Demographics of the Republic of Turkey
Turkey population pyramid in 2020
PopulationIncrease 85,372,377
(31 December 2023)
Growth rateIncrease 0.11% (2023)
Birth rateDecrease 10.9 births/1,000
population (2023)
Death rateNegative increase 5.9 deaths/1,000
population (2022)
Life expectancyIncrease 78.6 years (2020)
 • maleIncrease 75.9 years (2020)
 • femaleIncrease 81.3 years (2020)
Fertility rateDecrease 1.51 children born/woman (2023)[1]
Infant mortality ratePositive decrease 9.1 deaths/1000 infants (2022)
Age structure
0–14 yearsDecrease 21.4% (2023)
15–64 yearsIncrease 68.3% (2023)
65 and overNegative increase 10.2% (2023)
Sex ratio
Total0.99 male(s)/female (2021)[2]
At birth1.05 male(s)/female (2022)
Under 151.05 male(s)/female (2022)
65 and over0.82 male(s)/female (2022)
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish
Major ethnicTurks
Language
OfficialTurkish
SpokenSee Languages of Turkey

Demographic features of the population of Turkey include population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

As of 31 December 2023, the population of Turkey was 85.3 million with a growth rate of 0.11% per annum.[3] Turks are the largest ethnic group.

By ethnicity Turks (70-75%), Kurds (19%), other (6-11% including Arabs, Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Chechens, Georgians, Romani, Laz people and others) (2016 estimate)

The population has been aging in recent years, with just 21.4% falling in the 0–14 age bracket (down from 26.4% in 2007).[4] The population over the age of 65 is 10.2% (up from 7.1% in 2007). As of 2023, the median age of the Turkish population is 34 years (up from 28.3 in 2007).[5] According to OECD/World Bank population statistics, from 1990 to 2008 the population growth in Turkey was 16 million or 29%.[6]

Population

Historical population

Historical population of Turkey
Historical population[7] [8]
YearPop.±% p.a.
18908,274,971—    
191012,329,210+2.01%
192713,648,270+0.60%
193516,158,018+2.13%
194017,820,950+1.98%
194518,790,174+1.06%
195020,947,188+2.20%
195524,064,763+2.81%
196027,754,820+2.89%
196531,391,421+2.49%
197035,605,176+2.55%
YearPop.±% p.a.
197540,347,719+2.53%
198044,736,957+2.09%
198550,664,458+2.52%
199056,473,035+2.19%
200067,803,927+1.85%
201073,722,988+0.84%
201578,741,053+1.33%
202083,614,362+1.21%
202184,680,273+1.27%
202285,279,553+0.71%

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth in Turkey since 1937
Life expectancy in Turkey by gender since 1960
Life expectancy in Turkish provinces in 2018-20
Life expectancy in Turkey according to the UN[9]
Period Life expectancy in
Years
Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 41.01 1985–1990 63.04
1955–1960 43.69 1990–1995 65.49
1960–1965 47.22 1995–2000 68.49
1965–1970 50.78 2000–2005 71.37
1970–1975 53.75 2005–2010 73.37
1975–1980 57.05 2010–2015 74.83
1980–1985 60.22 2015–2020 77.31

According to the CIA World Factbook, in 2019, life expectancy was 78.3 years for the total population, 75.6 years for men and 81.0 years for women.[10]

Urbanization

Istanbul experienced a rapid population growth (The gray areas are buildings)

According to the CIA World Factbook:[11]

Median age

According to the CIA World Factbook:[11]

Sex ratio

According to the CIA World Factbook:[11]

Literacy

According to the CIA World Factbook:[11] Defined as people age 15 and over who can read and write, 2016 est.

2022 official estimates:[13]

Vital statistics

UN estimates

The figures from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs:[14]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR[a] CDR[a] NC[a] TFR[a] IMR[a]
1950–1955 1,127,000 551,000 677,000 48.4 18.8 29.6 6.69 167.4
1955–1960 1,216,000 564,000 752,000 46.9 18.4 28.5 6.5 163.9
1960–1965 1,277,000 547,000 799,000 44.3 17.6 26.7 6.2 160.5
1965–1970 1,343,000 527,000 792,000 40.3 16.7 23.6 5.80 156.9
1970–1975 1,451,000 523,000 887,000 38.7 15.0 23.7 5.39 141.3
1975–1980 1,497,000 505,000 977,000 36.4 13.0 23.4 4.69 119.4
1980–1985 1,527,000 481,000 1,074,000 33.8 10.8 23.0 4.11 96.7
1985–1990 1,431,000 454,000 976,000 27.7 8.8 18.9 3.39 78.0
1990–1995 1,375,000 438,000 987,000 25.1 7.7 17.4 3.11 63.0
1995–2000 1,389,000 418,000 983,000 22.8 6.9 15.9 2.76 45.5
2000–2005 1,345,000 404,000 923,000 20.5 6.2 14.3 2.50 31.4
2005–2010 1,309,000 415,000 932,000 18.7 5.9 12.8 2.27 24.0
2010–2015 1,302,000 439,000 914,000 17.3 5.8 11.5 2.15 13.0
2015–2020 1,281,000 473,000 808,000 15.8 5.8 10.0 2.10
2020–2025 1,242,000 509,000 733,000 14.6 6.0 8.6 2.04
2025–2030 1,191,000 543,000 648,000 13.6 6.2 7.4 2.01
  1. ^ a b c d e CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Registered births and deaths

Birth statistics of Turkey from 2001 onward are from the Central Population Administrative System (MERNIS) database which is available on-line.[15] Birth statistics are updated continually because MERNIS has dynamic structure.[16]

In 2010 Turkey had a crude birth rate of 17.2 per 1000, in 2011 16.7, down from 20.3 in 2001. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2010 was 2.05 children per woman, in 2011 2.02. The crude birth rate in 2010 ranged from 11.5 per 1,000 in West Marmara (TFR 1.52) (11,5;1.55 in 2011), similar to neighbouring Bulgaria, to 27.9 per 1,000 in Southeast Anatolia (TFR 3.53) (27.1;3,42 in 2011), similar to neighbouring Syria. Similarly, in 2012, the TFR ranged from 1.43 in Kırklareli, to 4.39 in Şanlıurfa.[17] Death statistics from MERNIS are available as of 2009. Mortality data prior to 2009 are incomplete.

Population (31.12.) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death (per 1000) Natural increase (per 1000) Crude migration (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR)
1990 1,392,000 388,000 1,004,000 3.11
1991 1,390,000 391,000 999,000 3.02
1992 1,388,000 394,000 994,000 2.94
1993 1,385,000 396,000 989,000 2.87
1994 1,372,000 399,000 973,000 2.81
1995 1,368,000 402,000 966,000 2.76
1996 1,386,000 419,000 967,000 2.70
1997 1,317,000 424,000 893,000 2.66
1998 1,318,000 426,000 892,000 2.61
1999 1,313,000 427,000 886,000 2.56
2000 1,307,000 422,000 885,000 2.50
2001 1,323,341 175,137 1,148,204 20.3 2.38
2002 1,229,555 175,434 1,054,121 18.6 2.40
2003 1,198,927 184,330 1,014,597 17.9 2.35
2004 1,222,484 187,086 1,035,398 18.1 2.31
2005 1,244,041 197,520 1,046,521 18.2 2.27
2006 1,255,432 210,146 1,045,286 18.1 2.24
2007 70,586,256 1,289,992 212,731 1,077,261 18.3 3.0 15.3 2.21
2008 71,517,100 1,295,511 215,562 1,079,949 18.1 3.0 15.1 -2.1 2.19
2009 72,561,312 1,266,751 369,703 897,048 17.6 5.1 12.5 2.0 2.10
2010 73,722,988 1,261,169 366,471 894,698 17.2 5.0 12.2 3.6 2.08
2011 74,724,269 1,252,812 376,162 876,650 16.9 5.1 11.8 1.7 2.05
2012 75,627,384 1,294,605 376,520 918,085 17.2 5.0 12.2 -0.2 2.11
2013 76,667,864 1,297,505 373,041 924,464 17.0 4.9 12.1 1.5 2.11
2014 77,695,904 1,351,088 391,091 959,997 17.5 5.1 12.4 0.9 2.19
2015 78,741,053 1,336,908 405,528 931,380 17.1 5.2 11.9 1.4 2.16
2016 79,814,871 1,316,204 422,964 893,240 16.6 5.3 11.3 2.3 2.11
2017 80,810,525 1,300,258 426,662 873,596 16.2 5.3 10.9 1.5 2.08
2018 82,003,882 1,256,282 426,785 829,497 15.4 5.2 10.2 4.4 2.00
2019 83,154,997 1,189,939 436,624 753,315 14.4 5.3 9.1 4.8 1.89
2020 83,614,362 1,117,942 509,048 608,894 13.4 6.1 7.3 -1.8 1.77
2021 84,680,273 1,083,336 566,485 516,851 12.9 6.7 6.2 6.5 1.71
2022 85,279,553 1,035,795 504,839 530,956 12.2 5.9 6.3 0.8 1.62
2023 85,372,277 958,408 525,814 432,594 11.2 6.2 5.0 1.51

Birth and death rate by region and year

Birth and Death Rate by Region and Year
Birth Rate by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2022) Birth Rate (TFR)/2022 Birth Rate (TFR)/2021 Birth Rate (TFR)/2020 Birth Rate (TFR)/2019 Birth Rate (TFR)/2018 Birth Rate (TFR)/2017 Birth Rate (TFR)/2016 Birth Rate (TFR)/2015 Birth Rate (TFR)/2014 Birth Rate (TFR)/2013 Birth Rate (TFR)/2012 Birth Rate (TFR)/2011 Birth Rate (TFR)/2010 Birth Rate (TFR)/2009
Turkey 85 279 553 12.2 (1.62) 12.9 (1.71) 13.4 (1.77) 14.4 (1.89) 15.4 (2.00) 16.2 (2.08) 16.6 (2.11) 17.1 (2.16) 17.5 (2.19) 17.0 (2.11) 17.2 (2.11) 16.9 (2.05) 17.2 (2.08) 17.6 (2.10)
İstanbul 15 907 951 10.7 (1.29) 11.5 (1.39) 12.4 (1.48) 13.6 (1.60) 14.8 (1.73) 15.6 (1.80) 16.3 (1.86) 16.7 (1.88) 17.0 (1.89) 16.4 (1.81) 16.5 (1.80) 15.9 (1.72) 16.3 (1.77) 16.4 (1.77)
West Marmara 3 743 485 9.4 (1.41) 9.6 (1.43) 10.1 (1.50) 10.6 (1.57) 11.5 (1.67) 11.8 (1.70) 11.9 (1.69) 12.0 (1.69) 12.1 (1.69) 11.9 (1.64) 11.9 (1.63) 11.6 (1.57) 11.5 (1.54) 11.7 (1.54)
Aegean 10 886 803 9.8 (1.41) 10.2 (1.45) 10.7 (1.50) 11.4 (1.58) 12.2 (1.68) 12.9 (1.75) 13.2 (1.76) 13.6 (1.80) 13.8 (1.80) 13.4 (1.73) 13.7 (1.74) 13.2 (1.66) 13.3 (1.66) 13.7 (1.69)
East Marmara 8 511 450 11.0 (1.48) 11.7 (1.56) 12.2 (1.61) 13.2 (1.72) 14.2 (1.83) 14.6 (1.87) 15.0 (1.89) 15.2 (1.90) 15.3 (1.88) 14.8 (1.80) 15.0 (1.80) 14.5 (1.71) 14.8 (1.74) 15.2 (1.77)
West Anatolia 8 339 470 10.9 (1.42) 11.4 (1.48) 12.0 (1.55) 13.0 (1.66) 14.1 (1.78) 14.7 (1.84) 15.1 (1.87) 15.5 (1.90) 15.8 (1.91) 15.4 (1.85) 15.4 (1.83) 15.2 (1.79) 15.4 (1.80) 15.8 (1.83)
Mediterranean 11 020 550 12.2 (1.71) 12.8 (1.77) 13.3 (1.83) 14.3 (1.96) 15.4 (2.08) 16.3 (2.18) 17.0 (2.24) 17.5 (2.29) 18.0 (2.32) 17.6 (2.24) 17.8 (2.23) 17.3 (2.14) 17.8 (2.18) 18.3 (2.20)
Central Anatolia 4 124 939 11.3 (1.56) 11.8 (1.62) 12.3 (1.68) 13.2 (1.79) 14.1 (1.89) 14.9 (1.99) 15.4 (2.05) 15.8 (2.09) 16.4 (2.14) 16.0 (2.06) 16.3 (2.07) 16.4 (2.06) 16.7 (2.08) 17.6 (2.16)
West Black Sea 4 665 938 9.0 (1.35) 9.4 (1.41) 9.8 (1.47) 10.6 (1.57) 11.2 (1.63) 11.6 (1.67) 11.9 (1.69) 12.2 (1.73) 12.7 (1.77) 12.8 (1.76) 13.0 (1.77) 13.0 (1.74) 13.6 (1.79) 14.2 (1.84)
East Black Sea 2 690 038 9.3 (1.39) 9.8 (1.45) 10.3 (1.52) 11.0 (1.61) 11.6 (1.69) 12.0 (1.73) 12.3 (1.77) 12.5 (1.78) 12.8 (1.81) 12.8 (1.77) 13.0 (1.78) 13.1 (1.77) 13.6 (1.81) 14.1 (1.86)
Northeast Anatolia 2 154 748 15.0 (1.92) 16.5 (2.11) 17.1 (2.18) 18.4 (2.36) 19.1 (2.45) 20.6 (2.64) 21.2 (2.72) 21.7 (2.79) 22.7 (2.90) 22.4 (2.85) 22.8 (2.90) 22.9 (2.90) 23.4 (2.97) 23.1 (2.91)
Central East Anatolia 3 928 271 16.0 (2.01) 16.8 (2.12) 17.8 (2.23) 19.3 (2.43) 20.0 (2.52) 21.1 (2.65) 21.2 (2.67) 21.9 (2.75) 23.0 (2.87) 22.6 (2.83) 22.5 (2.82) 22.9 (2.85) 23.6 (2.95) 23.9 (3.00)
Southeast Anatolia 9 305 910 21.3 (2.71) 22.7 (2.86) 22.5 (2.84) 23.8 (3.03) 25.5 (3.23) 26.6 (3.36) 26.7 (3.38) 27.8 (3.52) 28.7 (3.63) 27.6 (3.48) 28.0 (3.53) 27.7 (3.48) 28.2 (3.57) 28.3 (3.59)
Death Rate by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2022) Death Rate (2022) Death Rate (2021) Death Rate (2020) Death Rate (2019) Death Rate (2018) Death Rate (2017) Death Rate (2016) Death Rate (2015) Death Rate (2014) Death Rate (2013) Death Rate (2012) Death Rate (2011) Death Rate (2010) Death Rate (2009)
Turkey 85 279 553 5.9 6.7 6.1 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.0 5.1
İstanbul 15 907 951 4.6 5.4 4.9 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2
West Marmara 3 743 485 9.0 9.8 8.1 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.8 7.5 7.1 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3
Aegean 10 886 803 7.7 8.2 7.5 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.9 6.2 6.2 5.9 6.0
East Marmara 8 511 450 6.3 7.3 6.3 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.6
West Anatolia 8 339 470 5.5 6.2 6.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.8
Mediterranean 11 020 550 5.7 6.5 5.8 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
Central Anatolia 4 124 939 6.7 7.8 7.1 5.9 5.9 6.1 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.7 5.5 5.7
West Black Sea 4 665 938 8.8 9.9 8.5 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.3 6.9 7.0 7.0 6.8 7.0
East Black Sea 2 690 038 8.7 9.6 8.0 7.2 7.0 7.3 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.3 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.4
Northeast Anatolia 2 154 748 5.2 6.1 5.7 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.4 5.0 5.1
Central East Anatolia 3 928 271 4.3 5.2 5.1 4.1 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.5 4.4 4.5
Southeast Anatolia 9 305 910 3.5 4.3 4.2 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

Total births and deaths by region and year

Absolute Births and Deaths by Region and Year
Absolute Births by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2022) Births (2022) Births (2021) Births (2020) Births (2019) Births (2018) Births (2017) Births (2016) Births (2015) Births (2014) Births (2013) Births (2012) Births (2011) Births (2010) Births (2009)
Turkey 85 279 553 1,035,795 1,083,336 1,117,942 1,189,939 1,256,282 1,300,258 1,316,204 1,336,908 1,351,088 1,297,505 1,294,605 1,252,812 1,261,169 1,266,751
İstanbul 15 907 951 170,084 180,718 192,424 208,264 223,013 233,220 240,027 242,888 242,397 229,390 226,594 213,441 213,821 210,441
West Marmara 3 743 485 34,812 35,060 36,522 38,159 40,590 40,933 40,495 40,391 40,138 38,806 38,517 37,058 36,284 36,400
Aegean 10 886 803 106,284 109,564 113,538 120,023 127,579 132,868 134,176 137,187 137,438 132,299 133,419 127,833 128,112 129,927
East Marmara 8 511 450 93,238 97,590 99,942 106,064 112,164 113,462 113,585 112,635 111,115 105,761 105,203 99,704 100,386 100,928
West Anatolia 8 339 470 90,738 93,796 98,139 104,588 111,376 115,079 116,456 117,694 117,405 112,593 111,279 108,026 106,921 107,734
Mediterranean 11 020 550 134,115 138,127 142,483 150,950 159,689 166,815 171,561 174,874 177,272 170,686 169,985 163,817 166,123 167,506
Central Anatolia 4 124 939 46,628 48,257 50,332 53,825 56,527 58,933 60,381 61,569 63,446 61,669 62,634 62,989 64,216 67,174
West Black Sea 4 665 938 41,807 43,903 45,773 49,595 51,705 52,779 53,722 54,995 57,099 57,369 58,377 58,511 61,393 63,972
East Black Sea 2 690 038 25,073 26,202 27,682 29,627 31,002 31,556 32,092 32,144 32,817 32,558 32,774 32,836 34,272 35,565
Northeast Anatolia 2 154 748 32,640 36,004 37,557 40,613 41,915 45,262 46,609 47,720 49,996 49,605 50,781 50,779 51,578 50,778
Central East Anatolia 3 928 271 62,761 66,389 70,007 75,717 77,860 81,133 81,298 83,682 87,027 84,963 84,018 84,344 86,055 86,812
Southeast Anatolia 9 305 910 197,615 207,726 203,543 212,514 222,862 228,218 225,802 231,129 234,938 221,806 221,024 213,474 212,008 209,514
Absolute Deaths by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2022) Deaths (2022) Deaths (2021) Deaths (2020) Deaths (2019) Deaths (2018) Deaths (2017) Deaths (2016) Deaths (2015) Deaths (2014) Deaths (2013) Deaths (2012) Deaths (2011) Deaths (2010) Deaths (2009)
Turkey 85 279 553 504,839 566,485 509,048 436,624 426,785 426,662 422,964 405,528 391,091 373,041 376,520 376,162 366,471 369,703
İstanbul 15 907 951 73,751 84,243 76,407 63,486 62,594 63,372 62,572 60,093 58,009 54,770 54,696 53,165 52,812 53,761
West Marmara 3 743 485 33,315 35,752 29,385 27,589 27,456 27,219 26,416 26,145 24,864 23,229 23,496 23,167 23,007 22,687
Aegean 10 886 803 83,124 87,904 79,805 71,047 68,644 68,475 67,699 64,844 61,126 57,651 60,234 59,623 56,658 57,068
East Marmara 8 511 450 53,615 60,288 51,536 45,264 44,858 44,250 43,628 41,991 40,007 38,291 38,220 38,094 37,526 37,379
West Anatolia 8 339 470 45,783 51,273 50,005 39,814 39,382 38,910 37,765 35,814 34,589 33,219 33,369 33,097 32,270 32,976
Mediterranean 11 020 550 62,678 69,851 61,592 52,801 50,776 50,533 50,229 47,411 45,439 43,949 43,404 42,900 41,834 41,264
Central Anatolia 4 124 939 27,462 31,862 28,802 24,198 23,890 24,005 23,914 23,086 22,379 21,238 21,049 21,873 21,299 21,582
West Black Sea 4 665 938 40,926 46,100 39,595 35,366 34,984 34,748 34,359 33,355 32,772 31,011 31,476 31,651 30,541 31,279
East Black Sea 2 690 038 23,365 25,906 21,342 19,345 18,606 19,183 18,339 17,672 17,292 15,996 16,504 16,266 15,574 16,158
Northeast Anatolia 2 154 748 11,344 13,370 12,564 10,779 10,900 10,915 11,020 11,013 10,787 10,667 11,052 11,870 10,955 11,154
Central East Anatolia 3 928 271 16,953 20,460 19,979 15,969 15,530 16,086 16,132 15,685 15,441 15,430 15,419 16,551 16,114 16,491
Southeast Anatolia 9 305 910 32,523 39,476 38,036 30,966 29,165 28,966 30,891 28,419 28,386 27,590 27,601 27,905 27,881 27,904

Natural increase by region and year

Natural Increase by Region and Year
Natural Increase by Region and Year[a]
Region Population (2022) Natural Increase (2022) Natural Increase (2021) Natural Increase (2020) Natural Increase (2019) Natural Increase (2018) Natural Increase (2017) Natural Increase (2016) Natural Increase (2015) Natural Increase (2014) Natural Increase (2013) Natural Increase (2012) Natural Increase (2011) Natural Increase (2010) Natural Increase (2009)
Turkey 85 279 553 530 956/6.3 516 851/6.2 608 894/7.3 753 315/9.1 829 497/10.2 873 596/10.9 893 240/11.3 931 380/11.9 959 997/12.4 924 464/12.1 918 085/12.2 876 650/11.8 894 698/12.2 897 048/12.5
İstanbul 15 907 951 96 333/6.1 96 475/6.1 116 017/7.5 144 778/9.4 160 419/10.6 169 848/11.4 177 455/12.0 182 795/12.6 184 388/12.9 174 620/12.5 171 898/12.5 160 276/11.9 161 009/12.3 156 680/12.2
West Marmara 3 743 485 1 497/0.4 -692/-0.2 7 137/2.0 10 570/2.9 13 134/3.7 13 714/3.9 14 079/4.1 14 246/4.2 15 274/4.6 15 577/4.8 15 021/4.7 13 891/4.4 13 277/4.2 13 713/4.4
Aegean 10 886 803 23 160/2.1 21 660/2.0 33 733/3.2 48 976/4.7 58 935/5.6 64 393/6.2 66 477/6.5 72 343/7.2 76 312/7.7 74 648/7.6 73 185/7.5 68 210/7.0 71 454/7.4 72 859/7.7
East Marmara 8 511 450 39 623/4.7 37 302/4.4 48 406/5.9 60 800/7.6 67 306/8.5 69 212/8.9 69 957/9.2 70 644/9.5 71 108/9.8 67 470/9.5 66 983/9.6 61 610/8.9 62 860/9.3 63 549/9.6
West Anatolia 8 339 470 44 955/5.4 42 523/5.2 48 134/5.9 64 774/8.0 71 994/9.1 76 169/9.7 78 691/10.2 81 880/10.8 82 816/11.1 79 374/10.9 77 910/10.8 74 929/10.6 74 651/10.7 74 758/11.0
Mediterranean 11 020 550 71 437/6.5 68 276/6.3 80 891/7.5 98 149/9.3 108 913/10.5 116 282/11.4 121 332/12.0 127 463/12.8 131 833/13.4 126 737/13.1 126 581/13.2 120 917/12.8 124 289/13.3 126 242/13.8
Central Anatolia 4 124 939 19 166/4.6 16 395/4.0 21 530/5.2 29 627/7.3 32 637/8.2 34 928/8.8 36 467/9.3 38 483/9.9 41 067/10.6 40 431/10.5 41 585/10.8 41 116/10.7 42 917/11.2 45 592/12.0
West Black Sea 4 665 938 881/0.2 -2 197/-0.5 6 178/1.3 14 229/3.0 16 721/3.6 18 031/4.0 19 363/4.3 21 640/4.8 24 327/5.4 26 358/5.9 26 901/6.0 26 860/6.0 30 852/6.8 32 693/7.3
East Black Sea 2 690 038 1 708/0.6 296/0.2 6 340/2.3 10 282/3.8 12 396/4.6 12 373/4.7 13 753/5.3 14 472/5.6 15 525/6.1 16 562/6.5 16 270/6.4 16 570/6.6 18 698/7.4 19 407/7.7
Northeast Anatolia 2 154 748 21 296/9.8 22 634/10.4 24 993/11.4 29 834/13.5 31 015/14.1 34 347/15.6 35 589/16.2 36 707/16.7 39 209/17.8 38 938/17.6 39 729/17.8 38 909/17.6 40 623/18.5 39 624/18.0
Central East Anatolia 3 928 271 45 808/11.7 45 929/11.6 50 028/12.7 59 748/15.2 62 330/16.0 65 047/16.9 65 166/17.0 67 997/17.8 71 586/18.9 69 533/18.5 68 599/18.4 67 793/18.4 69 941/19.2 70 321/19.4
Southeast Anatolia 9 305 910 165 092/17.8 168 250/18.4 165 507/18.3 181 548/20.3 193 697/22.2 199 252/23.2 194 911/23.1 202 710/24.4 206 552/25.3 194 216/24.2 193 423/24.5 185 569/24.1 184 127/24.5 181 610/24.5

Historical fertility rate

Total Fertility Rate

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):[18]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993 22,9 2,7 (1,8) 21,7 2,4 (1,7) 24,0 3,1 (2,0)
1998 23,4 2,61 (1,9) 22,8 2,39 (1,9) 24,7 3,08 (2,1)

Total fertility rate by region in Turkey by Turkish General Census (GNS) and Turkish population and health research (TNSA).[19]

South-East East Mediterranean Black Sea Central Aegean Marmara Turkey
TNSA 1978 6,31 3,77 4,99 4,26 2,89 4,33
GNS 1980 4,61 4,64 3,50 3,65 3,76 2,81 2,73 3,41
TNSA 1993 4,40 2,37 3,15 2,44 2,03 2,65
TNSA 1998 4,19 2,55 2,68 2,56 2,03 2,61
GNS 2000 4,31 3,72 2,43 2,28 2,29 1,96 1,88 2,53
TNSA 2003 3,65 2,30 1,94 1,86 1,88 2,23
GNS rural 2000 4,80 4,52 2,52 2,56 2,91 2,23 2,03 2,87
GNS urban 2000 4,05 3,08 2,38 2,01 2,05 1,80 1,85 2,20
GNS metropolitan 2000 3,81 2,34 2,41 1,87 1,89 1,60 1,83 2,03

Total fertility rate (TFR) by province and year

Total fertility rate (TFR) by province and year

Figures from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat):[20]

Turkey total fertility rate by province (2023)[20]
  3–4
  2–3
  1.5 – 2
  1 – 1.5
Total fertility rate by province 1980[20]
  5–6
  4–5
  3–4
  2–3
  1.5 – 2
  1 – 1.5
Total fertility rate by province (2013)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2014)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2015)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2019)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2020)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2021)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2022)[20]
Total fertility rate by province (2023)[20]
Total fertility rate development by province 2009–2015[20]
  > 12%
  8 to 12%
  4 to 8%
  0 to 4%
  -4 to 0%
  -8 to −4%
  -12 to −8%
  < -12%
Province Population (2022)[21] TFR (1980)[19] TFR (2000) TFR (2009) TFR (2010) TFR (2011) TFR (2012) TFR (2013) TFR (2014) TFR (2015) TFR (2016) TFR (2017) TFR (2018) TFR (2019) TFR (2020) TFR (2021) TFR (2022)
Turkey 85 279 553 2.12 2.08 2.05 2.11 2.10 2.18 2.15 2.11 2.07 1.99 1.88 1.76 1.71 1.62
İstanbul 15 907 951 1.77 1.77 1.72 1.80 1.81 1.89 1.88 1.86 1.80 1.73 1.60 1.48 1.39 1.29
West Marmara 3 743 485 1.54 1.54 1.57 1.63 1.64 1.69 1.69 1.68 1.69 1.66 1.56 1.49 1.43 1.41
Tekirdağ 1 142 451 1.83 1.69 1.67 1.72 1.79 1.82 1.88 1.94 1.93 1.93 1.92 1.77 1.65 1.59 1.53
Edirne 414 714 2.41 1.66 1.43 1.39 1.45 1.51 1.49 1.46 1.54 1.48 1.46 1.43 1.34 1.34 1.31 1.31
Kırklareli 369 347 1.70 1.38 1.39 1.35 1.45 1.45 1.56 1.55 1.48 1.53 1.48 1.43 1.40 1.30 1.31
Balıkesir 1 257 590 1.95 1.53 1.56 1.58 1.62 1.65 1.71 1.65 1.67 1.66 1.63 1.54 1.48 1.41 1.42
Çanakkale 559 383 1.68 1.50 1.44 1.53 1.58 1.52 1.57 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.56 1.47 1.39 1.32 1.28
Aegean 10 886 803 1.69 1.66 1.66 1.74 1.73 1.80 1.80 1.76 1.74 1.67 1.57 1.49 1.45 1.41
İzmir 4 462 056 1.75 1.57 1.54 1.56 1.66 1.64 1.72 1.72 1.68 1.65 1.59 1.48 1.39 1.36 1.31
Aydın 1 148 241 2.12 1.74 1.71 1.69 1.82 1.79 1.84 1.85 1.82 1.87 1.78 1.67 1.57 1.54 1.49
Denizli 1 056 332 2.19 1.73 1.66 1.70 1.74 1.76 1.87 1.86 1.80 1.79 1.71 1.61 1.55 1.50 1.47
Muğla 1 048 185 1.94 1.71 1.70 1.67 1.76 1.73 1.76 1.77 1.73 1.69 1.64 1.55 1.50 1.43 1.35
Manisa 1 468 279 2.14 1.78 1.77 1.79 1.86 1.89 1.94 1.93 1.91 1.86 1.83 1.75 1.68 1.64 1.61
Afyonkarahisar 747 555 3.74 2.82 2.06 2.01 2.01 2.03 1.98 2.09 2.08 2.01 1.97 1.89 1.84 1.74 1.67 1.61
Kütahya 580 701 2.19 1.55 1.60 1.53 1.55 1.52 1.58 1.59 1.52 1.50 1.43 1.34 1.31 1.21 1.18
Uşak 375 454 2.18 1.64 1.67 1.64 1.74 1.76 1.79 1.74 1.68 1.69 1.59 1.50 1.44 1.37 1.38
East Marmara 8 511 450 1.77 1.74 1.71 1.80 1.80 1.88 1.89 1.89 1.86 1.83 1.71 1.61 1.56 1.48
Bursa 3 194 720 1.98 1.78 1.77 1.73 1.85 1.85 1.90 1.92 1.91 1.88 1.86 1.74 1.65 1.57 1.47
Eskişehir 906 617 1.74 1.40 1.38 1.38 1.46 1.48 1.57 1.56 1.54 1.54 1.49 1.40 1.35 1.35 1.29
Bilecik 228 673 1.98 1.71 1.67 1.63 1.75 1.77 1.78 1.72 1.74 1.70 1.69 1.62 1.50 1.45 1.40
Kocaeli 2 079 072 3.23 2.13 1.90 1.87 1.82 1.91 1.91 2.04 2.07 2.04 2.01 1.96 1.85 1.70 1.66 1.58
Sakarya 1 080 080 2,23 1.87 1.82 1.78 1.85 1.83 1.91 1.93 1.95 1.94 1.94 1.80 1.68 1.68 1.55
Düzce 405 131 2.18 1.87 1.83 1.82 1.81 1.87 1.90 1.86 1.90 1.83 1.77 1.71 1.60 1.49 1.48
Bolu 320 824 1.93 1.60 1.57 1.64 1.59 1.64 1.66 1.60 1.62 1.56 1.52 1.46 1.36 1.37 1.31
Yalova 296 333 1.93 1.78 1.64 1.62 1.72 1.69 1.81 1.78 1.88 1.82 1.75 1.65 1.49 1.48 1.39
West Anatolia 8 339 470 1.83 1.80 1.79 1.83 1.85 1.91 1.90 1.86 1.83 1.77 1.65 1.54 1.48 1.42
Ankara 5 782 285 1.90 1.68 1.66 1.65 1.68 1.71 1.77 1.77 1.73 1.71 1.65 1.53 1.42 1.34 1.28
Konya 2 296 347 3.00 2.14 2.12 2.13 2.18 2.18 2.25 2.20 2.18 2.11 2.06 1.93 1.84 1.80 1.75
Karaman 260 838 2.77 2.15 1.95 1.98 2.02 2.09 2.04 2.12 2.09 2.06 1.95 1.85 1.77 1.66 1.60
Mediterranean 11 020 550 2.20 2.18 2.14 2.23 2.24 2.32 2.28 2.24 2.16 2.07 1.94 1.83 1.77 1.71
Antalya 2 688 004 1.93 1.91 1.87 1.84 1.93 1.91 1.96 1.98 1.94 1.84 1.76 1.63 1.54 1.48 1.37
Isparta 445 325 2.04 1.76 1.66 1.66 1.72 1.70 1.75 1.72 1.72 1.76 1.62 1.54 1.45 1.43 1.39
Burdur 273 799 2.12 1.74 1.73 1.68 1.66 1.68 1.79 1.79 1.74 1.66 1.58 1.50 1.41 1.37 1.36
Adana 2 274 106 2.68 2.18 2.14 2.12 2.21 2.25 2.34 2.32 2.26 2.22 2.12 2.01 1.87 1.83 1.82
Mersin 1 916 432 2.38 2.03 2.04 2.00 2.12 2.11 2.20 2.17 2.14 2.07 2.02 1.86 1.77 1.72 1.68
Hatay 1 686 043 2.97 2.57 2.54 2.51 2.63 2.62 2.82 2.74 2.69 2.58 2.49 2.37 2.20 2.15 2.04
Kahramanmaraş 1 177 436 3.54 2.70 2.68 2.66 2.68 2.74 2.74 2.64 2.60 2.53 2.38 2.22 2.10 2.00 1.94
Osmaniye 559 405 2.95 2.55 2.57 2.40 2.51 2.51 2.59 2.50 2.43 2.39 2.26 2.21 2.03 1.92 1.98
Central Anatolia 4 124 939 2.16 2.08 2.06 2.07 2.06 2.13 2.08 2.03 1.96 1.87 1.78 1.67 1.62 1.56
Kırıkkale 277 046 2.39 1.77 1.70 1.60 1.59 1.65 1.69 1.72 1.69 1.68 1.59 1.53 1.43 1.39 1.33
Aksaray 433 055 2.85 2.42 2.35 2.34 2.30 2.29 2.35 2.30 2.24 2.19 2.13 1.99 1.92 1.86 1.83
Niğde 365 419 2.98 2.40 2.28 2.23 2.32 2.25 2.33 2.19 2.20 2.08 1.99 1.92 1.76 1.72 1.69
Nevşehir 310 011 2.55 2.10 1.98 1.97 1.98 1.94 2.10 1.98 1.93 1.85 1.78 1.66 1.62 1.58 1.51
Kırşehir 244 519 2.40 1.72 1.69 1.69 1.75 1.78 1.86 1.82 1.79 1.76 1.73 1.65 1.49 1.40 1.38
Kayseri 1 441 523 2.62 2.21 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.17 2.25 2.19 2.13 2.02 1.96 1.85 1.71 1.66 1.60
Sivas 634 924 2.76 2.07 2.02 1.99 1.99 1.94 1.99 1.98 1.96 1.94 1.78 1.73 1.63 1.55 1.46
Yozgat 418 442 2.84 2.25 2.07 2.04 2.03 1.97 2.06 2.06 2.01 1.99 1.83 1.71 1.63 1.53 1.47
West Black Sea 4 665 938 1.84 1.79 1.74 1.77 1.76 1.77 1.73 1.69 1.66 1.63 1.56 1.46 1.41 1.35
Zonguldak 588 510 1.93 1.71 1.65 1.58 1.62 1.59 1.60 1.56 1.50 1.48 1.43 1.38 1.31 1.26 1.18
Karabük 252 058 1.99 1.67 1.60 1.62 1.54 1.59 1.56 1.57 1.46 1.50 1.49 1.41 1.29 1.32 1.21
Bartın 203 351 2.11 1.68 1.67 1.61 1.50 1.57 1.69 1.58 1.55 1.45 1.48 1.42 1.38 1.25 1.26
Kastamonu 378 115 3.44 2.18 1.70 1.69 1.64 1.69 1.68 1.59 1.63 1.59 1.50 1.54 1.47 1.41 1.39 1.39
Çankırı 195 766 2.27 1.97 1.93 1.91 1.84 1.78 1.86 1.78 1.84 1.75 1.69 1.69 1.67 1.69 1.51
Sinop 220 799 4.35 2.48 1.91 1.81 1.77 1.84 1.75 1.79 1.72 1.70 1.70 1.61 1.60 1.56 1.47 1.41
Samsun 1 368 488 2.55 1.87 1.81 1.77 1.83 1.83 1.85 1.82 1.80 1.78 1.75 1.65 1.51 1.43 1.38
Tokat 596 454 3.06 1.95 1.92 1.83 1.79 1.82 1.82 1.74 1.70 1.67 1.63 1.61 1.47 1.42 1.39
Çorum 524 130 2.66 1.93 1.90 1.86 1.96 1.89 1.97 1.85 1.86 1.79 1.73 1.68 1.57 1.52 1.45
Amasya 338 267 2.34 1.80 1.75 1.71 1.75 1.78 1.75 1.80 1.70 1.72 1.66 1.60 1.48 1.46 1.38
East Black Sea 2 690 038 1.86 1.81 1.77 1.78 1.77 1.80 1.78 1.76 1.71 1.68 1.60 1.51 1.45 1.39
Trabzon 818 023 2.10 1.87 1.82 1.78 1.80 1.79 1.84 1.86 1.85 1.82 1.79 1.68 1.56 1.53 1.43
Ordu 763 190 2.81 1.94 1.89 1.84 1.86 1.85 1.89 1.83 1.84 1.81 1.72 1.67 1.56 1.44 1.44
Giresun 450 862 2.31 1.74 1.74 1.65 1.66 1.64 1.65 1.64 1.57 1.56 1.55 1.49 1.40 1.33 1.32
Rize 344 016 2.01 1.80 1.76 1.75 1.73 1.80 1.79 1.79 1.79 1.75 1.76 1.65 1.57 1.53 1.41
Artvin 169 403 2.24 1.73 1.72 1.67 1.78 1.73 1.78 1.74 1.77 1.72 1.64 1.60 1.57 1.40 1.39
Gümüşhane 144 544 2.92 2.09 1.88 1.89 1.84 1.84 1.84 1.72 1.62 1.37 1.33 1.35 1.38 1.35 1.30
Northeast Anatolia 2 154 748 2.91 2.97 2.90 2.90 2.85 2.90 2.79 2.72 2.64 2.44 2.36 2.18 2.11 1.92
Erzurum 749 754 3.51 2.51 2.49 2.50 2.50 2.49 2.60 2.51 2.45 2.40 2.24 2.15 2.02 1.95 1.80
Erzincan 239 223 2.54 1.82 1.82 1.91 1.88 1.89 1.82 1.82 1.89 1.73 1.63 1.65 1.53 1.58 1.39
Bayburt 84 241 3.29 2.38 2.31 2.16 2.30 2.13 2.18 2.09 1.96 1.83 1.84 1.71 1.61 1.60 1.42
Ağrı 510 626 5.49 4.22 4.38 4.13 4.11 4.01 4.04 3.84 3.73 3.63 3.28 3.18 2.89 2.73 2.51
Kars 274 829 3.76 2.90 3.05 2.88 2.92 2.74 2.75 2.64 2.59 2.54 2.35 2.25 2.10 1.98 1.86
Iğdır 203 594 4.17 3.06 3.16 3.12 3.10 3.21 3.19 3.05 2.98 2.81 2.70 2.56 2.27 2.22 1.99
Ardahan 92 481 2.95 2.35 2.25 2.25 2.21 2.11 2.24 2.17 2.01 2.05 1.91 1.88 1.74 1.82 1.63
Central East Anatolia 3 928 271 3.00 2.95 2.85 2.82 2.83 2.87 2.75 2.67 2.65 2.52 2.43 2.23 2.12 2.01
Malatya 812 580 3.66 2.56 2.08 2.06 1.99 1.99 1.96 2.05 2.01 1.99 1.99 1.90 1.80 1.66 1.64 1.59
Elazığ 591 497 2.52 2.02 1.98 1.98 1.97 1.93 2.04 1.99 1.96 1.95 1.86 1.79 1.71 1.60 1.51
Bingöl 282 556 3.56 2.56 2.55 2.52 2.49 2.49 2.63 2.42 2.44 2.39 2.37 2.26 2.10 1.99 1.80
Tunceli 84 366 4.87 1.90 1.56 1.47 1.50 1.53 1.55 1.62 1.69 1.58 1.56 1.64 1.69 1.57 1.49 1.40
Van 1 128 749 6.00 3.93 3.84 3.66 3.58 3.64 3.54 3.37 3.20 3.15 2.96 2.85 2.56 2.35 2.28
Muş 399 202 4.18 3.93 3.94 3.66 3.65 3.59 3.71 3.49 3.37 3.42 3.25 3.16 2.85 2.77 2.53
Bitlis 353 988 6.01 5.03 3.80 3.71 3.52 3.49 3.44 3.47 3.40 3.30 3.23 3.07 2.90 2.70 2.65 2.48
Hakkâri 275 333 6.69 3.35 3.18 3.14 2.99 3.01 3.03 2.76 2.60 2.56 2.42 2.35 2.16 2.05 1.99
Southeast Anatolia 9 305 910 3.59 3.57 3.48 3.53 3.48 3.63 3.52 3.38 3.36 3.23 3.02 2.84 2.86 2.71
Gaziantep 2 154 051 3.83 3.15 3.07 3.04 3.15 3.17 3.28 3.19 3.06 2.93 2.85 2.62 2.47 2.48 2.39
Adıyaman 635 169 3.66 2.76 2.79 2.77 2.79 2.75 2.90 2.87 2.78 2.79 2.69 2.56 2.36 2.36 2.24
Kilis 147 919 3.54 2.93 3.01 2.83 2.99 2.96 3.13 3.03 2.87 2.83 2.75 2.55 2.48 2.47 2.34
Şanlıurfa 2 170 110 4.83 4.57 4.58 4.46 4.47 4.41 4.57 4.42 4.35 4.33 4.15 3.90 3.71 3.82 3.59
Diyarbakır 1 804 880 4.51 3.23 3.24 3.19 3.23 3.16 3.30 3.22 3.13 3.13 2.97 2.79 2.54 2.54 2.42
Mardin 870 374 4.98 3.46 3.53 3.35 3.46 3.33 3.55 3.46 3.26 3.28 3.15 3.00 2.76 2.79 2.62
Batman 634 491 5.27 3.70 3.64 3.43 3.42 3.34 3.41 3.25 3.11 3.08 2.90 2.72 2.55 2.57 2.39
Şırnak 557 605 7.06 4.69 4.51 4.26 4.21 4.19 4.27 4.09 3.51 3.76 3.63 3.39 3.23 3.19 2.94
Siirt 331 311 6.05 4.23 4.12 3.96 3.85 3.70 3.89 3.56 3.47 3.33 3.18 2.93 2.88 2.71 2.47

Structure of the population

Structure of the population

Structure of the population (31.XII.2015) (Data based on Address Based Population Registration System.):[22][23][24]

Age group Male Female Total Percent
Total 39,511,191 39,229,862 78,741,053 100
0–4 3,275,520 3,105,996 6,381,516 8.10
5–9 3,252,811 3,084,908 6,337,719 8.05
10–14 3,166,860 3,000,125 6,166,985 7.83
15–19 3,382,363 3,203,137 6,585,500 8.36
20–24 3,224,168 3,089,999 6,314,167 8.02
25–29 3,178,350 3,084,899 6,263,249 7.95
30–34 3,252,171 3,175,879 6,428,150 8.16
35–39 3,134,041 3,069,282 6,203,323 7.88
40–44 2,788,425 2,764,155 5,552,580 7.05
45–49 2,337,087 2,252,992 4,590,079 5.83
50–54 2,317,534 2,315,375 4,632,909 5.88
55–59 1,843,354 1,837,816 3,681,170 4.68
60–64 1,515,065 1,593,402 3,108,467 3.95
65–69 1,100,734 1,255,651 2,356,385 2.99
70–74 737,892 888,292 1,626,184 2.07
75–79 501,411 682,335 1,183,746 1.50
80–84 339,904 470,584 810,488 1.03
85–89 128,879 261,571 390,450 0.50
90+ 34,622 93,364 127,986 0.16
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9,695,191 9,191,029 18,886,220 23.99
15–64 26,972,558 26,387,036 53,359,594 67.77
65+ 2,843,442 3,651,797 6,495,239 8.25

Structure of the population (31.XII.2016):

Age group Male Female Total Percent
Total 40,043,650 39,771,221 79,814,871 100
0–4 3,314,542 3,144,753 6,459,295 8.09
5–9 3,253,345 3,084,099 6,337,444 7.94
10–14 3,147,133 2,981,910 6,129,043 7.68
15–19 3,400,443 3,222,876 6,623,319 8.30
20–24 3,247,764 3,117,959 6,365,723 7.98
25–29 3,169,360 3,076,681 6,246,041 7.83
30–34 3,196,645 3,113,766 6,310,411 7.91
35–39 3,275,175 3,219,158 6,494,333 8.14
40–44 2,833,655 2,800,662 5,634,317 7.06
45–49 2,412,875 2,335,639 4,748,514 5.95
50–54 2,381,640 2,374,604 4,756,244 5.96
55–59 1,855,171 1,860,565 3,715,736 4.66
60–64 1,636,510 1,706,438 3,342,948 4.19
65–69 1,132,464 1,280,073 2,412,537 3.02
70–74 763,121 917,371 1,680,492 2.11
75–79 512,607 689,443 1,202,050 1.51
80–84 336,206 473,119 809,325 1.01
85–89 136,238 265,520 401,758 0.50
90+ 38,756 106,585 145,341 0.18
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9,715,020 9,210,762 18,925,782 23.71
15–64 27,409,238 26,828,348 54,237,586 67.95
65+ 2,919,392 3,732,111 6,651,503 8.33

Structure of the population (31.XII.2017):

Age group Male Female Total Percent
Total 40 535 135 40 275 390 80 810 525 100
0–4 3 326 591 3 155 258 6 481 849 8.02
5–9 3 254 177 3 086 592 6 340 769 7.85
10–14 3 188 333 3 022 537 6 210 870 7.69
15–19 3 351 043 3 175 544 6 526 587 8.08
20–24 3 294 336 3 162 174 6 456 510 7.99
25–29 3 163 889 3 067 653 6 231 542 7.71
30–34 3 189 075 3 107 849 6 296 924 7.79
35–39 3 308 413 3 252 283 6 560 696 8.12
40–44 2 891 799 2 849 020 5 740 819 7.10
45–49 2 556 364 2 498 790 5 055 154 6.26
50–54 2 349 139 2 326 316 4 675 455 5.79
55–59 1 977 328 1 989 399 3 966 727 4.91
60–64 1 651 215 1 720 023 3 371 238 4.17
65–69 1 188 986 1 322 918 2 511 904 3.11
70–74 784 614 952 653 1 737 267 2.15
75–79 533 757 715 428 1 249 185 1.55
80–84 330 240 471 436 801 676 0.99
85–89 152 317 282 516 434 833 0.54
90+ 43 519 117 001 160 520 0.20
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 769 101 9 264 387 19 033 488 23.55
15–64 27 732 601 27 149 051 54 881 652 67.91
65+ 3 033 433 3 861 952 6 895 385 8.53

Structure of the population (31.XII.2018):

Age group Male Female Total Percent
Total 41 139 980 40 863 902 82 003 882 100
0–4 3 327 780 3 157 206 6 484 986 7.91%
5–9 3 264 608 3 094 412 6 358 920 7.75%
10–14 3 254 277 3 086 146 6 340 423 7.73%
15–19 3 299 449 3 124 818 6 424 267 7.83%
20–24 3 347 297 3 199 832 6 547 129 7.98%
25–29 3 190 023 3 086 446 6 276 469 7.65%
30–34 3 205 205 3 127 948 6 333 153 7.72%
35–39 3 316 603 3 259 469 6 576 072 8.02%
40–44 2 953 329 2 892 697 5 846 026 7.13%
45–49 2 670 183 2 640 524 5 310 707 6.48%
50–54 2 372 182 2 329 142 4 701 324 5.73%
55–59 2 076 882 2 095 459 4 172 341 5.09%
60–64 1 692 130 1 753 731 3 445 861 4.20%
65–69 1 245 979 1 366 228 2 612 207 3.19%
70–74 835 353 1 021 569 1 856 922 2.26%
75–79 539 825 722 725 1 262 550 1.54%
80–84 318 882 474 854 793 736 0.97%
85–89 182 957 302 957 485 914 0.59%
90+ 47 136 127 739 174 875 0.21%
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 846 565 9 337 764 19 184 329 23.39%
15–64 28 123 283 27 510 066 55 633 349 67.84%
65+ 3 170 132 4 016 072 7 186 204 8.76%

Structure of the population (31.XII.2019):

Age group Male Female Total Percent
Total 41 721 136 41 433 861 83 154 997 100
0–4 3 254 719 3 090 417 6 345 136 7.63%
5–9 3 316 621 3 144 418 6 461 039 7.77%
10–14 3 288 207 3 117 963 6 406 170 7.70%
15–19 3 254 891 3 076 703 6 331 594 7.61%
20–24 3 392 374 3 231 704 6 624 078 7.97%
25–29 3 240 657 3 126 654 6 367 311 7.66%
30–34 3 221 381 3 141 636 6 363 017 7.65%
35–39 3 324 759 3 260 084 6 584 843 7.92%
40–44 3 016 898 2 950 486 5 967 384 7.18%
45–49 2 772 838 2 760 721 5 533 559 6.65%
50–54 2 367 577 2 307 796 4 675 373 5.62%
55–59 2 178 454 2 211 543 4 389 997 5.28%
60–64 1 754 500 1 800 269 3 554 769 4.27%
65–69 1 301 371 1 421 301 2 722 672 3.27%
70–74 907 850 1 109 063 2 016 913 2.43%
75–79 560 695 747 604 1 308 299 1.57%
80–84 323 732 493 998 817 730 0.98%
85–89 192 938 304 472 497 410 0.60%
90+ 50 674 137 029 187 703 0.23%
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 859 547 9 352 798 19 212 345 23.10%
15–64 28 524 329 27 867 596 56 391 925 67.82%
65+ 3 337 260 4 213 467 7 550 727 9.08%

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (31.XII.2020):[25]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 41 915 985 41 698 377 83 614 362 100
0–4 3 140 172 2 981 535 6 121 707 7.32
5–9 3 349 253 3 177 340 6 526 593 7.81
10–14 3 294 985 3 124 952 6 419 937 7.68
15–19 3 201 588 3 028 526 6 230 114 7.45
20–24 3 408 434 3 255 202 6 663 636 7.97
25–29 3 240 543 3 130 411 6 370 954 7.62
30–34 3 199 710 3 119 184 6 318 894 7.56
35–39 3 270 512 3 203 071 6 473 583 7.74
40–44 3 145 645 3 089 465 6 235 110 7.46
45–49 2 788 035 2 775 631 5 563 666 6.65
50–54 2 325 190 2 259 442 4 584 632 5.48
55–59 2 273 088 2 304 499 4 577 587 5.47
60–64 1 764 938 1 809 456 3 574 394 4.27
65–69 1 399 052 1 539 663 2 938 715 3.51
70–74 960 742 1 170 963 2 131 705 2.55
75–79 583 671 771 675 1 355 346 1.62
80–84 339 767 521 432 861 199 1.03
85–89 177 532 289 216 466 748 0.56
90+ 53 128 146 714 199 842 0.24
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 784 410 9 283 827 19 068 237 22.80
15–64 28 617 683 27 974 887 56 592 570 67.68
65+ 3 513 892 4 439 663 7 953 555 9.51

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (31.XII.2021):[25]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 42 428 101 42 252 172 84 680 273 100
0–4 3 033 029 2 880 580 5 913 609 6.98
5–9 3 398 812 3 225 390 6 624 202 7.82
10–14 3 304 851 3 133 301 6 438 152 7.60
15–19 3 203 519 3 026 190 6 229 709 7.36
20–24 3 445 410 3 296 170 6 741 580 7.96
25–29 3 296 919 3 179 980 6 476 899 7.65
30–34 3 212 668 3 129 119 6 341 787 7.49
35–39 3 228 063 3 158 145 6 386 208 7.54
40–44 3 294 071 3 253 091 6 547 162 7.73
45–49 2 838 766 2 823 495 5 662 261 6.69
50–54 2 403 726 2 350 758 4 754 484 5.61
55–59 2 337 304 2 369 876 4 707 180 5.56
60–64 1 776 254 1 835 662 3 611 916 4.27
65–69 1 508 990 1 647 458 3 156 448 3.73
70–74 982 573 1 192 451 2 175 024 2.57
75–79 598 307 794 411 1 392 718 1.64
80–84 340 568 520 841 861 409 1.02
85–89 169 807 286 741 456 548 0.54
90+ 54 464 148 513 202 977 0.24
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 736 692 9 239 271 18 975 963 22.41
15–64 29 036 700 28 422 486 57 459 186 67.85
65+ 3 654 709 4 590 415 8 245 124 9.74

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (31.XII.2022):[25]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 42 704 112 42 575 441 85 279 553 100
0–4 2 904 379 2 759 241 5 663 620 6.64
5–9 3 404 972 3 230 105 6 635 077 7.78
10–14 3 303 371 3 133 043 6 436 414 7.55
15–19 3 244 500 3 070 609 6 315 109 7.41
20–24 3 388 724 3 245 984 6 634 708 7.78
25–29 3 334 439 3 218 730 6 553 169 7.68
30–34 3 199 028 3 116 019 6 315 047 7.41
35–39 3 215 451 3 151 290 6 366 741 7.47
40–44 3 321 873 3 284 156 6 606 029 7.75
45–49 2 893 831 2 869 703 5 763 534 6.76
50–54 2 543 588 2 511 036 5 054 624 5.93
55–59 2 305 846 2 321 295 4 627 141 5.53
60–64 1 893 862 1 962 809 3 856 671 4.52
65–69 1 523 412 1 661 877 3 185 289 3.74
70–74 1 031 897 1 232 222 2 264 119 2.65
75–79 617 021 827 777 1 444 798 1.69
80–84 353 290 540 167 893 457 1.05
85–89 165 676 284 407 450 083 0.53
90+ 58 952 154 971 213 923 0.25
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 612 722 9 122 389 18 735 111 21.97
15–64 29 341 142 28 751 631 58 092 773 68.12
65+ 3 750 248 4 701 421 8 451 669 9.91

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (31.XII.2023):[25]

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 42 734 071 42 638 306 85 372 377 100
0–4 2 741 873 2 606 181 5 348 054 6.26
5–9 3 368 825 3 197 661 6 566 486 7.69
10–14 3 283 764 3 113 329 6 397 093 7.49
15–19 3 283 511 3 113 008 6 396 519 7.49
20–24 3 317 007 3 158 513 6 475 520 7.59
25–29 3 330 851 3 212 210 6 543 061 7.66
30–34 3 172 482 3 094 683 6 267 165 7.34
35–39 3 190 762 3 138 484 6 329 246 7.41
40–44 3 298 682 3 265 956 6 564 638 7.69
45–49 2 932 767 2 894 024 5 826 791 6.83
50–54 2 637 680 2 634 986 5 272 666 6.18
55–59 2 315 313 2 311 209 4 626 522 5.42
60–64 1 980 198 2 055 612 4 035 810 4.73
65–69 1 554 059 1 686 354 3 240 413 3.80
70–74 1 077 788 1 267 553 2 345 341 2.75
75–79 656 329 886 599 1 542 928 1.81
80–84 357 820 546 603 904 423 1.06
85–89 163 397 288 413 451 810 0.53
90+ 70 963 166 928 237 891 0.28
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 9 394 462 8 917 171 18 311 633 21.45
15–64 29 459 253 28 878 685 58 337 938 68.33
65+ 3 880 356 4 842 450 8 722 806 10.22

Immigration

Main article: Immigration to Turkey

Immigration to Turkey is the process by which people migrate to Turkey to reside in the country. After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and following Turkish War of Independence, an exodus by the large portion of Turkish (Turkic) and Muslim peoples from the Balkans (Balkan Turks, Albanians, Bosniaks, Pomaks), Caucasus (Abkhazians, Ajarians, Circassians, Chechens), Crimea (Crimean Tatar diaspora), and Crete (Cretan Turks) took refuge in present-day Turkey and moulded the country's fundamental features. Trends of immigration towards Turkey continue to this day, although the motives are more varied and are usually in line with the patterns of global immigration movements — Turkey, for example, receives many economic migrants from nearby countries such as Armenia, the Moldova, Georgia, Iran, and Azerbaijan, but also from Central Asia, Ukraine and Russia. Turkey's migrant crisis during the 2010s saw high numbers of people arriving in Turkey, particularly those fleeing the Syrian civil war.

As of August 2023, the number of refugees of the Syrian civil war in Turkey was estimated to be 3,307,882 people. The number of Syrians had decreased by 205,894 people since the beginning of the year.[26] In 2022, nearly 100 000 Russian citizens migrated to Turkey, becoming the first in the list of foreigners who moved to Turkey, meaning an increase of more than 218% from 2021.[27]

In order to obtain Turkish citizenship there is a range of legal grounds, which can include: reunification with their family, marriage to a Turkish citizen, for the purchase of real estate worth $400,000 from a Turkish citizen or company.[28] The minimum investment amount was increased in May 2022, previously it was enough to invest $250,000. Also the basis is to work in Turkey, training, business, medical treatment, refugee status.

In 2023 the foreign population of Türkiye decreased by 253,293 down to 1,570,543.[29]

Population in Turkey by country of citizenship by the end of each years:[25]

Country 2022 2021 2020
Total people living in Turkey 85 279 553 84 680 273 83 614 362
 Turkey 83 455 717 (97.86%) 82 888 237 (97.88%) 82 280 952 (98.41%)
Total foreign population 1 823 836 (2.14%) 1 792 036 (2.12%) 1 333 410 (1.59%)
 Iraq 275 305 (0.32%) 322 015 (0.38%) 281 074 (0.34%)
 Afghanistan 186 160 (0.22%) 183 567 (0.22%) 158 252 (0.19%)
 Russian Federation 151 049 (0.18%) 66 786 (0.08%) 43 679 (0.05%)
 Iran 117 026 (0.14%) 128 883 (0.15%) 68 561 (0.08%)
 Turkmenistan 116 447 (0.14%) 123 965 (0.15%) 91 218 (0.11%)
 Germany 110 453 (0.13%) 102 592 (0.12%) 92 284 (0.11%)
 Syria 99 360 (0.12%) 104 554 (0.12%) 88 907 (0.11%)
 Azerbaijan 68 884 (0.08%) 68 562(0.08%) 48 495 (0.06%)
 Uzbekistan 61 754 (0.07%) 71 145 (0.08%) 36 510 (0.04%)
 Ukraine 50 357 (0.06%) 23 377 (0.03%) 17 505 (0.02%)
 Kazakhstan 45 530 (0.05%) 39 454 (0.05%) 23 645 (0.03%)
 Egypt 33 040 (0.04%) 34 162 (0.04%) 25 475 (0.03%)
 Palestine 26 278 (0.03%) 28 027 (0.03%) 17 915 (0.02%)
 Kyrgyzstan 24 485 (0.03%) 26 541 (0.03%) 18 019 (0.02%)
 Jordan 22 733 (0.03%) 23 656 (0.03%) 14 260 (0.02%)
 Libya 21 677 (0.03%) 24 188 (0.03%) 18 607 (0.02%)
 Austria 21 311 (0.02%) 19 900 (0.02%) 18 047 (0.02%)
 Somalia 20 906 (0.02%) 28 081 (0.03%) 17 245 (0.02%)
 Yemen 19 099 (0.02%) 18 094 (0.02%) 14 927 (0.02%)
 Morocco 18 482 (0.02%) 20 520 (0.02%) 12 122 (0.01%)
 United Kingdom 17 193 (0.02%) 16 440 (0.02%) 13 985 (0.02%)
 China 16 880 (0.02%) 20 486 (0.02%) 18 740 (0.02%)
 Bulgaria 16 612 (0.02%) 15 426 (0.02%) 14 195 (0.02%)
 Pakistan 16 505 (0.02%) 17 290 (0.02%) 7 248 (0.01%)
 Georgia 14 680 (0.02%) 19 276 (0.02%) 15 661 (0.02%)
 Greece 13 583 (0.02%) 12 569 (0.01%) 12 137 (0.01%)
 Nigeria 12 928 (0.02%) 12 920 (0.02%) 7 120 (0.01%)
 United States 12 793 (0.02%) 12 773 (0.02%) 9 032 (0.01%)
 Lebanon 12 430 (0.01%) 13 242 (0.02%) 5 943 (0.01%)
 Algeria 12 248 (0.01%) 10 698 (0.01%) 5 914 (0.01%)
 Sudan 11 613 (0.01%) 9 538 (0.01%) 3 193 (<0.01%)
 Indonesia 11 280 (0.01%) 10 219 (0.01%) 5 226 (0.01%)
 Netherlands 8 104 (0.01%) 7 686 (0.01%) 6 550 (0.01%)
 Tajikistan 7 153 (0.01%) 7 965 (0.01%) 3 626 (<0.01%)
 Moldova 6 790 (0.01%) 7 546 (0.01%) 6 295 (0.01%)
 Kuwait 6 190 (0.01%) 5 498 (0.01%) 3 559 (<0.01%)
 Ethiopia 6 165 (0.01%) 6 633 (0.01%) 2 936 (<0.01%)
 Tunisia 6 075 (0.01%) 6 033 (0.01%) 2 961 (<0.01%)
 Belarus 5 169 (0.01%) 3 873 (<0.01%)
 India 4 669 (0.01%) 3 092 (<0.01%)
 France 4 526 (0.01%) 4 294 (0.01%) 3 181 (<0.01%)

Internal migration

Place of origin (rows) versus place of residence (columns) for Turkish citizens in 2014[30]
Regions İstanbul West Marmara Aegean East Marmara West Anatolia Mediterranean Central Anatolia West Black Sea East Black Sea Northeast Anatolia Central East Anatolia Southeast Anatolia Total Population
İstanbul 2,162,588 79,009 72,123 84,689 38,802 38,673 4,858 11,976 9,147 3,533 3,667 4,754 2,513,819
West Marmara 523,725 2,378,938 187,256 135,364 44,409 27,376 5,140 10,238 4,513 5,273 7,110 8,861 3,338,203
Aegean 297,143 76,518 7,047,801 210,522 134,073 166,785 16,606 22,252 10,354 14,936 20,388 28,224 8,045,602
East Marmara 520,698 67,299 131,586 4,317,877 187,043 61,782 10,715 33.371 10,701 8,074 9,775 12,286 5,371,207
West Anatolia 272,835 35,919 259,387 127,794 3,721,634 192,934 49,942 29,545 8,468 10,360 13,727 20,850 4,743,395
Mediterranean 470,673 53,295 250,529 111,393 228,398 7,329,964 100,729 32,461 16,963 21,667 46,013 181,874 8,843,959
Central Anatolia 1,346,007 92,421 297,114 235,407 1,223,857 305,343 3,466,971 70,729 16,604 20,204 32,153 36,818 7,143,628
West Black Sea 2,637,016 186,103 252,628 458,730 956,151 133,053 54,578 3,982,185 42,935 18,878 21,757 27,735 8,771,749
East Black Sea 1,918,805 96,494 152,843 529,110 241,801 70,823 19,104 198,869 2,382,704 33,854 11,852 13,140 5,669,399
Northeast Anatolia 1,580,876 120,086 504,588 593,882 344,929 101,600 63,029 34,656 32,761 2,009,253 39,921 20,576 5,446,157
Central East Anatolia 1,293,157 86,315 359,161 299,390 167,451 393,102 31,612 22,064 11,070 31,709 3,438,577 133,862 6,267,470
Southeast Anatolia 1,197,959 65,538 445,279 174,765 156,489 1,002,771 33,876 23,666 11,689 22,036 150,028 7,738,941 11,023,037
Total population 14,221,482 3,337,935 9,960,295 7,278,923 7,445,037 9,824,206 3,857,160 4,472,012 2,557,909 2,199,777 3,794,968 8,227,921 77,177,625

Ethnicity

Main articles: Minorities in Turkey and Ethnic groups in Turkey

Ethnic Composition of Turkey (1950-2020)
Year Turks (%) Kurds (%) Arabs (%) Armenians (%) Greeks (%) Jews (%) Circassians (%) Laz (%) Georgians (%) Others (%)
1950 85.35 12.27 1.11 0.13 0.40 0.09 0.35 0.17 0.10 0.03
1960 84.00 12.95 1.17 0.12 0.35 0.08 0.35 0.16 0.10 0.02
1970 82.93 13.86 1.25 0.10 0.30 0.07 0.34 0.15 0.09 0.05
1980 81.74 14.68 1.33 0.09 0.22 0.06 0.33 0.14 0.09 0.32
1990 79.55 15.62 1.45 0.07 0.17 0.05 0.32 0.13 0.09 2.55
2000 76.98 17.00 1.55 0.06 0.14 0.04 0.31 0.12 0.08 3.72
2010 73.97 17.92 1.67 0.05 0.11 0.03 0.31 0.11 0.07 6.06
2020 70.91 18.85 1.78 0.04 0.09 0.02 0.30 0.10 0.06 7.85
Decadal Changes in Ethnic Composition of Turkey (1950-2020)
Decade Turks (%) Kurds (%) Arabs (%) Armenians (%) Greeks (%) Jews (%) Circassians (%) Laz (%) Georgians (%) Others (%)
1950-1960 Decrease -1.35 Increase 0.68 Increase 0.06 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.05 Decrease -0.01 Steady 0.00 Decrease -0.01 Steady 0.00 Decrease -0.01
1960-1970 Decrease -1.07 Increase 0.91 Increase 0.08 Decrease -0.02 Decrease -0.05 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Increase 0.03
1970-1980 Decrease -1.19 Increase 0.82 Increase 0.08 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.08 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Steady 0.00 Increase 0.27
1980-1990 Decrease -2.19 Increase 0.94 Increase 0.12 Decrease -0.02 Decrease -0.05 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Steady 0.00 Increase 2.23
1990-2000 Decrease -2.57 Increase 1.38 Increase 0.10 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.03 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Increase 1.17
2000-2010 Decrease -3.01 Increase 0.92 Increase 0.12 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.03 Decrease -0.01 Steady 0.00 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Increase 2.34
2010-2020 Decrease -3.06 Increase 0.93 Increase 0.11 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.02 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Decrease -0.01 Increase 1.79

References: 1) Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). "Population by Ethnic Groups, 1950-2020." Ankara: TurkStat, 2021. [1] 2) Government of Turkey - Ministry of Interior. "Reports on Ethnic Demographics." Ankara: Ministry of Interior. [2] 3) European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). "Data on Ethnic Minorities in Turkey." Vienna: FRA. [3] 4) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) - Turkey. "Reports on Social and Demographic Trends in Turkey." [4] 5) World Bank. "Turkey - Data and Statistics." [5] 6) International Organization for Migration (IOM) - Turkey. "Reports on Migration and Ethnic Diversity." [6]

Modern Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as secular (Laiklik, Turkish adaptation of French Laïcité), i.e. without a state religion, or separate ethnic divisions/ identities. The concept of "minorities" has only been accepted by the Republic of Turkey as defined by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) and thence strictly limited to Greeks, Jews and Armenians, only based on religious affiliation, excluding from the scope of the concept the ethnic identities of these minorities as of others such as the Kurds who make up 15% of the country; others include Assyrians/Syriacs of various Christian denominations, Alevis and all the others.[31][32][33][34] Provisions of the Lausanne Treaty were extended to Bulgarians in Turkey by the Turkey-Bulgaria Friendship Treaty (Türkiye ve Bulgaristan Arasındaki Dostluk Antlaşması) of 18 October 1925.[33][35][36][37] According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey), as of 2008, there were 89,000 Turkish citizens belonging to one of the three recognized minorities, two thirds of Armenian descent.[38] On 18 June 2013, the Ankara 13th Circuit Administrative Court unanimously ruled that the Assyrians were included as beneficiaries of the Lausanne Treaty,[39] so that Assyrians were allowed to open the first school teaching in their mother tongue.[40][41]

The word Turk or Turkish also has a wider meaning in a historical context because, at times, especially in the past, it has been used to refer to all Muslim inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire irrespective of their ethnicity.[42]

According to the 2016 edition of the CIA World Factbook, 70–75% of Turkey's population consists of ethnic Turks, with Kurds accounting for 19% and other minorities between 6 and 11%.[43] According to Milliyet, a 2008 report prepared for the National Security Council of Turkey by academics of three Turkish universities in eastern Anatolia suggested that there are approximately 55 million ethnic Turks, 9.6 million Kurds, 3 million Zazas, 2.5 million Circassians, 2 million Bosniaks, 500,000–1.3 million Albanians, 1,000,000 Georgians, 870,000 Arabs, 600,000 Pomaks, 80,000 Laz, 60,000 Armenians, 30,000 British, 25,000 Assyrians/Syriacs, 20,000 Jews, and 15,000 Greeks, 500 Yazidis living in Turkey.[44]

According to a survey published in 2022 by Konda Research, Turks make up 77% of the population, while 19% self-identify as Kurd. Arabs (Syrian refugees excluded) make up 2%, and other ethnic groups are 2% of the population.[45]

Since the immigration to the big cities in the west of Turkey, interethnic marriage has become more common. A recent study estimates that there are 2,708,000 marriages between Turks and Kurds.[46]

According to a survey done in March 2020 by Area Araştırma, 20.4% of the total population of Turkey claim to be Kurdish (either Kurmanji speaking or Zazaki speaking).

Ethnolinguistic estimates in 2014 by Ethnologue and Jacques Leclerc:[47][48][49]

People Population Percentage Language Status
Anatolian Turks 53,402,000 70.6% Turkish 1 (National)
Kurmanji Kurds 8,127,000 10.7% Kurmanji 3 (Wider communication)
Turcophones, Kurds 5,881,000 7.7% Turkish 1 (National)
Zaza 1,155,000 1.5% Zaza 5 (Developing)
Arabs 1,133,000 1.4% Levantine Arabic
Kabardians, Circassians 1,062,000 1.4 % Kabardian 5 (Developing)
Iraqi Arabs 722,000 0.9% Mesopotamian Arabic 6a (Vigorous)
Azerbaijani 540,000 0.7% Azerbaijani 5 (Developing)
Romani 500,000 (1985) 0.7% Romani, Domari
Gagauzes 418,000 0.5% Balkan Gagauz Turkish 7 (Shifting)
Pomaks 351,000 0.4% Bulgarian 5 (Dispersed)
Pontic Greeks 321,000 0.4% Pontic Greek 6a (Vigorous)
Adyghe, Circassians 316,000 0.4% Adyghe 5 (Developing)
Alevi Kurds 184,000 0.2% Zazaki
Georgians 151,000 0,1 % Georgian 6b (Threatened)
Bosniaks 101,000 0.1% Bosnian
Chechens 101,000 0.1% Chechen
Crimean Tatars 100,000 0.1% Crimean Tatar 5 (Developing)
Lazi 93,000 0.1% Laz language 6b (Threatened)
Karakalpaks 74,000 Karakalpak
Albanians 66,000 Tosk Albanian 6b (Threatened)
Armenians 61,000 Armenian 6b (Threatened)
Abkhazians 44,000 Abkhazian 6b (Threatened)
Han Chinese 38,000 Chinese
Ossetians 37,000 Ossetian
British 35,000 English
Bulgarians 32,000 Bulgarian
Jews 30,000 Turkish, Ladino 7 (Shifting)
Tatars 26,000 Tatar
Assyrians 25,000 Aramaic
22,000 Urdu
Assyrians 15,000 Turoyo 6b (Threatened)
Turks other (Hemshin, Meskhetian Turks, Gajal) 57,000 Turkish
Kurds other (Herki and Shikaki) 62,000 Kurdish
Other 180,000
Total 75,566,800

Languages

See also: Minorities in Turkey, Turkic peoples, and Iranian peoples

Main article: Languages of Turkey

No exact data is available concerning the different ethnic groups in Turkey. The last census data according to language date from 1965 and major changes may have occurred since then. However, it is clear that the Turkish are in the majority, while the largest minority groups are Kurds and Arabs. Smaller minorities are the Armenians, Greeks and others.

Population of Turkey according to language
Language Census 1935[50] Census 1945[51] Census 1965[51]
Number % Number % Number %
Turkish 13,828,000 86.02 16,598,037 88.3 28,175,579 90.2
Kurdish 1,480,246 9.16 1,476,562 7.9 2,108,721 6.9
Zazaki 147,707 0.5
Arabic 153,687 0.95 247,294 1.3 368,971 1.2
Greek 108,725 0.67 88,680 0.5 49,143 0.2
Circassian 91,972 0.57 66,691 0.4 57,337 0.2
Ladino 79,000 0.49 51,019 0.3 9,124 0.0
Armenian 57,599 0.36 47,728 0.3 32,484 0.1
Laz 63,253 0.39 39,323 0.3 27,715 0.1
Georgian 57,325 0.35 40,076 0.2 32,334 0.1
Abaza 10,099 0.06 8,602 0.0 10,643 0.0
Total 16,157,450 18,790,174 31,391,207

A possible list of ethnic groups living in Turkey could be as follows:[52]

  1. Turkic-speaking peoples: Turks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Karachays, Uzbeks, Crimean Tatars and Uyghurs
  2. Indo-European-speaking peoples: Kurds, Zazas,[53] Megleno-Romanians,[49] Bosniaks, Albanians, Pomaks, Ossetians, Armenians, Hamshenis, Goranis and Greeks
  3. Semitic-speaking peoples: Arabs, Jews and Assyrians/Syriacs
  4. Caucasian-speaking peoples: Circassians, Georgians, Lazs and Chechens

Religion

Further information: Religion in Turkey

See also: Freedom of religion in Turkey

Religious affiliation

Muslim and non-Muslim population in Turkey, 1914–2005 (in thousands)[54]
Year 1914 1927 1945 1965 1990 2005
Muslims 12,941 13,290 18,511 31,139 56,860 71,997
Greeks 1,549 110 104 76 8 3
Armenians 1,204 77 60 64 67 50
Jews 128 82 77 38 29 27
Others 176 71 38 74 50 45
Total 15,997 13,630 18,790 31,391 57,005 72,120
Percentage non-Muslim 19.1 2.5 1.5 0.8 0.3 0.2

The percentage of non-Muslims in Turkey fell from 19.1% in 1914 to 2.5% percent in 1927.[54] The drop was the result of the late Ottoman genocides, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey[55] and the emigration of Christians.[56] The 1942 Wealth Tax on non-Muslims, the emigration of many of Turkish Jews to Israel after 1948, and the 1955 Istanbul pogrom further contributed to the decline of Turkey's non-Muslim population.

There are no official statistics of people's religious beliefs nor is it asked in the census. According to the government, 99.8% of the Turkish population is Muslim, mostly Sunni, some 8 million are Alevis.[57] The remaining 0.2% is other - mostly Christians and Jews.[11] However, these are based on the existing religion information written on every citizen's national id card, that is automatically passed on from the parents to every newborn, and do not necessarily represent individual choice. Religious records can be changed or even blanked on the request of citizen, by filing an e-government application since May 2020, using a valid electronic signature to sign the electronic application. Any change in religion records additionally results in a new ID card being issued. Any change in religion record also leaves a permanent trail in the census record, however, record of change of religion is not accessible except for the citizen in question, next-of-kins of the citizen in question, the citizenship administration and courts.[58]

In a poll conducted by Sabancı University in 2006, 98.3% of Turks revealed they were Muslim.[59] A Eurobarometer Poll in 2005 reported that in a poll 98% of Turkish citizens answered that "they believe there is a God", while 1% responded that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".[60] In a Pew Research Center survey, 53% of Turkey's Muslims said that "religion is very important in their lives".[61] Based on the Gallup Poll 2006–08, Turkey was defined as More religious, in which over 63 percent of people believe religion is important.[62][63] According to the Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, 62% of women wear the headscarf or hijab in Turkey.[64][65][66]

A poll conducted by Eurobarometer and KONDA and some other research institutes in 2013 showed that around 0.5% of the population had no religion. Another poll conducted by the same institutions in 2018 showed that 3% of those interviewed had no religion.[67][68]

According to Ipsos survey,[69] in 2016 Islam was the major religion in Turkey comprising 82% of the total population, followed by religiously unaffiliated people, comprising 13% of the population, and Christians, forming 0.2%.

Religiosity

The vast majority of the present-day Turkish people are Muslim and the most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire; according to the KONDA Research and Consultancy survey carried out throughout Turkey on 2007:[70][57][71]

In 2018 KONDA released a new study:[72][73]

Among those aged between 15 and 29 years old:[74]

There is concern over the future of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate, which suffers from a lack of trained clergy due to the closure of the Halki school. The state does not recognise the Ecumenical status of the Patriarch of Constantinople.[75]

See also

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Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e All data taken from Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). Data is for xxxx-12-31.