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Demographics of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Burkina Faso in 2020
Population21,935,389 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.53% (2022 est.)
Birth rate33.57 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate7.71 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy63.44 years
 • male61.63 years
 • female65.31 years
Fertility rate4.27 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate49.42 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years43.58%
65 and over3.16%
Sex ratio
Total0.96 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.03 male(s)/female
Under 151.03 male(s)/female
65 and over0.66 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityBurkinabe
Major ethnicMossi (52%)
Language
OfficialFrench

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Burkina Faso, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of Burkina Faso, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.
Demographics of Burkina Faso, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Burkina Faso's 22.1 million people belong to two major West African cultural groups—the Gur (Voltaic) and the Mandé. The Voltaic are far more numerous and include the Mossi, who make up about one-half of the population. The Mossi claim descent from warriors who migrated to present-day Burkina Faso and established an empire that lasted more than 800 years. Predominantly farmers, the Mossi are still bound by the traditions of the Mogho Naba, who hold court in Ouagadougou.

About 12,000 Europeans reside in Burkina Faso, the majority of whom are French.

Most of Burkina Faso's population is concentrated in the south and center of the country, with a population density sometimes exceeding 48 inhabitants per square kilometer (120 inhabitants per square mile). This population density, high for Africa, causes annual migrations of hundreds of thousands of Burkinabé to Ivory Coast and Ghana for seasonal agricultural work. About a third of Burkinabé adhere to traditional African religions. The introduction of Islam to Burkina Faso was initially resisted by the Mossi rulers. Christians, predominantly Roman Catholics, are largely concentrated among the urban elite.

Few Burkinabé have had formal education. Schooling is free but not compulsory, and only about 29% of Burkina's primary school-age children receive a basic education. The University of Ouagadougou, founded in 1974, was the country's first institution of higher education. The Polytechnic University of Bobo-Dioulasso in Bobo-Dioulasso was opened in 1995.

Peanut seller in Ouagadougou
Peanut seller in Ouagadougou

Population

According to the United Nations' Population Division, the total population was 20,903,000 in 2020, compared to only 4,284,000 in 1950.[1] The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2020 was 44.4%, 53.2% of the population was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.4% was 65 years or older.[1]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 4 284 000 40.7 57.3 2.0
1955 4 517 000 41.0 56.9 2.2
1960 4 829 000 41.3 56.3 2.3
1965 5 175 000 42.2 55.2 2.5
1970 5 625 000 43.3 53.9 2.8
1975 6 155 000 44.2 52.8 3.0
1980 6 823 000 45.6 51.2 3.2
1985 7 728 000 46.7 50.0 3.3
1990 8 811 000 47.3 49.5 3.3
1995 10 090 000 47.1 49.8 3.1
2000 11 608 000 46.8 50.5 2.8
2005 13 422 000 46.5 50.9 2.6
2010 15 605 000 46.2 51.3 2.5
2015 18 111 000 45.6 52.0 2.4
2020 20 903 000 44.4 53.2 2.4

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (01.VII.2020):[2]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 10 395 600 11 114 300 21 509 900 100
0–4 1 916 600 1 833 000 3 749 600 17.43
5–9 1 685 500 1 608 400 3 293 900 15.31
10–14 1 488 200 1 405 100 2 893 300 13.45
15–19 1 252 400 1 197 500 2 449 900 11.39
20–24 948 200 1 001 000 1 949 200 9.06
25–29 689 300 815 200 1 504 500 6.99
30–34 514 400 729 300 1 243 700 5.78
35–39 405 000 592 100 997 100 4.64
40–44 360 300 494 400 854 700 3.97
45–49 285 100 367 300 652 400 3.03
50–54 240 500 314 300 554 800 2.58
55–59 185 700 236 300 422 000 1.97
60–64 145 800 189 000 334 800 1.56
65-69 106 300 125 800 232 100 1.08
70-74 81 100 97 900 179 000 0.83
75-79 48 100 55 800 103 900 0.48
80+ 43 100 51 900 95 000 0.44
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 5 090 300 4 846 500 9 936 800 46.20
15–64 5 026 700 5 936 400 10 963 100 50.97
65+ 278 600 331 400 610 000 2.84

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is not complete in Burkina Faso. The website Our World in Data prepared the following estimates based on statistics from the Population Department of the United Nations.[3]

Mid-year population (thousands) Live births (thousands) Deaths (thousands) Natural change (thousands) Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR) Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) Life expectancy (in years)
1950 4 214   184   119   65 43.5 28.2 15.3 5.82 170.1 33.12
1951   4 262   188   119   68 43.9 27.9 16.0 5.87 168.9 33.38
1952   4 313   192   121   71 44.3 27.9 16.4 5.93 167.8 33.55
1953   4 364   195   121   74 44.6 27.8 16.9 5.98 166.6 33.85
1954   4 417   199   123   76 44.9 27.7 17.2 6.01 165.2 34.13
1955   4 473   202   124   79 45.1 27.6 17.6 6.06 163.8 34.45
1956   4 531   206   125   81 45.4 27.5 17.8 6.09 162.3 34.67
1957   4 591   210   126   83 45.5 27.4 18.1 6.13 160.8 34.97
1958   4 652   214   128   86 45.8 27.3 18.5 6.17 159.3 35.26
1959   4 715   218   128   89 46.1 27.2 18.9 6.22 157.7 35.61
1960   4 783   222   130   92 46.3 27.1 19.2 6.25 156.2 35.87
1961   4 853   226   131   95 46.5 26.9 19.6 6.29 154.8 36.24
1962   4 924   231   132   99 46.7 26.7 20.0 6.32 153.5 36.67
1963   4 999   235   133   102 46.9 26.5 20.4 6.36 152.4 36.97
1964   5 076   240   134   106 47.2 26.4 20.8 6.42 151.2 37.25
1965   5 158   245   135   110 47.3 26.1 21.2 6.47 150.1 37.69
1966   5 243   249   137   113 47.5 26.0 21.5 6.53 149.1 37.92
1967   5 331   254   138   117 47.6 25.8 21.8 6.59 148.2 38.29
1968   5 422   260   139   120 47.8 25.6 22.1 6.65 147.3 38.53
1969   5 516   263   140   123 47.6 25.4 22.2 6.66 146.6 38.86
1970   5 612   268   141   126 47.6 25.1 22.4 6.69 145.4 39.24
1971   5 708   272   142   129 47.5 24.9 22.6 6.70 144.4 39.56
1972   5 805   276   142   134 47.5 24.5 23.0 6.72 142.6 40.05
1973   5 908   282   143   139 47.6 24.1 23.5 6.77 140.4 40.55
1974   6 018   288   141   147 47.7 23.4 24.3 6.84 137.3 41.35
1975   6 138   295   140   155 47.9 22.7 25.2 6.91 133.6 42.31
1976   6 270   302   138   164 48.1 22.0 26.1 6.95 129.6 43.25
1977   6 417   312   137   175 48.5 21.4 27.2 7.05 125.7 44.15
1978   6 578   323   137   186 49.0 20.7 28.3 7.15 122.1 45.07
1979   6 750   333   136   196 49.2 20.2 29.0 7.19 119.0 45.90
1980   6 933   341   137   204 49.1 19.8 29.4 7.22 116.3 46.54
1981   7 124   350   139   211 49.1 19.5 29.5 7.26 114.4 46.87
1982   7 322   358   139   219 48.9 19.0 29.9 7.25 112.1 47.60
1983   7 531   367   140   227 48.7 18.6 30.1 7.25 110.3 48.09
1984   7 751   379   141   238 48.8 18.2 30.6 7.25 108.5 48.64
1985   7 979   390   143   247 48.9 17.9 30.9 7.24 106.7 48.95
1986   8 208   398   146   252 48.5 17.8 30.7 7.22 104.8 49.01
1987   8 435   406   149   257 48.0 17.7 30.4 7.17 103.1 49.06
1988   8 664   412   152   260 47.5 17.5 30.0 7.11 101.7 49.13
1989   8 895   419   155   265 47.1 17.3 29.7 7.05 100.8 49.17
1990   9 131   429   156   272 46.8 17.1 29.8 7.01 100.2 49.44
1991   9 365   438   160   279 46.7 17.0 29.7 6.97 100.0 49.45
1992   9 599   447   163   284 46.4 16.9 29.5 6.94 99.8 49.44
1993   9 840   455   167   288 46.2 17.0 29.2 6.89 99.7 49.21
1994   10 091   466   170   296 46.1 16.8 29.3 6.84 99.3 49.31
1995   10 353   478   173   305 46.0 16.7 29.4 6.81 98.7 49.45
1996   10 621   490   175   314 46.0 16.5 29.5 6.78 97.6 49.61
1997   10 897   500   180   319 45.8 16.5 29.3 6.72 96.8 49.40
1998   11 201   510   180   331 45.5 16.0 29.5 6.66 95.0 49.99
1999   11 534   523   181   342 45.3 15.7 29.6 6.59 93.6 50.33
2000   11 883   537   182   355 45.2 15.3 29.9 6.52 92.1 50.85
2001   12 250   549   185   364 44.8 15.1 29.7 6.43 90.4 51.07
2002   12 632   561   187   374 44.5 14.8 29.6 6.34 88.8 51.27
2003   13 031   579   188   391 44.5 14.4 30.0 6.28 86.7 51.79
2004   13 446   595   188   407 44.2 14.0 30.3 6.22 84.1 52.42
2005   13 876   614   187   426 44.2 13.5 30.7 6.18 81.3 53.09
2006   14 316   636   187   448 44.4 13.1 31.3 6.17 78.6 53.74
2007   14 757   652   187   466 44.2 12.6 31.5 6.11 75.8 54.38
2008   15 198   668   183   485 43.9 12.0 31.9 6.05 72.7 55.34
2009   15 650   682   182   500 43.5 11.6 31.9 5.99 70.2 55.96
2010   16 117   697   182   516 43.2 11.3 32.0 5.94 67.8 56.48
2011   16 603   712   180   531 42.8 10.8 32.0 5.87 65.5 57.13
2012   17 114   725   180   545 42.3 10.5 31.8 5.79 63.6 57.62
2013   17 636   736   182   554 41.7 10.3 31.4 5.70 61.8 57.82
2014   18 170   745   181   564 41.0 10.0 31.0 5.60 60.0 58.36
2015   18 718   751   180   570 40.1 9.6 30.5 5.48 58.3 58.85
2016   19 275   751   180   572 39.0 9.3 29.7 5.32 56.7 59.33
2017   19 836   752   181   571 37.9 9.1 28.8 5.16 55.0 59.54
2018   20 393   761   180   581 37.3 8.8 28.5 5.07 53.5 60.05
2019   20 952   769   183   586 36.7 8.8 27.9 4.97 52.3 60.04
2020   21 523   777   190   587 36.1 8.8 27.3 4.87 50.8 59.73
2021   22 101   786   198   588 35.5 9.0 26.6 4.77 49.5 59.27

Fertility and births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[4][5] [6] [7][8]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993 43.0 6.9 (6.0) 39.0 5.0 (3.9) 43.0 7.3 (6.5)
1998-99 45.1 6.8 (6.0) 32.6 4.1 (3.4) 47.0 7.3 (6.5)
2003 42.6 6.2 (5.4) 32.4 3.7 (3.2) 44.5 6.9 (6.0)
2010 41.2 6.0 (5.2) 33.3 3.9 (3.3) 43.3 6.7 (5.9)
2014 38.6 5.5 33.6 4.0 40.2 6.1
2017-18 35.1 5.2 30.9 3.7 36.1 5.6
2021[9] 30.7 4.4 28.4 3.4 31.6 4.9

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[10]

Region Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Centre 3.7 6.8 5.3
Boucle du Mouhoun 6.8 10.8 7.1
Cascades 6.0 10.4 7.0
Centre-Est 6.3 8.1 6.6
Centre-Nord 6.7 10.7 7.1
Centre-Ouest 6.4 10.4 7.1
Centre-Sud 5.6 9.4 6.8
Est 7.5 15.0 7.9
Hauts Bassins 5.2 9.3 5.9
Nord 6.2 10.3 7.0
Plateau Central 5.8 9.4 6.8
Sahel 7.5 12.9 7.6
Sud-ouest 6.4 10.8 7.1

Other demographic statistics

Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates
Population, fertility rate and net reproduction rate, United Nations estimates

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[11]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[12]

Demographic profile

Burkina Faso has a young age structure – the result of declining mortality combined with steady high fertility – and continues to experience rapid population growth, which is putting increasing pressure on the country's limited arable land. More than 65% of the population is under the age of 25, and the population is growing at 3% annually. Mortality rates, especially those of infants and children, have decreased because of improved health care, hygiene, and sanitation, but women continue to have an average of almost 6 children. Even if fertility were substantially reduced, today's large cohort entering their reproductive years would sustain high population growth for the foreseeable future. Only about a third of the population is literate and unemployment is widespread, dampening the economic prospects of Burkina Faso's large working-age population.[12]

Population

21,935,389 (2022 est.)
21,382,659 (July 2021 est.)
Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Religions

Muslim 63.2%, Roman Catholic 24.6%, Protestant 6.9%, traditional/animist 4.2%, none 0.7%, unspecified 0.4% (2017-18 est.)

Age structure

Pyramid population of Burkina Faso in 2020
Pyramid population of Burkina Faso in 2020
0-14 years: 43.58% (male 4,606,350/female 4,473,951)
15-24 years: 20.33% (male 2,121,012/female 2,114,213)
25-54 years: 29.36% (male 2,850,621/female 3,265,926)
55-64 years: 3.57% (male 321,417/female 423,016)
65 years and over: 3.16% (male 284,838/female 374,057) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 44.88% (male 4,519,960/female 4,503,937)
15-24 years: 20.07% (male 2,024,501/female 2,012,053)
25-54 years: 29.42% (male 2,999,941/female 2,915,264)
55-64 years: 3.2% (male 284,374/female 359,159)
65 years and over: 2.43% (male 181,996/female 306,324) (2017 est.)

Median age

Total: 17.9 years Country comparison to the world: 216th
Male: 17.0 years
Female: 18.7 years (2020 est.)
Total: 17.3 years
Male: 17.1 years
Female: 17.4 years (2017 est.)

Population growth rate

2.53% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th
2.58% (2020 est.) Country comparison to the world: 14th
3% (2017 est.)

Birth rate

33.57 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 19
34.34 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th

Death rate

7.71 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 103rd
7.92 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 89th

Net migration rate

-0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 127th
-0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 131st

Mother's mean age at first birth

19.4 years (2010 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Total fertility rate

4.27 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 22nd
4.39 children born/woman (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 18th

Contraceptive prevalence rate

30.1% (2020)
32.5% (2018/19)

Urbanization

urban population: 31.9% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 4.75% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Urban population: 30.6% of total population (2020)
Rate of urbanization: 4.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio

At birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.00 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
A girl from Burkina Faso
A girl from Burkina Faso

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy development in Burkina Faso
Life expectancy development in Burkina Faso
total population: 63.44 years
male: 61.63 years
female: 65.31 years (2022 est.)
Total population: 63.06 years
Male: 61.28 years
Female: 64.89 years (2021 est.)

HIV/AIDS

Adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2019 est.) County comparison to the world: 51st
People living with HIV/AIDS: 100,000 (2019 est.) Country comparison to the world: 44th
Deaths: 3,100 (2019 est.) Country comparison to the world: 33rd

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis

note: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Burkina Faso is currently considered a high risk to travelers for polio; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Nationality

Noun: Burkinabé (singular and plural)
Adjective: Burkinabé

Ethnic groups

Bobo men in Bobo-Dioulasso
Mossi 52%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 7%, Bobo 4.9%, Gurunsi 4.6%, Senufo 4.5%, Bissa 3.7%, Lobi 2.4%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Ikelan 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, Unspecified/No answer 0.3%, Other 7.2% (including Europeans) (2010 est.)

Religions

Main article: Religion in Burkina Faso

Religion in Burkina Faso (2017-2018)[13]

  Islam (63.2%)
  Roman Catholic (24.6%)
  Protestant (6.9%)
  Animism (4.2%)
  Other and none (1.1%)
Islam 61.5%, Roman Catholic 23.3%, Traditional/Animist 7.8%, Protestant 6.5%, Other/No Answer 0.2%, None 0.7% (2010 est.)

Languages

Further information: Languages of Burkina Faso

French(official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 41.2%
Male: 50.1%
Female: 32.7% (2018 est.)

Education expenditure

5.4% of GDP (2018)

Slavery

Further information: Child labour in cocoa production

In 2018, an estimated 82,000 people in the country were living under "modern slavery" according to the Global Slavery Index.[14] News reports also indicate that "most child slaves on cocoa farms (Ivory Coast and Ghana) come from Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest nations on Earth. The children, some as young as ten, are sent by their families or trafficked by agents with the promise of money. They are made to work long hours for little or no money."[15]

References

  1. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: Data Query". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 2021-01-31.
  2. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  3. ^ "Population & Demography Data Explorer". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-07-22.
  4. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1993" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  5. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 1998-99" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  6. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2003" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  7. ^ "Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2010" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  8. ^ "STATcompiler". www.statcompiler.com. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  9. ^ "Burkina Faso: Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2021" (PDF). DHS Program (in French).
  10. ^ "Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013" (PDF). Dhsprogram.com. Retrieved 2017-08-27.
  11. ^ "Burkina Faso Population 2022", World Population Review
  12. ^ a b Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The World FactBook - Burkina Faso", The World Factbook, January 31, 2022
  13. ^ "Burkina Faso Religions - Demographics".
  14. ^ "Country Data | Global Slavery Index".
  15. ^ "The Modern Slavery Bill is a start, but it won't guarantee us sweeter chocolate".

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