Population pyramid of the Soviet Union in 1989

According to data from the 1989 Soviet census, the population of the USSR was made up of 70% East Slavs and 17% Turkic peoples, with no other single ethnic group making up more than 2%. Alongside the atheist majority of 60%, there were sizable minorities of Russian Orthodox Christians (approximately 20%) and Muslims (approximately 15%).[citation needed]

History

Revolution and Civil war, 1917–1923

Population pyramid of the Soviet Union in 1926

During the Russian Revolution and Civil War period, Russia lost territories of the former Russian Empire, whose populations totaled about 30 million people (Poland: 18 million; Finland: 3 million; Romania: 3 million; the Baltic states: 5 million, Kars: 400 thousand). At least 2 million citizens of the former Russian Empire died during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, and a further 1 to 2 million emigrated.[citation needed]

Interwar period, 1924 to 1939

Population pyramid of the Soviet Union in 1939

Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945

Population pyramid before and after the Second World War
1941
1946

During the Second World War on the Eastern Front, the Soviet Union lost an approximate at this time the population started to look more like a pyramid 26.6 million people.[citation needed]

Rejuvenation of the population, 1946–1960s

Population pyramid of the Soviet Union in 1950

After the Second World War, the population of the Soviet Union began to gradually recover to pre-war levels. By 1959 there were a registered 209,035,000 people, over the 1941 population count of 196,716,000. In 1958–59, Soviet fertility stood at around 2.8 children per woman.[1]

Population dynamics in the 1970–1980s

The crude birth rate in the Soviet Union throughout its history had been decreasing – from 44.0 per thousand in 1926 to 18.0 in 1974, mostly due to urbanization and rising average age of marriages. The total fertility rate fell from 2.4 in 1969–70 to 2.3 in 1978–79.[1] The crude death rate had been gradually decreasing as well – from 23.7 per thousand in 1926 to 8.7 in 1974.[2] While death rates did not differ greatly across regions of the Soviet Union through much of Soviet history, birth rates in the southern republics of Transcaucasia and Central Asia were much higher than those in the northern parts of the Soviet Union, and in some cases even increased in the post-World War II period. This was partly due to slower rates of urbanization and traditionally early marriages in southern republics.[2]

Mainly as a result of differential birthrates, with most of the European nationalities moving toward sub-replacement fertility and the Central Asian and other nationalities of southern republics having well-above replacement-level fertility, the percentage of the population who were ethnic Russians was gradually being reduced. According to some Western predictions made in the 1990s, if the Soviet Union had stayed together, it is likely that ethnic Russians would have lost their majority status in the 2000s (decade).[3] This differential could not be offset by assimilation of non-Russians by Russians, in part because the nationalities of southern republics maintained a distinct ethnic consciousness and were not easily assimilated.

The late 1960s and the 1970s witnessed a dramatic reversal of the path of declining mortality in the Soviet Union, and was especially notable among men in working ages, and also especially in Russia and other predominantly Slavic areas of the country.[4] While not unique to the Soviet Union (Hungary in particular showed a pattern that was similar to Russia), this male mortality increase, accompanied by a noticeable increase in infant mortality rates in the early 1970s, drew the attention of Western demographers and Sovietologists at the time.[5]

An analysis of the official data from the late 1980s showed that after worsening in the late 1970s and the early 1980s, the situation for adult mortality began to improve again.[6] Referring to data for the two decades ending in 1989–1990, while noting some abatement in adult mortality rates in the Soviet republics in the 1980s, Ward Kingkade and Eduardo Arriaga characterized this situation as follows: "All the former Soviet countries have followed the universal tendency for mortality to decline as infectious diseases are brought under control while death rates from degenerative diseases rise. What is exceptional in the former Soviet countries and some of their East European neighbors is that a subsequent increase in mortality from causes other than infectious disease has brought about overall rises in mortality from all causes combined. Another distinctive characteristic of the former Soviet case is the presence of unusually high levels of mortality from accidents and other external causes, which are typically associated with alcoholism."[7]

The rising infant mortality rates in the Soviet Union in the 1970s became the subject of much discussion and debate among Western demographers. The infant mortality rate (IMR) had increased from 24.7 in 1970 to 27.9 in 1974. Some researchers regarded the rise in infant mortality as largely real, a consequence of worsening health conditions and services.[8] Others regarded it as largely an artifact of improved reporting of infant deaths, and found the increases to be concentrated in the Central Asian republics where improvement in coverage and reporting of births and deaths might well have the greatest effect on increasing the published rates.[9]

The rising reported adult mortality and infant mortality was not explained or defended by Soviet officials at the time. Instead, they simply stopped publishing all mortality statistics for ten years. Soviet demographers and health specialists remained silent about the mortality increases until the late 1980s, when the publication of mortality data resumed and researchers could delve into the real and artificial aspects of the reported mortality increases. When these researchers began to report their findings, they accepted the increases in adult male mortality as real and focused their research on explaining its causes and finding solutions.[10] In contrast, investigations of the rise in reported infant mortality concluded that while the reported increases in the IMR were largely an artifact of improved reporting of infant deaths in the Central Asian republics, the actual levels in this region were much higher than had yet been reported officially.[11] In this sense, the reported rise in infant mortality in the Soviet Union as a whole was an artifact of improved statistical reporting, but reflected the reality of a much higher actual infant mortality level than had previously been recognized in official statistics.

As the detailed data series that was ultimately published in the late 1980s showed, the reported IMR for the Soviet Union as a whole increased from 24.7 in 1970 to a peak of 31.4 in 1976. After that the IMR gradually decreased and by 1989 it had fallen to 22.7, which was lower than had been reported in any previous year (though close to the figure of 22.9 in 1971).[12] In 1989, the IMR ranged from a low of 11.1 in the Latvian SSR to a high of 54.7 in the Turkmen SSR.[13]

Research conducted after the dissolution of the Soviet Union revealed that the originally reported mortality rates vary substantially underestimated the actual rates, especially for infant mortality. This has been shown for Transcaucasian and Central Asian republics.[14][15]

After two decades of declining and stagnating fertility rates, the Soviet TFR rose from 2.27 in 1978–79 to 2.51 in 1986–87. Most Muslim areas of the USSR continued to fall, while non-Muslim regions rose slightly.[1]

Population

See also: History of the Soviet Union

Demographics of Soviet Union, Data of Andreev, E.M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Russia lost former territories of the Russian Empire with about 30 million inhabitants after the Russian Revolution of 1917 (Poland: 18 million; Finland: 3 million; Romania: 3 million; the Baltic states: 5 million, Kars: 400 thousand). At least 2 million citizens of the former Russian Empire died in the course of the Russian Civil War of 1917–1923, and a further 1 to 2 million emigrated. An estimated 800,000 to 1,200,000 people died during the purges of the 1930s.[citation needed]

According to the Russian Academy of Sciences the Soviet Union suffered 26.6 million deaths (1941–1945) during World War II, including an increase in infant mortality of 1.3 million. Total war-loss figures include territories annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939–1945.[citation needed]

Although the population growth-rate decreased over time, it remained positive throughout the history of the Soviet Union in all republics, and the population grew each year by more than 2 million except during periods of wartime, and famine.

Date Population
1897 (Russian Empire): 1000000000
1911 (Russian Empire): 10000000
1920 (Russian SFSR): 1000000
1926 1900000000[16]
1937 10000000][16] Measured quantity is not of the same type as previous one, units are different or at least would have been different at the time before completion of project 'new soviet man'
1939 1000000000][16]
1941 196,716,000[16]
1946 170,548,000[16]
1951 182,321,000[16]
1959 209,035,000[16]
1970 241,720,000[17]
1977 257,800,000
1982 270,000,000
1985 277,800,000
1990 290,938,469
1991 293,047,571

Life expectancy and infant mortality

A newborn Soviet child in 1926–27 had a life expectancy of 44.4 years, up from 32.3 years in the Russian Empire thirty years before. By 1958–59, the life expectancy for newborns had reached 68.6 years.[18] Life expectancy in the Soviet Union remained fairly stable during most years, although in the 1970s it decreased slightly.

Demographic statistics

Demographic distribution of the population within the Soviet Union in 1974

The following demographic statistics are from the 1990 edition of the CIA World Factbook,[19] unless otherwise indicated.

Soviet Union and Former Soviet Union Population from 1950 to 2100.

Population

Population growth rate

Crude birth rate

Crude death rate

Net migration rate

Infant mortality rate

Life expectancy at birth

Total fertility rate

Nationality

Literacy

Labor force

Labor force: 152,300,000 civilians; 80% industry and other nonagricultural fields, 20% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor (1989)

Organized labor: 98% of workers were union members; all trade unions were organized within the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (AUCCTU) and conducted their work under the guidance of the Communist party. There was a market relationship between the people and the state as the employer; people were free to choose their job and leave if they wished, although members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union could be ordered to work in certain places, but seldom were.[21]

Abortion

Year Abortions in the USSR from 1954 – 1990[22] Soviet Union
All abortions Legal induced abortions ('complete') Spontaneous or criminal abortions ('incomplete') Legal abortion rate
Total figures By Ministry of Health By Ministry of Transport All methods

(Total legal)

Curettage Aspiration

('mini')

per 100 live birthes per 1,000 women aged 15 – 49
1954 1,985,302 1,895,964 89,339 399,046 399,046 1,586,257 7.84 6.84
1955 2,598,761 2,481,816 116,944 600,314 600,314 1,998,447 11.92 10.15
1956 4,724,547 4,511,942 212,605 3,316,632 3,316,632 1,407,915 65.10 55.40
1957 5,338,738 5,108,970 229,768 3,996,159 3,996,159 1,342,579 76.81 66.26
1958 6,128,871 5,892,260 236,611 4,844,567 4,844,567 1,284,304 92.24 80.62
1959 6,398,541 6,211,160 187,381 5,102,306 5,102,306 1,296,235 96.21 85.79
1960 7,038,395 6,504,677 533,718 5,642,210 5,642,210 1,396,185 107.17 96.06
1961 7,425,507 7,073,785 351,722 6,006,038 6,006,038 1,419,469 118.39 103.57
1962 7,774,506 7,344,506 430,000 6,414,217 6,414,217 1,360,289 132.08 110.19
1963 8,023,290 7,662,242 361,048 6,667,354 6,667,354 1,355,936 144.82 114.64
1964 8,408,408 8,030,030 378,378 7,021,021 7,021,021 1,387,387 161.30 120.23
1965 8,551,351 8,166,540 384,811 7,191,686 7,191,686 1,359,665 169.33 122.46
1966 8,337,567 7,962,377 375,191 7,020,232 7,020,232 1,317,336 168.52 118.15
1967 7,846,354 7,493,268 353,086 6,624,990 6,624,990 1,222,364 161.94 109.72
1968 7,654,441 7,301,396 344,045 6,471,055 6,471,055 1,174,386 158.32 105.25
1969 7,460,316 7,124,602 335,714 6,330,413 6,330,413 1,129,903 152.26 101.84
1970 7,531,270 7,192,363 338,907 6,406,594 6,406,594 1,124,676 148.99 101.44
1971 7,610,001 7,267,551 342,450 6,489,481 6,489,481 1,120,520 147.89 101.07
1972 7,497,264 7,159,887 337,377 6,408,802 6,408,802 1,088,462 144.45 98.27
1973 7,514,765 7,176,601 338,164 6,439,040 6,439,040 1,075,725 145.48 97.50
1974 7,449,129 7,113,918 335,211 6,397,731 6,397,731 1,051,398 139.71 95.89
1975 7,471,572 7,135,351 336,221 6,431,773 6,431,773 1,039,798 137.65 95.68
1976 7,636,191 7,292,562 343,629 6,588,364 6,588,364 1,047,827 140.09 97.22
1977 7,579,105 7,238,045 341,060 6,553,674 6,553,674 1,025,430 138.70 96.22
1978 7,497,397 7,160,014 337,383 6,497,226 6,497,226 1,000,171 136.12 94.98
1979 7,339,566 7,009,286 330,380 6,374,161 6,374,161 965,406 131.63 93.21
1980 7,333,073 7,003,085 329,988 6,382,028 6,382,028 951,045 130.49 93.18
1981 7,155,594 6,833,592 322,002 6,240,562 6,240,562 915,032 124.57 91.17
1982 7,250,355 6,924,089 326,266 6,336,188 6,336,188 914,167 120.29 92.13
1983 7,085,370 6,766,528 318,842 6,204,515 6,204,515 880,855 115.07 90.05
1984 7,115,825 6,795,613 320,212 6,243,572 6,243,572 872,253 115.70 89.98
1985 7,365,852 7,034,389 331,463 6,475,595 6,475,595 890,258 118.64 92.77
1986 7,116,000 6,790,141 325,859 6,267,984 6,267,984 848,016 110.62 89.47
1987 6,818,000 6,496,499 321,501 6,009,655 6,009,655 808,345 109.33 85.71
1988 7,229,000 6,965,221 263,779 6,469,096 5,271,096 1,198,000 759,904 124.16 92.42
1989 6,974,431 6,672,041 302,390 6,286,035 4,828,267 1,457,768 688,396 126.89 90.03
1990 6,459,000 6,226,821 232,179 5,836,823 4,150,448 1,686,375 622,177 123.57 84.77
1991 6,014,000
1992 5,442,900
Total number from time period 258,723,655(1954–1990) 258,476,032

(1954–92)

11,695,624

(1954–90)

216,987,139(1954–90) 212,644,996

(1954–1990)

4,342,143

(1988–90)

41,728,518

(1954–90)

Ethnic makeup of the Soviet Union visualised

Ethnic groups

Main category: Ethnic groups in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 100 distinct national ethnicities living within its borders.[23]

U.S.S.R. - Ethnic Composition by the Central Intelligence Agency 1949.

Ethnic Groups (1926–1989)

Ethnic Group Year
1926[24] 1939[25] 1959[26] 1970[27] 1979[28] 1989[29]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
East Slavs 113,725,023 77.3% 132,977,920 78% 159,279,997 76.2% 178,820,141 74% 189,207,191 72.2% 199,377,746 69.8%
Russians 77,791,124 52.9% 99,591,520 58.4% 114,113,579 54.6% 129,015,140 53.4% 137,397,089 52.4% 145,155,489 50.8%
Ukrainians 31,194,976 21.2% 28,111,007 16.5% 37,252,930 17.8% 40,753,246 16.9% 42,347,387 16.2% 44,186,006 15.5%
Belarusians 4,738,923 3.2% 5,275,393 3.1% 7,913,488 3.8% 9,051,755 3.7% 9,462,715 3.6% 10,036,251 3.5%
Baltic 337,832 0.2% 290,689 0.2% 4,714,249 2.3% 5,102,144 2.1% 5,309,793 2% 5,553,025 2%
Lithuanians 41,463 32,624 2,326,094 1.1% 2,664,944 1.1% 2,850,905 1.1% 3,067,390 1.1%
Latvians 141,703 0.1% 114,476 0.1% 1,399,539 0.7% 1,429,844 0.6% 1,439,037 0.5% 1,458,986 0.5%
Estonians 154,666 0.1% 143,589 0.1% 988,616 0.5% 1,007,356 0.4% 1,019,851 0.4% 1,026,649 0.4%
Central Asia 10,378,267 7.1% 10,872,278 6.3% 13,004,209 6.3% 19,607,300 8.1% 25,844,301 9.9% 34,306,926 12%
Uzbeks 3,904,622 2.7% 4,845,140 2.8% 6,015,416 2.9% 9,195,093 3.8% 12,455,978 4.8% 16,697,825 5.8%
Kazakhs 3,968,289 2.7% 3,100,949 1.8% 3,621,610 1.7% 5,298,818 2.2% 6,556,442 2.5% 8,135,818 2.8%
Kyrgyz 762,736 0.5% 884,615 0.5% 968,659 0.5% 1,452,222 0.6% 1,906,271 0.7% 2,528,946 0.9%
Tajiks 978,680 0.7% 1,229,170 0.7% 1,396,939 0.7% 2,135,883 0.9% 2,897,697 1.1% 4,215,372 1.5%
Turkmens 763,940 0.5% 812,404 0.5% 1,001,585 0.5% 1,525,284 0.6% 2,027,913 0.8% 2,728,965 1%
Caucasus 5,095,357 3.5% 6,678,174 3.9% 8,418,590 4% 11,184,388 4.6% 13,199,075 5.1% 15,374,680 5.4%
Azerbaijanis 1,706,605 1.2% 2,275,678 1.3% 2,939,728 1.4% 4,379,937 1.8% 5,477,330 2.1% 6,770,403 2.4%
Georgians 1,821,184 1.2% 2,249,636 1.3% 2,691,950 1.3% 3,245,300 1.3% 3,570,504 1.4% 3,981,045 1.4%
Armenians 1,567,568 1.1% 2,152,860 1.3% 2,786,912 1.3% 3,559,151 1.5% 4,151,241 1.6% 4,623,232 1.6%
Other prominent Ethnic groups 11,060,350 7.5% 13,329,325 7.8% 16,143,803 7.7% 17,791,480 7.4% 18,316,932 7% 18,989,883 6.6%
Moldovans 278,905 0.2% 260,418 0.2% 2,214,139 1.1% 2,697,994 1.1% 2,968,224 1.1% 3,352,352 1.2%
Jews 2,672,499 1.8% 3,028,538 1.8% 2,267,814 1.1% 2,099,833 0.9% 1,761,724 0.7% 1,378,344 0.5%
Germans 1,238,549 0.8% 1,427,232 0.8% 1,619,655 0.8% 1,846,317 0.8% 1,936,214 0.7% 2,038,603 0.7%
Tatars 2,916,536 2% 4,313,488 2.5% 4,917,991 2.4% 5,783,111 2.4% 6,185,196 2.4% 6,648,760 2.3%
Poles 782,334 0.5% 630,097 0.4% 1,380,282 0.7% 1,167,523 0.5% 1,150,991 0.4% 1,126,334 0.4%
Chuvash 1,117,419 0.8% 1,369,574 0.8% 1,469,766 0.7% 1,694,351 0.7% 1,751,366 0.7% 1,842,346 0.6%
Mordvinian 1,340,415 0.9% 1,456,330 0.9% 1,285,116 0.6% 1,262,670 0.5% 1,191,765 0.5% 1,153,987 0.4%
Bashkir 713,693 0.5% 843,648 0.5% 989,040 0.5% 1,239,681 0.5% 1,371,452 0.5% 1,449,157 0.5%
Others 6,431,086 4.4% 6,408,707 3.8% 7,216,092 3.5% 9,214,681 3.8% 10,207,362 3.9% 12,140,251 4.2%
Total: 147,027,915 100% 170,557,093 100% 208,826,650 100% 241,720,134 100% 262,084,654 100% 285,742,511 100%

Other ethnic groups included Abkhaz, Adyghes, Aleuts, Assyrians, Avars, Bulgarians, Buryats, Chechens, Chinese, Cossacks, Crimean Tatars, Evenks, Finns, Gagauz, Greeks, Hungarians, Ingushes, Inuit, Kalmyks, Karakalpaks, Karelians, Kets, Koreans, Lezgins, Maris, Mongols, Nenetses, Ossetians, Roma, Romanians, Tats, Tuvans, Udmurts, and Yakuts. Dozens of these other ethnic groups were the titular nations of different Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics or Autonomous Oblasts within the union-level republics (ex. Tatars in Tatar ASSR within the RSFSR, Abkhaz ASSR within Georgia) or had been previously (Volga German ASSR, Crimean ASSR).

History

Throughout its entire history, ethnic Russians made up a majority of Soviet citizens. According to the 1939 census, Russians reached a peak of 58.4% of the population.[25] Previously in 1926, Russians were 52.9% of the population. This could be due to the decrease of Ukrainians, which coincides with the Holodomor.

Since 1939, the percentage of ethnic Russians in the USSR began to decrease. By 1959, 54.6% of Soviet citizens were recorded as ethnic Russians. At first, this was due to the incorporation of new territories westward in Europe after World War II, such as the Polish Eastern Borderlands, the Baltic states, Carpathian Ruthenia, and Bessarabia. This resulted in an increase of non-Russian ethnic groups, especially those who were Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Moldovan, Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian. However, starting in the 1960s, the decline of the Russian majority was mainly driven by indigenous ethnic groups residing in the Caucasian and Central Asian Soviet republics. For example, the five main Central Asian groups, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tajiks, and Turkmens, together saw a 163.81% increase from 1959 to 1989. Azerbaijanis, the largest Muslim group in the Soviet Caucasus, grew from 2.9 million people to almost 6.8 million during the same time, which represents a 130.31% increase. Meanwhile, ethnic Russians increased by only 27.20%. When the 1989 census was released, ethnic Russians made up just 50.8% of the population and were projected to become a minority within the next decade.

The rise of non-Russians, especially Soviet Muslims from the Caucasus and Central Asia can be explained by analysing the different patterns of total fertility rates among ethnic groups. According to research professors Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, Soviet fertility was both high and low. The national rate stood at 2.8 children per woman in 1958–59 before falling to 2.4 in 1969–70 and 2.3 in 1978–79.[1] The total fertility for ethnic Russian women within the RSFSR declined from 2.4 to 1.8 in the late 1960s and 1970s. The same trend could be found in the Baltic and Western regions of the USSR, which each of the Soviet republics' titular nationality approaching sub-replacement fertility. Caucasian ethnic groups, such as Armenians and Georgians followed the same trend, but on average had more children than Soviet citizens living in Russia, the Baltic states, Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova. Overall, the mentioned ethnicities had an average total fertility rate between 1.8 and 2.3 by 1978–79.[1] In contrast, Soviet Muslim women had much higher fertility rates. In 1969–70, the average Muslim woman had 7 children, which represents an increase from 6.2 in 1958–59. Despite decreasing to 5.6 in 1978–79 and further falling in the 1980s, the birth rate amongst Soviet Muslims remained consistently higher than those who were non-Muslims.[1]

Religion

Main article: Religion in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union promoted state atheism from 1928 to 1941, in which religion was largely discouraged and heavily persecuted. The USSR remained a secular state from 1945 until its dissolution. However, according to various Soviet and Western sources, over one-third of the country's people professed religious beliefs: Russian Orthodox 20%, Muslim 15%, Protestant, Georgian Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic 7%, Jewish less than 1%, atheist 60% (1990 est.).[19] Some indigenous pagan belief systems existed in the Siberian and Russian Far Eastern lands in the local populations.

Language

Main article: Languages of the Soviet Union

Russian became the official language of the Soviet Union in 1990.[30] Until that time it was still necessary to have a language of common communication. The de facto result inevitably favored Russian, the native language of half of Soviet citizens.[31]

Overall Soviet citizens spoke more than 200 languages and dialects (at least 18 with more than 1 million speakers); Slavic group: 75%, other Indo-European: 8%, Altaic: 12%, Uralic: 3%, Caucasian: 2% (1990 est.)[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Aanderson, Barbara A. (July 1990). "Growth and Diversity of the Population of the Soviet Union". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 510: 155–177. doi:10.1177/0002716290510001012. hdl:2027.42/67141. JSTOR 1046801. S2CID 31041389. Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  2. ^ a b Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian) (3rd ed.). Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya. 1977. vol. 24 (part II), p. 15.
  3. ^ Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. (1990). "Growth and Diversity of the Population of the Soviet Union". The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 510: 155–177. doi:10.1177/0002716290510001012. hdl:2027.42/67141. ISSN 0002-7162. JSTOR 1046801. S2CID 31041389.
  4. ^ The first to call attention to the reversal of declining adult mortality in the Soviet Union (in contrast to trends in Western Europe) were J. Vallin and J. C. Chesnais, "Recent Developments of Mortality in Europe, English-Speaking Countries and the Soviet Union, 1960–1970," Population 29 (4–5): 861–898. For a probe into the age-specific and regional aspects of the trends, once new mortality tables were released in the late 1980s, see Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver. 1989. "The Changing Shape of Soviet Mortality, 1958–1985: An Evaluation of Old and New Evidence," Population Studies 43: 243–265. Also see Alain Blum and Roland Pressat. 1987. "Une nouvelle table de mortalité pour l'URSS (1984–1985)," Population, 42e Année, No. 6 (Nov.): 843–862.
  5. ^ For a summary of the mortality trends and the literature concerning them, see Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver. 1990. "Trends in Mortality of the Soviet Population," Soviet Economy 6, No. 3: 191–251.
  6. ^ Michael Ryan, "Life expectancy and mortality data from the Soviet Union," British Medical Journal, Vol. 296, No. 6635 (May 28, 1988): 1, 513–1515.
  7. ^ W. Ward Kingkade and Eduardo E. Arriaga, “Mortality in the New Independent States: Patterns and Impacts,” in José Luis Bobadilla, Christine A. Costello, and Faith Mitchell, Eds., Premature Death in the New Independent States (Washington, D.C., National Academy Press 1997), 156–183, citation at p. 157.
  8. ^ Most notably, see Christopher Davis and Murray Feshbach. 1980. "Rising Infant Mortality in the Soviet Union in the 1970s," U.S. Bureau of the Census, International Population Reports, Series P-95, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. The following article, which ostensibly reviewed the Davis and Feshbach report, brought widespread attention to the issue of health care in the Soviet Union: Nick Eberstadt, "The Health Crisis in the Soviet Union," New York Review of Books 28, No. 2 (February 19, 1981).
  9. ^ Most notably, see Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver. 1986. "Infant Mortality in the Soviet Union: Regional Differences and Measurement Issues," Population and Development Review 12, No. 4: 705–737, and Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "The Geodemography of Infant Mortality in the Soviet Union, 1950–1990," in G. J. Demko, Z. Zaionchkovskaya, S. Pontius, and G. Ioffe, Eds., Population Under Duress: The Geodemography of Post-Soviet Russia, Westview Press, pp. 73–103 (1999).
  10. ^ See, for example, Juris Krumins. 1990. "The Changing Mortality Patterns in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia: Experience of the Past Three Decades," Paper presented at the International Conference on Health, Morbidity and Mortality by Cause of Death in Europe. December 3–7. Vilnius; A. G. Vishnevskiy, V.M. Shkolnikov, and S.A. Vasin. 1990. "Epidemiological Transition in the Soviet Union as Mirrored by Regional Disparities," Paper presented at the International Conference on Health, Morbidity and Mortality by Cause of Death in Europe. December 3–7. Vilnius; and F. Meslé, V. Shkolnikov, and J. Vallin. 1991. "Mortality by Cause in the Soviet Union in 1970–1987: The Reconstruction of Time Series," Paper presented at the European Population Conference, October 21–25, Paris.
  11. ^ See, for example, A. A. Baranov, V. Y. Al‘bitskiy, and Y. M. Komarov. 1990. "Тенденции младенческой смертности в СССР в 70–80е годы [Trends in infant mortality in the Soviet Union in the 70's and 80's]," Советское здравоохранение, 3: 3–37; and Y. M. Andreyev and N. Y. Ksenofontova. 1991. "Оценка достоверности данных о младенческой смертности“ [Assessment of the reliability of data on infant mortality], Вестник статистики, 8: 21–28.
  12. ^ Comecon Secretariat, Статистический ежегодник стран-членов Совета экономической взаимопомощи, 1990 [Yearbook of the Member-Countries of Comecon] (Moscow: Finansy i statistika, 1990), and Goskomstat SSSR, Демографический ежегодник СССР 1990 [Demographic Yearbook of the Soviet Union] (Moscow: Finansy i statistika, 1990).
  13. ^ See Демографический ежегодник СССР 1990, at p. 382.
  14. ^ Géraldine Duthé, Irina Badurashvili, Karine Kuyumjyan, France Meslé, and Jacques Vallin, "Mortality in the Caucasus: An attempt to re-estimate recent mortality trends in Armenia and Georgia," Demographic Research, Vol. 22, art. 23, pp. 691–732 (2010).
  15. ^ Michel Guillot, So-jung Lim, Liudmila Torgasheva & Mikhail Denisenko, "Infant mortality in Kyrgyzstan before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union," Population Studies, Vol. 67, No. 3: 335–352 (2013).
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Andreev, E.M., et al., Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1
  17. ^ Statoids population figures of the Soviet Union Retrieved on 2009-04-10
  18. ^ The Seeming Paradox of Increasing Mortality in a Highly Industrialized Nation: the Example of the Soviet Union : 1985. author Dinkel, R. H.
  19. ^ a b c "The CIA World Factbook – 1990". 2005-06-01. Archived from the original on 1 June 2005. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  20. ^ Mironov, Boris (1991). "The Development of Literacy in Russia and the USSR from the Tenth to the Twentieth Centuries". History of Education Quarterly. 31 (2): 247. doi:10.2307/368437. JSTOR 368437. S2CID 144460404.
  21. ^ Hanson, Philip (2003). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Economy: An Economic History of the USSR 1945–1991. Pearson Education Limited. p. 12.
  22. ^ Avdeev, Alexandre; Blum, Alain; Troitskaya, Irina (1995). "The History of Abortion Statistics in Russia and the USSR from 1900 to 1991". Population: An English Selection. 7: 39–66. ISSN 1169-1018. JSTOR 2949057.
  23. ^ Sakwa, Richard (1998). Soviet Politics in Perspective. London: Routledge. pp. 242–250. ISBN 0-415-07153-4.
  24. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  25. ^ a b "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  26. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  27. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  28. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  29. ^ "Демоскоп Weekly – Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей".
  30. ^ "ЗАКОН СССР ОТ 24.04.1990 О ЯЗЫКАХ НАРОДОВ СССР" Archived 2016-05-08 at the Wayback Machine (The April 24, 1990 Soviet Union Law about the Languages of the Soviet Union) (in Russian)
  31. ^ Bernard Comrie, The Languages of the Soviet Union, page 31, the Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1981. ISBN 0-521-23230-9

General sources

  1. CIA World Factbook 1991 – most figures, unless attributed to another source.
  2. J. A. Newth: The 1970 Soviet Census, Soviet Studies vol. 24, issue 2 (October 1972) pp. 200–222. – Population figures from 1897 to 1970.
  3. The Russian State Archive of the Economy: Soviet Censuses of 1937 and 1939 – Population figures for 1937 and 1939. https://web.archive.org/web/20020927142010/http://www.library.yale.edu/slavic/census3739.html