Deyang
德阳市
Tehyang
Deyang skyline.jpg
Location of Deyang City jurisdiction in Sichuan
Location of Deyang City jurisdiction in Sichuan
Deyang is located in Sichuan
Deyang
Deyang
Location in China
Deyang is located in China
Deyang
Deyang
Deyang (China)
Coordinates (Deyang municipal government): 31°07′37″N 104°23′53″E / 31.127°N 104.398°E / 31.127; 104.398Coordinates: 31°07′37″N 104°23′53″E / 31.127°N 104.398°E / 31.127; 104.398
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceSichuan
Municipal seatJingyang District
Area
 • Total5,818 km2 (2,246 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total3,456,161
 • Density590/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
618000
Area code(s)0838
ISO 3166 codeCN-SC-06
Websitewww.deyang.gov.cn

Deyang (simplified Chinese: 德阳; traditional Chinese: 德陽; pinyin: Déyáng) is a prefecture-level city of Sichuan province, China. Deyang is a largely industrial city, with companies such as China National Erzhong Group and Dongfang Electric having major operations there. The city is rich in history, with the Sanxingdui archeological site in Guanghan uncovering a rich trove of bronze and gold masks. More recently, Deyang was greatly afflicted by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, which particularly impacted its county-level cities of Mianzhu and Shifang, in Deyang's northwest. Deyang spans an area of 5,911 km2 (2,282 sq mi).[2]

History

Bronze heads adorned with gold masks found at the Sanxingdui site
Bronze heads adorned with gold masks found at the Sanxingdui site

The ancient Shu civilization included present-day Deyang, which is home to the Sanxingdui relics.[2]

Deyang was first organized as a county during the Tang dynasty.[3]

Deyang became a prefecture-level city in 1983.[2][3]

On August 3, 1996, Deyang's Shizhong District (Chinese: 市中区) was split into Jingyang District and Luojiang County (now Luojiang District).[3]

2008 Earthquake

Buildings in Mianzhu destroyed by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake
Buildings in Mianzhu destroyed by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake

On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake occurred. An estimated 90,000 people were killed or still missing with an estimated 400,000 injured. Around 5 million were effected through property losses, many left homeless.[4][5] Schools in Mianzhu and Shifang collapsed.[6]

Deyang county has mostly recovered from the devastation of the 2008 earthquake with most people now compensated where required (injuries, etc.) and established in new houses. In some cases they are in new areas, as well as factories and work being re-established. For the new houses, in most cases, the owners are requested to meet 30% of the cost while the government covers the rest. While the government didn't meet its initial (and ambitious) one-year plan to rehouse all victims, it did manage to mostly be successful within two years. In the meantime, residents lived in government-provided mobile home type cities with weekly cash payments for all victims to purchase food and clothing.

Geography

Deyang is located in the northeastern portion of the Chengdu Plain, with the Longquan Mountains to the east lying in between the city and the larger Sichuan Basin.[7] Deyang's urban core, Jingyang, is located on the Mianyuan River [zh], which passes under seven bridges flowing north to south.[citation needed] The river has been widened, five of the bridges are part dams, and it has assumed the name of Jing Lake.[citation needed]

Deyang is located directly north of Chengdu, less than an hour's drive. Deyang's urban core is 24 kilometres (15 mi) away from Qingbaijiang railway station [zh], and 50 kilometres (31 mi) away from Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport.[2]

Climate

Deyang experiences a humid subtropical climate, with four distinct seasons.[7] The coldest month in Deyang is January, and the hottest month is July.[7] Most precipitation in Deyang occurs during the summer months.[7] The annual frost-free period in Deyang typically lasts between 270 and 290 days, and snowfall typically only occurs on a handful of days.[7] Deyang experiences its strongest winds from March to May, and its calmest winds typically happen between October and February.[7]

Climate data for Deyang (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
22.7
(72.9)
31.8
(89.2)
33.4
(92.1)
36.4
(97.5)
36.3
(97.3)
37.2
(99.0)
37.6
(99.7)
36.2
(97.2)
30.5
(86.9)
25.5
(77.9)
18.5
(65.3)
37.6
(99.7)
Average high °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
11.9
(53.4)
16.5
(61.7)
22.2
(72.0)
26.9
(80.4)
28.6
(83.5)
30.2
(86.4)
29.8
(85.6)
25.8
(78.4)
20.9
(69.6)
16.2
(61.2)
10.6
(51.1)
20.8
(69.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
8.0
(46.4)
11.9
(53.4)
17.1
(62.8)
21.7
(71.1)
24.3
(75.7)
25.9
(78.6)
25.3
(77.5)
21.8
(71.2)
17.2
(63.0)
12.3
(54.1)
7.0
(44.6)
16.5
(61.7)
Average low °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
5.1
(41.2)
8.5
(47.3)
13.2
(55.8)
17.7
(63.9)
21.0
(69.8)
22.6
(72.7)
22.0
(71.6)
19.1
(66.4)
14.8
(58.6)
9.6
(49.3)
7.0
(44.6)
13.6
(56.5)
Record low °C (°F) −4.6
(23.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
4.7
(40.5)
7.5
(45.5)
14.6
(58.3)
16.8
(62.2)
16.6
(61.9)
13.0
(55.4)
4.1
(39.4)
0.0
(32.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.2
(22.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 7.1
(0.28)
10.3
(0.41)
17.9
(0.70)
42.4
(1.67)
73.2
(2.88)
102.2
(4.02)
203.8
(8.02)
181.4
(7.14)
127.5
(5.02)
35.8
(1.41)
10.7
(0.42)
4.2
(0.17)
816.5
(32.14)
Average relative humidity (%) 81 79 76 75 71 77 82 83 83 82 81 82 79
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center[8]

Subdivisions

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Jingyang District 旌阳区 Jīngyáng Qū 735,070 648 1,134
Luojiang District 罗江区 Luójiāng Qū 212,186 448 473
Shifang City 什邡市 Shífāng Shì 412,758 863 478
Guanghan City 广汉市 Guǎnghàn Shì 591,115 551 1,072
Mianzhu City 绵竹市 Miánzhú Shì 477,868 1,245 383
Zhongjiang County 中江县 Zhōngjiāng Xiàn 1,186,762 2,063 575

Demographics

A track meet at a secondary school in Jingyang District
A track meet at a secondary school in Jingyang District

According to the 2020 Chinese census, Deyang has a population of 3,456,161.[1] During the first half of the 2010s, Deyang's population fell by about 100,000 people, although its population had slightly rebounded in the latter half of the 2010s.[9]: 3-3  In the 2000 Chinese Census, Deyang's population totaled 3,615,758, and in the 2000 Chinese Census, its population was 3,788,056.[3]

Throughout the 2010s, Deyang experienced increased urbanization, with its urbanization rate increasing from 41.32% in 2010 to 53.89% in 2019.[9]: 3-4  Deyang has a sex ratio of approximately 103 males per 100 females.[9]: 3-6 

Ethnic groups

99.24% of the city's population is ethnically Han Chinese, with the remaining 0.76% of the population belonging to 51 officially recognized ethnic minorities.[10] Major ethnic minorities in Deyang include the Hui, Tibetans, the Yi, and the Qiang.[10]

Hui people

The Hui people are the largest ethnic minority in Deyang.[10] The Hui people of Deyang live in a number of different areas, including along North Street (Chinese: 北街; pinyin: Běi Jiē) and the town of Xiaoquan [zh] in Jingyang District, the town of Luoshui [zh] in Shifang, and in portions of Guanghan.[10]

Economy

As of 2019, Deyang has a gross domestic product (GDP) of 233.591 billion RMB, of which, 23.460 billion RMB comes from the primary sector, 118.439 billion RMB comes from the secondary sector, and 91.692 billion RMB comes from the tertiary sector.[9]: 2-5  Compared to Sichuan as a whole, Deyang is more reliant on its secondary sector, which is responsible for 50.70% of Deyang's total GDP, while making up 37.25% of Sichuan's GDP.[9]: 2-5  In 2019, Deyang's annual GDP growth was 7.2%, slightly below Sichuan's growth rate of 7.5%.[9]: 2-6  GDP per capita growth in Deyang was 6.7% that same year, again slightly below the Sichuan total of 7.0%.[9]: 2-6 

As of 2019, Deyang's gross domestic product per capita totals 65,745 RMB, higher than the Sichuan average of 55,774 RMB.[9]: 2-5  However, the average annual wage in Deyang is 63,585 RMB per year, slightly below the Sichuan average of 69,267 RMB per year.[9]: 4-15  On average, workers in Deyang's urban areas earn 37,222 RMB of disposable income annually, well below the Sichuan average of 45,878 RMB per year.[9]: 9-7  Workers in Deyang's rural areas earn an average of 18,249 RMB in disposable income annually, below the Sichuan average of 24,357 RMB per year.[9]: 9-12  The highest paying industry in Deyang is healthcare and social service, which pays, on average, 101,293 RMB per year, slightly below the Sichuan average of 192,904 RMB per year.[9]: 4-15  The lowest paying industry in Deyang is the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industry, which pays, on average, 28,812 RMB per year, significantly below the Sichuan average of 51,754 RMB per year.[9]: 4-15  32.1% of Deyang's workforce is employed in the primary sector, 27.7% is employed in the secondary sector, and 40.2% is employed in the tertiary sector.[9]: 4-6  Of Deyang's 2.17 million workers, about 697,500 work in agriculture, forestry, and fishing.[9]: 4-7 

Industry

Deyang is an important part of Cheng (Chengdu) De (Deyang) Mian (Mianyang) Economic District of the Sichuan province, a base for heavy machinery production in China.[citation needed] Companies with operations in Deyang include China National Erzhong Group, Dongfang Electric, and Honghua Group Limited [zh].[2] Deyang produces large amounts of electrical equipment, including components for nuclear power plants, hydropower plants, steam turbines, and various casts.[2]

In addition, Deyang also has a sizable light industry, in particular, the food industry.[2] A number of brands, such as Jiannan Chunjiu (Chinese: 剑南春酒), Great Wall Cigar (Chinese: 长城雪茄), and Bingchuan Shidai Mineral Water (Chinese: 冰川时代矿泉水).[2] Other major manufacturers include Lan Jian Beer Factory & Shifang Tobacco Company.[citation needed] According to the Deyang city government, Great Wall Cigar's plant in Deyang is the largest cigar factory in all of Asia.[2]

Although Deyang's sizable industry, it is remarkably clean.[citation needed] Air quality is very high, due to breezes coming from the immediate east mountain ranges and large expanse of countryside.[citation needed]

Culture

The county-level city of Mianzhu has its own distinct style of New Year pictures, known as the Mianzhu New Year picture [zh].[2]

Transportation

Both the Chengdu Second Ring Expressway [zh] and the Chengdu Third Ring Expressway [zh] passes through Deyang.[2] Other major expressways in Deyang include the Chengwan Expressway [zh], the G42 Shanghai–Chengdu Expressway, and China National Highway 108.[2]

Numerous railways run through the city, including the Chengdu–Mianyang–Leshan intercity railway,[2] the Baoji–Chengdu railway,[7] and the Dazhou–Chengdu railway.[7]

Deyang also has an extensive bus service and taxis.[citation needed]

Tourism

The Deyang Confucian Temple [zh]
The Deyang Confucian Temple [zh]

Deyang is home to a number of major historical sites, including the Sanxingdui site, Baimaguan Pangtong Temple (Chinese: 白马关庞统祠), and the Deyang Confucian Temple [zh].[2] Other sites include the Huang Jiguang Memorial Hall (Chinese: 黄继光纪念馆), honoring Chinese soldier Huang Jiguang.[2] The Longmenshan National Park (Chinese: 龙门山国家地质公园) is also located in Deyang.[2]

Sister cities

Deyang is a sister city with Muncie, Indiana;

References

  1. ^ a b 四川省第七次全国人口普查公报(第二号) [Seventh National Census of Sichuan Province Report (Number Two)] (in Chinese). Sichuan Provincial Bureau of Statistics. 2021-05-26. Archived from the original on 2021-09-14. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p 德阳概况 [Deyang Overview] (in Chinese). Deyang Municipal People's Government. 2021-06-07. Archived from the original on 2021-09-14. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  3. ^ a b c d 德阳市历史沿革 [Deyang City Organizational History]. xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2015-05-13. Archived from the original on 2017-09-22. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  4. ^ "Casualties in Wenchuan Earthquake" (in Chinese). Sina.com. 2008-06-01. Retrieved 2008-06-01.
  5. ^ "Earthquake Information of Deyang as of June 7, 19:00 CST" (in Chinese). Official website of Deyang Government. 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2008-06-08.[dead link]
  6. ^ "Earthquake Site at a Town Called Shigu Recorded by Our Reporter, 2008.05.12--05.14 Archived 2016-01-10 at the Wayback Machine." Shifang.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h 自然地理 [Physical Geography] (in Chinese). Deyang Municipal People's Government. 2021-02-05. Archived from the original on 2021-09-14. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  8. ^ 中国地面气候标准值月值(1981-2010) (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Data Service Center. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 四川统计年鉴—2020 [Sichuan Statistical Yearbook - 2020] (in Chinese). Sichuan Provincial Bureau of Statistics. 2020. Archived from the original on 2021-09-14. Retrieved 2021-09-14.
  10. ^ a b c d 人口民族 [Population and Ethnicity] (in Chinese). Deyang Municipal People's Government. 2021-06-07. Archived from the original on 2021-09-14. Retrieved 2021-09-14.