Dhaydan bin Khalid bin Hizam bin Hithlain
DiedMay 1929
Allegiance
Emirate of Riyadh (1910–1921)
Sultanate of Nejd (1921–1926)
Ikhwan (1927–1929)
Service/branch Ikhwan
Years of service1914–1929
Battles/warsUnification of Saudi Arabia
RelationsFaisal Al Duwaish (nephew)

Dhaydan bin Hithlain (died May 1929) was one of the leaders of the Ajman tribe and Amir of the hijrah (settlement) of Al Sarrar.[1] His full name was Dhaydan bin Khalid bin Hizam bin Hithlain.[1] Alexei Vassiliev also calls him Zaidan.[2]

Biography

The mother of Faisal Al Duwaish, another tribe leader and one of the significant Ikhwan chiefs, was the sister of Dhaydan bin Hithlain.[1] When Abdulaziz, later King Abdulaziz, captured the base of the Al Ajman tribe, Al Ahsa, in 1913, the tribe resisted the Saudi forces due to the termination of their privileges granted to them by the Ottomans.[3] However, after the disputes with Abdulaziz were settled, Dhaydan joined the Ikhwan movement which was established by Abdulaziz.[3][4] Soon he appeared to be one of major Ikhwan leaders in addition to Faisal Al Duwaish, Sultan bin Bajad Al Otaibi and Muhsin Al Firm.[5][6] However, Dhaydan and Muhsin Al Firm were relatively minor Ikhwan figures in contrast to Faisal Al Duwaish and Sultan Al Otaibi.[5] In 1915 the forces of the Ajman tribe led by Dhaydan bin Hithlain did not manage to defeat Al Rashid troops in the battle of Jarrab.[2]

In 1926 the Ikhwan leaders made a pact to contribute one another against Abdulaziz if he would attack one of them.[7][8] They also shared the regions among themselves, and Dhaydan bin Hitlain assumed the responsibility of Al Ahsa region.[6] In a meeting led by Abdulaziz in October 1928 Dhaydan bin Hithlain and others were removed from their posts in the Ikhwan movement due to their challenge against Abdulaziz's rule.[9] In addition, they were declared by Abdulaziz as rebels on the same date.[10] On 30 March 1929 other Ikhwan leaders rebelled against Abdulaziz due to the latter's activities and fought against him in the battle of Sabilla.[11] Abdulaziz won the battle, and the Ikhwan leaders were arrested or perished.[4] Dhaydan bin Hithlain did not openly confront with Abdulaziz during and following the battle[1] and sent him a letter expressing his loyalty to him.[12] However, Dhaydan bin Hithlain covertly supported the Ikhwan forces in the battle, and his forces did not take part in the battle.[13]

After the battle Dhaydan bin Hithlain remained in Al Ahsa.[13] In May 1929 Dhaydan bin Hithlain was invited to the camp of Fahd bin Abdullah, son of Abdullah bin Jiluwi who was the governor of Al Ahsa province.[1][4] He and his five companions were murdered by Fahd who was in turn killed by the members of the Ajman tribe.[2][11] Dhaydan's son, Rakan, and Nayef bin Hithlain succeeded Dhaydan as the leaders of the Ajman tribe.[14][15]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Talal Sha'yfan Muslat Al Azma' (July 1999). The Role of the Ikhwan under 'Abdul Aziz Al Sa'ud 1916-1934 (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Durham. pp. 106, 195. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Alexei Vassiliev (1 March 2013). King Faisal: Personality, Faith and Times. Saqi. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-86356-761-2.
  3. ^ a b Khalid Abdullah Krairi (October 2016). John Philby and his political roles in the Arabian Peninsula, 1917-1953 (PDF) (PhD thesis). University of Birmingham. pp. 131, 250. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  4. ^ a b c Rayed Khalid Krymli (1993). The political economy of rentier states: A case study of Saudi Arabia in the oil era, 1950-1990 (PhD thesis). The George Washington University. pp. 125, 131. ProQuest 304080655. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  5. ^ a b John S. Habib (1970). The Ikhwan Movement of Najd: Its Rise, Development, and Decline (PhD thesis). University of Michigan. p. 135. ProQuest 288186259. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b Nabil Mouline (2014). The Clerics of Islam. Religious Authority and Political Power in Saudi Arabia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. pp. 102, 105. doi:10.12987/yale/9780300178906.001.0001. ISBN 9780300178906.
  7. ^ Christine Helms (26 July 2020). The Cohesion of Saudi Arabia: Evolution of Political Identity. Taylor & Francis. p. 307. ISBN 978-1-00-011293-1.
  8. ^ H.V.F. Winstone; Zahra Freeth (18 August 2017). Kuwait: Prospect and Reality. Taylor & Francis. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-351-66983-2.
  9. ^ "Ikhwān". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  10. ^ Harold Courtenay Armstrong (2001). Lord of Arabia: Ibn Saud: An Intimate Study of a King (PDF). Simon Publications. p. 228. ISBN 9781931541282. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2019.
  11. ^ a b Nadav Safran (6 August 2018). Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-5017-1855-7.
  12. ^ "Al Ajman History (Part Three)" (in Arabic). Al Ajman Website. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  13. ^ a b Hassan S. Abedin. Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Great Game in Arabia, 1896-1946 (PDF) (PhD thesis). King's College London. p. 193. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  14. ^ Joseph Kostiner (July 1985). "On Instruments and Their Designers: The Ikhwan of Najd and the Emergence of the Saudi State" (PDF). Middle Eastern Studies. 21 (3): 315. doi:10.1080/00263208508700631. JSTOR 4283073.
  15. ^ Mohammed Suleiman Al Haddad (1981). The Effect of Detribalization and Sedentarization on the Socio-Economic Structure of the Tribes of the Arabian Peninsula: Ajman Tribe as a Case Study (PhD thesis). University of Kansas. p. 168. ProQuest 303145966. Retrieved 16 June 2021.