Diethanolamine
Skeletal formula of diethanolamine
Skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model of the diethanolamine molecule
Ball and stick diagram
Spacefill model
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
2,2′-Azanediyldi(ethan-1-ol)
Other names
  • Bis(hydroxyethyl)amine
  • N,N-Bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
  • 2,2'-Dihydroxydiethylamine
  • β,β'-Dihydroxydiethylamine
  • Diolamine
  • 2-[(2-Hydroxyethyl)amino]ethanol
  • 2,2'-Iminobisethanol
  • Iminodiethanol
  • Di(2-hydroxyethyl)amine
  • bis(2-Hydroxyethyl)amine
  • 2,2'-Iminodiethanol
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet
605315
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.517 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 203-868-0
KEGG
MeSH diethanolamine
RTECS number
  • KL2975000
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C4H11NO2/c6-3-1-5-2-4-7/h5-7H,1-4H2 checkY
    Key: ZBCBWPMODOFKDW-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • OCCNCCO
Properties
C4H11NO2
Molar mass 105.137 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless crystals
Odor Ammonia odor
Density 1.097 g·mL−1
Melting point 28.00 °C; 82.40 °F; 301.15 K
Boiling point 271.1 °C; 519.9 °F; 544.2 K
Miscible
log P -1.761
Vapor pressure <1 Pa (at 20 °C)
UV-vismax) 260 nm
1.477
Thermochemistry
137 J·K−1·mol−1
−496.4 – −491.2 kJ·mol−1
−26.548 – −26.498 MJ·kmol−1
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS05: Corrosive GHS07: Exclamation mark GHS08: Health hazard
Danger
H302, H315, H318, H373
P280, P305+P351+P338
Flash point 138 °C (280 °F; 411 K)
365 °C (689 °F; 638 K)
Explosive limits 1.6–9.8%[1]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
  • 120 mg·kg−1 (intraperitoneal, rat)
  • 710 mg·kg−1 (oral, rat)
  • 778 mg·kg−1 (intravaneous, rat)
  • 12.2 g·kg−1 (dermal, rabbit)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
None[1]
REL (Recommended)
TWA: 3 ppm (15 mg/m3)[1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.[1]
Safety data sheet (SDS) sciencelab.com
Related compounds
Related alkanols
Related compounds
Diethylhydroxylamine
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Diethanolamine, often abbreviated as DEA or DEOA, is an organic compound with the formula HN(CH2CH2OH)2. Pure diethanolamine is a white solid at room temperature, but its tendencies to absorb water and to supercool[2] often results in it being found in a colorless, viscous liquid state. Diethanolamine is polyfunctional, being a secondary amine and a diol. Like other organic amines, diethanolamine acts as a weak base. Reflecting the hydrophilic character of the secondary amine and hydroxyl groups, DEA is soluble in water. Amides prepared from DEA are often also hydrophilic. In 2013, the chemical was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2B).

Production

The reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous ammonia first produces ethanolamine:

C2H4O + NH3 → H2NCH2CH2OH

which reacts with a second and third equivalent of ethylene oxide to give DEA and triethanolamine:

C2H4O + H2NCH2CH2OH → HN(CH2CH2OH)2
C2H4O + HN(CH2CH2OH)2 → N(CH2CH2OH)3

About 300M kg are produced annually in this way.[3] The ratio of the products can be controlled by changing the stoichiometry of the reactants.[4]

Uses

DEA is used as a surfactant and a corrosion inhibitor. It is used to remove hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from natural gas.

Diethanolamine is widely used in the preparation of diethanolamides and diethanolamine salts of long-chain fatty acids that are formulated into soaps and surfactants used in liquid laundry and dishwashing detergents, cosmetics, shampoos and hair conditioners.[5] In oil refineries, a DEA in water solution is commonly used to remove hydrogen sulfide from sour gas. It has an advantage over a similar amine, ethanolamine, in that a higher concentration may be used for the same corrosion potential. This allows refiners to scrub hydrogen sulfide at a lower circulating amine rate with less overall energy usage.

DEA is a chemical feedstock used in the production of morpholine.[3][4]

Amides derived from DEA and fatty acids, known as diethanolamides, are amphiphilic.

The reaction of 2-chloro-4,5-diphenyloxazole with DEA gave rise to ditazole. The reaction of DEA and isobutyraldehyde with water removed produces an oxazolidine.[6][7]

Commonly used ingredients that may contain DEA

DEA is used in the production of diethanolamides, which are common ingredients in cosmetics and shampoos added to confer a creamy texture and foaming action. Consequently, some cosmetics that include diethanolamides as ingredients contain DEA.[8] Some of the most commonly used diethanolamides include:

  • Cocamide DEA
  • DEA-Cetyl Phosphate
  • DEA Oleth-3 Phosphate
  • Lauramide DEA
  • Myristamide DEA
  • Oleamide DEA

Safety and environment

DEA is a potential skin irritant in workers sensitized by exposure to water-based metalworking fluids.[9]

DEA has potential toxicity properties for aquatic species.[10]

References

  1. ^ a b c d NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0208". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. ^ "Akzo-Nobel data sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-09-20. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
  3. ^ a b Matthias Frauenkron, Johann-Peter Melder, Günther Ruider, Roland Rossbacher, Hartmut Höke “Ethanolamines and Propanolamines” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002 by Wiley-VCH, Weinheim doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_001
  4. ^ a b Klaus Weissermel; Hans-Jürgen Arpe; Charlet R. Lindley; Stephen Hawkins (2003). "Chap. 7. Oxidation Products of Ethylene". Industrial Organic Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. pp. 159–161. ISBN 978-3-527-30578-0.
  5. ^ Diethanolamine. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2013.
  6. ^ Howarth G.A "Synthesis of a legislation compliant corrosion protection coating system based on urethane, oxazolidine and waterborne epoxy technology" Master of Science Thesis April 1997 Imperial College London
  7. ^ Howarth, GA (2003). "Polyurethanes, polyurethane dispersions and polyureas: Past, present and future". Surface Coatings International Part B: Coatings Transactions. 86 (2): 111–118. doi:10.1007/BF02699621.
  8. ^ "Lauramide DEA | Cosmetics Info".
  9. ^ Lessmann H, Uter W, Schnuch A, Geier J (2009). "Skin sensitizing properties of the ethanolamines mono-, di-, and triethanolamine. Data analysis of a multicentre surveillance network (IVDK*) and review of the literature". Contact Dermatitis. 60 (5): 243–255. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.2009.01506.x. PMID 19397616.
  10. ^ Libralato G, Volpi Ghirardini A, Avezzù F (2009). "Seawater ecotoxicity of monoethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine". J Hazard Mater. 176 (1–3): 535–9. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.11.062. PMID 20022426.