybrid regime to an authoritarian regime. The Economist Intelligence Unit noted that democracy "was dealt a major blow in 2020".[13] Almost 70% of countries covered by the Democracy Index recorded a decline in their overall score, as most of them imposed lockdowns and other restrictions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, in addition to some arresting journalists and citizens accused of spreading COVID-19 misinformation. The global average score fell to its lowest level since the index began in 2006.

In 2021, both the global and regional average scores continued downward trends, with the exception of the Central and Eastern Europe region. Spain and Chile were downgraded from full democracies to flawed democracies, while Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and Tunisia were downgraded from flawed democracies to hybrid regimes. Haiti, Lebanon, and Kyrgyzstan were downgraded from hybrid regimes to authoritarian regimes. In addition, Moldova, Montenegro, and North Macedonia were upgraded from hybrid regimes to flawed democracies, whereas Mauritania was upgraded from authoritarian to hybrid regime. For the first time, two countries displaced North Korea as the lowest-ranked states in the Democracy Index – in Myanmar, the elected government was overthrown in a military coup, and protests were suppressed by the junta, which ultimately resulted in its score going down by 2.02 points; Afghanistan, as a result of the 2021 Taliban offensive and subsequent takeover of government, registered the lowest score of any state ever recorded on the Democracy Index at 0.32.

Criticism

Investment analyst Peter Tasker has criticised the Democracy Index for lacking transparency and accountability beyond the numbers. To generate the index, the Economist Intelligence Unit has a scoring system in which various experts are asked to answer 60 questions and assign each reply a number, with the weighted average deciding the ranking. However, the final report does not indicate what kinds of experts, nor their number, nor whether the experts are employees of the Economist Intelligence Unit or independent scholars, nor the nationalities of the experts.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Democracy Index 2012: Democracy at a standstill" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  2. ^ "Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 6 December 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  3. ^ "Democracy Index 2006" (PDF). The World in 2007. 15 November 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  4. ^ Manaev, Oleg; Manayeva, Natalie; Dzmitry, Yuran (1 December 2011). "More State than Nation: Lukashenko's Belarus". Journal of International Affairs. 65 (1): 93–113. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d "Democracy Index 2015: Democracy in an age of anxiety" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  6. ^ "Democracy Index 2021: the China challenge" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit.
  7. ^ Karlis, Nicole (31 January 2018). "New report classifies US as a "flawed democracy" - Partisanship and Trump were to blame for the US's dismal ranking in the Economist's annual Democracy Index report". Salon. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  8. ^ Eshe Nelson (25 January 2017). "The US has been downgraded to a "flawed democracy," but not just because of Trump". Qz.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  9. ^ "Declining trust in government is denting democracy". The Economist. 25 January 2017. Archived from the original on 14 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Democracy Index 2017: Free speech under attack". eiu.com. The Economist Intelligence Unit. Archived from the original on 31 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2019 A year of democratic setbacks and popular protest". EIU.com. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Taiwan most democratic country in East Asia: The Economist". 3 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  13. ^ "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". EIU.com. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  14. ^ Tasker, Peter (25 February 2016). "Peter Tasker: The flawed 'science' behind democracy rankings". asia.nikkei.com. Archived from the original on 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2019-02-22.