Diclazepam
Diclazepam structure.svg
Diclazepam molecule ball.png
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral, sublingual
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability?
MetabolismHepatic
Elimination half-life~42 hours[1]
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
  • 7-Chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC16H12Cl2N2O
Molar mass319.19 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • CN1C2=C(C=C(C=C2)Cl)C(C3=C(Cl)C=CC=C3)=NCC1=O
  • InChI=1S/C16H12Cl2N2O/c1-20-14-7-6-10(17)8-12(14)16(19-9-15(20)21)11-4-2-3-5-13(11)18/h2-8H,9H2,1H3
  • Key:VPAYQWRBBOGGPY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Diclazepam (Ro5-3448), also known as chlorodiazepam and 2'-chloro-diazepam, is a benzodiazepine and functional analog of diazepam. It was first synthesized by Leo Sternbach and his team at Hoffman-La Roche in 1960.[2] It is not currently approved for use as a medication, but rather sold as an unscheduled substance.[3][4][5][6] Efficacy and safety have not been tested in humans.

In animal models, its effects are similar to diazepam, possessing long-acting anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, and amnestic properties.[citation needed]

Metabolism

Metabolism of this compound has been assessed,[1] revealing diclazepam has an approximate elimination half-life of 42 hours and undergoes N-demethylation to delorazepam, which can be detected in urine for 6 days following administration of the parent compound.[7] Other metabolites detected were lorazepam and lormetazepam which were detectable in urine for 19 and 11 days, respectively, indicating hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 enzymes occurring concurrently with N-demethylation.

Legal status

United Kingdom

In the UK, diclazepam has been classified as a Class C drug by the May 2017 amendment to The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 along with several other benzodiazepine drugs.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Moosmann B, Bisel P, Auwärter V (July–August 2014). "Characterization of the designer benzodiazepine diclazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics". Drug Testing and Analysis. 6 (7–8): 757–63. doi:10.1002/dta.1628. PMID 24604775.
  2. ^ US 3136815, "Amino substituted benzophenone oximes and derivatives thereof" 
  3. ^ Madeleine Pettersson Bergstrand; Anders Helander; Therese Hansson; Olof Beck (2016). "Detectability of designer benzodiazepines in CEDIA, EMIT II Plus, HEIA, and KIMS II immunochemical screening assays". Drug Testing and Analysis. 9 (4): 640–645. doi:10.1002/dta.2003. PMID 27366870.
  4. ^ Høiseth, Gudrun; Tuv, Silja Skogstad; Karinen, Ritva (2016). "Blood concentrations of new designer benzodiazepines in forensic cases". Forensic Science International. 268: 35–38. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.09.006. PMID 27685473.
  5. ^ Manchester, Kieran R.; Maskell, Peter D.; Waters, Laura (2018). "Experimental versus theoretical log D7.4, pKa and plasma protein binding values for benzodiazepines appearing as new psychoactive substances". Drug Testing and Analysis. 10 (8): 1258–1269. doi:10.1002/dta.2387. ISSN 1942-7611. PMID 29582576.
  6. ^ Manchester, Kieran R.; Waters, Laura; Haider, Shozeb; Maskell, Peter D. (2022). "The blood-to-plasma ratio and predicted GABAA-binding affinity of designer benzodiazepines". Forensic Toxicology. doi:10.1007/s11419-022-00616-y. ISSN 1860-8973.
  7. ^ Bareggi SR, Truci G, Leva S, Zecca L, Pirola R, Smirne S (1988). "Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of intravenous and oral chlordesmethyldiazepam in humans". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 34 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1007/bf01061430. PMID 2896126. S2CID 1574555.
  8. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2017".