Local authority areas in England typically have an executive leader and a cabinet selected from the local council, similar to how the national prime minister and cabinet are selected from Parliament. In contrast, residents of some areas, or groups of areas known as combined authorities or combined county authorities, directly elect the executive mayors of their local government.

The first such political post was the mayor of London, created as the executive of the Greater London Authority in 2000 as part of a reform of the local government of Greater London. Since the Local Government Act 2000, all of the several hundred principal local councils in England and Wales have been required to review their executive arrangements. Mayors who are directly elected to cover combined authorities or combined county authorities are informally known as metro mayors, as they typically cover metropolitan areas. Examples of metro mayors include the mayor of Greater Manchester and the mayor of the West Midlands.

Legislation on directly elected mayors applies both to England and Wales, but there are currently no directly elected mayors in Wales. As of May 2023, 14 council areas in England use the "mayor and cabinet" system. Most authorities with elected mayors already had a ceremonial mayor, and the latter role continues to exist.

All directly elected mayors currently have a seat on the Council of Nations and Regions, where they sit alongside the UK Prime Minister and First Ministers of devolved governments.

History

Background

The system of elected mayors had been considered by the Major ministry, and the former Environment Secretary Michael Heseltine had been a proponent of it.[1] The 1997 Labour manifesto included a commitment to reform local government in London by introducing an elected mayor.[2]

Mayor of London

Main article: Mayor of London

The first directly elected mayor was introduced in Greater London in 2000 as part of the statutory provisions of the Greater London Authority Act 1999. The position of the elected Mayor of London is a strategic regional one, and quite different from that of local authority mayors. The work of the Mayor of London is scrutinised by the London Assembly, a unique arrangement in the English local government system. The Mayor of London cannot be removed from office by a referendum following a petition, as is the case for directly elected mayors elsewhere in England.

The role should not be confused with the ancient position of Lord Mayor of London, elected annually by liverymen of the City of London.

Local Government Act 2000

Main articles: Local Government Act 2000 and Executive arrangements

Elsewhere in England and Wales, since the Local Government Act 2000, there have been a range of options for how a local council executive leadership can be constituted, and installing a directly elected mayor is one of these options. The 2000 act ended the previous committee-based system, where functions were exercised by committees of the council (although this was reinstated in 2012). All of several hundred principal councils were required to review their executive arrangements under the 2000 legislation. Local authorities considering the option of an elected mayor were required to put the question to a local referendum. It is also possible for campaign groups to trigger a local referendum with a signed petition. A number of areas with elected mayors also have civic mayors or Lord mayors and these ceremonial roles conferred on acting councillors are separate from elected mayors.

From 2000 until 2022 all directly elected mayors in England were elected using the Supplementary Vote electoral system.[3] Following the passing of the Elections Act 2022, the 2024 election was, and future mayoral elections will be, run using first past the post.

Adoption

Main article: England and Wales mayoral referendums

Eleven mayors were established during 2002, in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts, unitary authorities and London boroughs. Three further mayoralties were created under this legislation: in 2005 (Torbay; abolished 2019),[4] 2010 (Tower Hamlets),[5] and 2015 (Copeland).[6]

Some of the first mayoral elections were won by independents, notably in Hartlepool, where the election was won by Stuart Drummond, who played Hartlepool United's mascot; and in Middlesbrough, where it was won by former police officer Ray Mallon, who left the local police force to stand for election.

Although Wales is included in the legislation, only one Welsh authority, Ceredigion, held a referendum on such a proposal, in May 2004. Over 70% of the voters voted against the proposal.[7]

Legislative changes

Main article: Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007

In October 2006, the DCLG white paper Strong and Prosperous Communities proposed that in future the requirement for a referendum to approve the establishment of an elected mayor for a council area be dropped in favour of a simple resolution of the council following community consultation. It also proposed the direct election of council cabinets where requested, and that the 'mayor and council manager' system in Stoke-on-Trent be reformed into a conventional 'mayor and cabinet' system, it having been the only English council to adopt that system.[8] The 'mayor and council manager' option was later revoked by the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007 and a referendum was no longer required if two thirds of a council voted in favour of the change in executive model.[9] The elected cabinet option was not taken forward. The 2007 legislation required all local authorities to review their executive arrangements again and consider the case for an elected mayor.

Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009

The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 introduced the combined authority structure. Other subsequent Acts (see below) inserted sections into LDEDCA which created new posts of mayor for combined authorities.

City council mayors

Main article: 2012 English mayoral referendums

In February 2006, the Institute for Public Policy Research published a report calling for elected mayors in Birmingham and Manchester, which was positively received by the government, but not by the two city councils concerned. Later Prime Minister David Cameron expressed support for the system, saying directly elected mayors are "accountable" and can "galvanise action".[10] On 2 May 2012, think tank the Bow Group published a short article supporting directly elected mayors in large English cities.[11]

The Localism Act 2011 permitted central government to trigger referendums for elected mayors,[12] and this was intended to happen in the largest cities during 2012. Ahead of this, Leicester City Council in 2011 and Liverpool City Council in 2012 exercised their option to have a directly elected mayor without a referendum.[13] In September 2011 citizens of Salford collected the required number of signatures to force a referendum, which was successful. The first mayoral election took place in May 2012.[14]

Using the powers in the Localism Act 2011, on 3 May 2012, referendums were held in 10 English cities to decide whether or not to switch to a system that includes a directly elected mayor.[15] Only one, Bristol, voted for a mayoral system. Doncaster voted to retain its elected mayoral system in a referendum held on the same day.

Combined authority and combined county authority mayors

A map of Combined Authority mayors' political affiliations in UK, May 2024

In 2014 it was announced that a Mayor of Greater Manchester would be created as leader of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, subject to new primary legislation. In 2017 elections were held for Greater Manchester, the Liverpool City Region, the Tees Valley, West of England and the West Midlands as part of the devolution deals allowed by the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016. The Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016 inserted sections into the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 for the election of mayors of combined authorities.

The delayed election for the Sheffield City Region followed in May 2018. The North of Tyne Authority and the North East Combined Authority are set to be merged into the new North East Mayoral Combined Authority, which its first election is set to take place in May 2024.[16]

Levelling-up and Regeneration Act 2023

The Levelling-up and Regeneration Act 2023 introduced new types of measures in the local government system in England. Relevantly, the LURA introduced the new combined county authority structure, which is similar to existing combined authorities, created new powers to be devolved to combined authorities, and allowed mayors to take a different title, for example "Governor", "elected leader" or "county commissioner". There are several "devolution deals" that are set to be enshrined in statute following the LURA receiving royal assent.

County leaders

Devolution deals have been agreed in principle with Norfolk and Suffolk which involve directly-elected leaders of each county's council.[17] Norfolk County Council voted to accept the deal, and pending a resolution, voters will elect a leader in May 2025.[18] As of May 2024, Suffolk County Council is seeking consultation.[19]

Removing the post of mayor

Executive arrangement reviews, petitions and local referendums in the Local Government Act 2000 can also be used to remove the post of mayor and revert to the typical "leader and cabinet" executive arrangement. Such methods could not initially be used to remove the post of mayor if it was established following a Government-mandated referendum. However, a House of Lords amendment to the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016 amended the Local Government Act 2000 to establish the right of a future referendum to abolish any local authority elected mayor established following a Government-mandated referendum.[20]

Councillors have complained about the perceived excessive power of directly elected mayors.[21][22] There have been campaigns in four of the local authorities with directly elected mayors to hold referendums to abolish the posts.[23] In Lewisham, the Bring Back Democracy campaign called for a new referendum, citing poor turnout and a very close result in the 2001 referendum.[24] In April 2007, Lewisham Council voted 28–24 against a motion calling for consultation over the issue.[25]

In Doncaster, in March 2007, "Fair Deal" campaigners presented an 11,000-signature petition to the council calling for a new referendum. The council voted 31–27 in favour of a new referendum, which was held in May 2012.[26] The electorate voted in favour of retaining the mayoralty. The Middlesbrough electorate also voted to retain the mayoral system.[27]

Three councils have reverted to leader and cabinet executives. The electorate of Stoke-on-Trent voted to remove the post of elected mayor on 23 October 2008, to be replaced with a system of council leader and cabinet.[28] In November 2012 Hartlepool also voted to scrap the position of directly elected mayor in a referendum.[29] Liverpool City Council chose to abolish the post of elected mayor and revert to a leader and cabinet model from May 2023 following a 2022 consultation on its future governance.

Referendums were held in North Tyneside and Torbay in May 2016 to determine the future of their mayoralties.[30] While North Tyneside voted to retain the system, Torbay voted in favour of returning to a leader and cabinet style of governance. Further referendums were held in May 2021 in Newham and Tower Hamlets, which both voted to retain the mayoral system.

Bristol voted to remove the post of elected mayor in a referendum on 5 May 2022, to be replaced with a committee system.[31]

Simon Jenkins wrote in The Guardian calling metro mayors a "farce of local democracy".[32]

Scotland and Northern Ireland

The Local Government Act 2000 does not apply in Scotland and the Scottish Parliament has chosen to reform local government instead by introducing the Single Transferable Vote electoral system. The Scottish Conservatives support elected mayors where there is found to be "local demand in our major towns and cities".[33] A mayor in Scotland is traditionally known as a provost.

There are no directly elected mayors in Northern Ireland. Offices of mayors in Northern Ireland are only a ceremonial position.

Powers

The powers of the mayor are commensurate with the kind of local authority for which they are the executive. London borough councils, metropolitan district councils and unitary authority councils have broadly similar functions, but for non-metropolitan district councils it is a subset, for example not having power over education, libraries and waste management. The Mayor of London has completely different powers to the "mayor and cabinet" leaders.

A local-authority elected mayor has powers similar to those of the executive committee in a Leader and Cabinet model local authority. These are described as either "exclusive" powers or "co-decision" powers and are defined in the Local Government (Functions and Responsibilities) (England) Regulations 2000.[34]

Co-decision powers are those the mayor shares with the council, notably the power to make the local authority's annual budget and its policy framework documents. These are: Annual Library Plan; Best Value Performance Plan; Children's Services Plan; Community Care Plan; Community Strategy; Crime and Disorder Reduction Strategy; Early Years Development Plan; Education Development Plan; Local Development Framework; and the Youth Justice Plan. To amend or reject a mayor's proposals for any of these documents, the council must resolve to do so by a two-thirds majority. This is again based on secondary legislation, in this case the Local Government (Standing Orders) (England) Regulations 2001.[35]

Exclusive powers are less easy to define, because they consist of all the powers that are granted to a local authority by Act of Parliament except those defined either as co-decision powers or as "not to be the responsibility of an authority's executive". This latter is a limited list, including quasi-judicial decisions on planning and licensing, and certain ceremonial, employment and legal decisions.

An elected mayor (in a mayor and cabinet system) also has the power to appoint up to nine councillors as members of a cabinet and to delegate powers, either to them as individuals, or to the Mayor and Cabinet committee, or to subcommittees of the Mayor and Cabinet committee. In practice, the mayor remains personally accountable, so most mayors have chosen to delegate to a very limited extent—if at all.

Local authorities in Britain remain administered by a permanent staff of chief officers led by a chief executive or chief operating officer[36] who are politically neutral bureaucrats. Their powers remain unaffected by the introduction of elected mayor. Senior officers continue to be appointed by a politically representative committee of councillors, and the mayor may not attempt to influence the decision as to who is appointed (except within the committee as a member of the committee). To maintain the staff's professional and political independence, the mayor (or any other member of the council) may not personally direct any member of staff. Accordingly, an elected mayor cannot really be accurately characterised as an executive mayor, as in parts of the US and certain other countries, but more as a semi-executive mayor.

Consultations took place in 12 English cities due to have referendums over the introduction of elected mayors, over what powers those mayors should have, and how they should be scrutinised.[37]

Referendum results

Main article: England and Wales mayoral referendums

As of October 2021, there have been 54 referendums on the question of changing executive arrangements to a model with an elected mayor. Referendums are triggered by council resolution, local petition or central government intervention. Of these, 17 have resulted in the establishment of a new mayoralty and 37 have been rejected by voters. Average "yes" vote is 45%. Typical turnout is around 30%, but has been as low as 10% and as high as 64%. The turnout is higher when the referendum coincides with another vote, such as an election.

There have been nine referendums on the question of removing the post of elected mayor. Four mayoral posts have been disestablished following a vote and five retained.

Two local authority mayors, those for Leicester and Liverpool, were created by city council resolution without holding a referendum.

List of directly elected mayors

As of May 2024, there are 25 directly elected mayors in England.

Mayoralties covering more than one local authority

Authority Post Type Current mayor Party First election Next election Population (2020)[38]
Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Combined Authority Mayor of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Combined authority Nik Johnson Labour Co-op 2017 2025 859,800
East Midlands Combined County Authority Mayor of the East Midlands Combined county authority Claire Ward Labour 2024 (inaugural election) 2028 1,363,000
Greater London Authority Mayor of London Greater London Authority Sadiq Khan Labour 2000 2028 8,547,000
Greater Manchester Combined Authority Mayor of Greater Manchester Combined authority Andy Burnham Labour Co-op 2017 2028 2,848,300
Liverpool City Region Combined Authority Metro Mayor of the Liverpool City Region Combined authority Steve Rotheram Labour 2017 2028 1,564,000
North East Mayoral Combined Authority Mayor of the North East Combined authority Kim McGuinness Labour 2024 (inaugural election) 2028 2,567,000
South Yorkshire Mayoral Combined Authority Mayor of South Yorkshire Combined authority Oliver Coppard Labour Co-op 2018 2028 1,415,100
Tees Valley Combined Authority Mayor of the Tees Valley Combined authority Ben Houchen Conservative 2017 2028 677,200
West Midlands Combined Authority Mayor of the West Midlands Combined authority Richard Parker Labour Co-op 2017 2028 2,939,900
West of England Combined Authority Mayor of the West of England Combined authority Dan Norris Labour 2017 2025 950,000
West Yorkshire Combined Authority Mayor of West Yorkshire Combined authority Tracy Brabin Labour Co-op 2021 2028 2,345,200
York and North Yorkshire Combined Authority Mayor of York and North Yorkshire Combined authority David Skaith Labour 2024 (inaugural election) 2028 820,500


Ben HouchenNik JohnsonJames PalmerJamie DriscollKim McGuinnessDan NorrisTim BowlesSteve RotheramOliver CoppardDan JarvisTracy BrabinAndy BurnhamTony LloydRichard Parker (mayor)Andy StreetSadiq KhanBoris JohnsonKen Livingstone

Mayoralties covering a single local authority

Local authority Post Type Current mayor Party Established Next election Population
Bedford Borough Council Mayor of Bedford Unitary authority Tom Wootton Conservative 2002 2027 155,700
Croydon London Borough Council Mayor of Croydon London borough Jason Perry Conservative 2022 2026 386,710
Doncaster Metropolitan Borough Council Mayor of Doncaster Metropolitan borough Ros Jones Labour 2002 2025 291,600
Hackney London Borough Council Mayor of Hackney London borough Caroline Woodley Labour 2002 2026 212,200
Leicester City Council Mayor of Leicester Unitary authority Peter Soulsby Labour 2011 2027 294,700
Lewisham London Borough Council Mayor of Lewisham London borough Brenda Dacres Labour Co-op 2002 2026 261,600
Mansfield District Council Mayor of Mansfield Non-metropolitan district Andy Abrahams Labour 2002 2027 100,600
Middlesbrough Borough Council Mayor of Middlesbrough Unitary authority Chris Cooke Labour Co-op 2002 2027 139,000
Newham London Borough Council Mayor of Newham London borough Rokhsana Fiaz Labour Co-op 2002 2026 249,500
North Tyneside Council Mayor of North Tyneside Metropolitan borough Norma Redfearn Labour 2002 2025 196,000
Salford City Council Mayor of Salford Metropolitan borough Paul Dennett Labour 2012 2028 229,000
Tower Hamlets London Borough Council Mayor of Tower Hamlets London borough Lutfur Rahman Aspire 2010 2026 220,500
Watford Borough Council Mayor of Watford Non-metropolitan district Peter Taylor Liberal Democrats 2002 2026 80,000

Proposed mayoralties and leaderships

Authority Post Type First election
Greater Lincolnshire Mayoral Combined County Authority Mayor of Greater Lincolnshire Mayoral County Combined Authority in Lincolnshire, North Lincolnshire, and North East Lincolnshire[39] 2025 (inaugural election)
Hull and East Yorkshire Mayoral Combined Authority Mayor of Hull and East Yorkshire Mayoral Combined Authority in Kingston-upon-Hull, and the East Riding of Yorkshire[40] 2025 (inaugural election)
Norfolk County Council Leader of Norfolk County Council County Deal in Norfolk, with an Elected Leader and not Mayor[41] 2024 (inaugural election)
Suffolk County Council Leader of Suffolk County Council County Deal in Suffolk, with an Elected Leader and not Mayor[42] 2024 (inaugural election)

Cancelled proposals

Authority Post Type Cancellation
Cornwall Council Mayor of Cornwall Mayoral Deal in Cornwall, which changes the Governance model of Cornwall Council from a Leader and Cabinet to a Mayor and Cabinet[43] Cancelled April 2023[44][45]

Former mayoralties

Former mayoralties are:

Local authority Post Type Established Disestablished
Bristol City Council Mayor of Bristol Unitary authority 2012 2024
Copeland Borough Council Mayor of Copeland Non-metropolitan district 2015 2023
Hartlepool Borough Council Mayor of Hartlepool Unitary authority 2002 2013
Liverpool City Council Mayor of Liverpool Metropolitan borough 2012 2023
Stoke-on-Trent City Council Mayor of Stoke-on-Trent Unitary authority 2002 2009
Torbay Council Mayor of Torbay Unitary authority 2005 2019

Notes

References

  1. ^ Hunt, Tristram (16 May 2004). "Why cities can thank the Tories". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  2. ^ "Mayor of London". Politics.co.uk. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  3. ^ "Local elections 2019: the directly elected mayoral contests". Democratic Audit. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  4. ^ "Tory elected as mayor of Torbay". BBC News. 21 October 2005. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  5. ^ "Lutfur Rahman wins Tower Hamlets mayoral election". BBC News. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  6. ^ "Copeland chooses Mike Starkie as first elected mayor". BBC News. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  7. ^ "Voters' 'No' to mayor". BBC News. 21 May 2004. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
  8. ^ "Local government reform – England". City Mayors. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  9. ^ Directly-elected mayors, Standard Note: SN/PC/5000, 16 July 2013, Mark Sandford, Section Parliament and Constitution Centre
  10. ^ "Manchester 'should have elected mayor'". BBC News. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  11. ^ Godwin-Pearson, Graham. "Bow Group – Why England's cities should say 'Yes' to elected mayors". bowgroup.org. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  12. ^ "A plain English guide to the Localism Act" (PDF). gov.uk. Department for Communities and Local Government. November 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2015. Using powers in the Act, the Government intends to trigger a referendum in the largest cities outside London, inviting local people to decide whether they want to have an elected mayor.
  13. ^ "Liverpool council votes to elect city mayor". BBC News. 7 February 2012.
  14. ^ "Salford referendum votes for directly elected mayor". BBC News. 27 January 2012.
  15. ^ "Date set for elected city mayors". Communities.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  16. ^ "North East devolution deal". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 November 2023.
  17. ^ Gove, Michael (8 December 2022). "Historic devolution deals transfer building, regeneration and skills powers to level up Suffolk and Norfolk". Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities. London. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  18. ^ "A County Deal for Norfolk". Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  19. ^ "A Devolution Deal for Suffolk". Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  20. ^ "Referendums to undo change to mayor and cabinet executive". legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  21. ^ Watson, Nick (19 October 2006). "West Midlands: Government 'night-mayor'". BBC. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  22. ^ Szreter, Simon (May 2002). "A central role for local government? The example of late Victorian Britain". History & Policy. United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  23. ^ Sherman, Jill (4 September 2006). "Voters aim to throw out mayors they say are acting like dictators". The Times. London. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
  24. ^ "Parallels H-Sphere". Bringbackdemocracy.org.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  25. ^ "The Labour Party". Lewisham.labour.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  26. ^ Waugh, Rob. "Councillors back referendum on mayoral system – Yorkshire Post". Yorkshiretoday.co.uk. Retrieved 4 August 2010.[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ "Middlesbrough referendum: Elected mayor retained". BBC News. 27 September 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  28. ^ "City votes to eject elected mayor". BBC News. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  29. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (16 November 2012). "Mayor H'Angus the Monkey finally loses his Hartlepool habitat". The Guardian. London: 16 November 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  30. ^ "Mayoral referendum". North Tyneside Council. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  31. ^ "Bristol Mayor Vote: Voters Decide to Abolish Mayor Post". BBC News. 6 May 2022. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  32. ^ Jenkins, Simon (6 May 2024). "England's metro mayors make a farce of local democracy. They must be scrapped". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 8 May 2024.
  33. ^ "Goldie says SNP 'worse than Labour' over state control". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  34. ^ "Statutory Instrument 2000 No. 2853". Opsi.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  35. ^ "The Local Authorities (Standing Orders) (England) Regulations 2001". Opsi.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  36. ^ "Leicester's mayor celebrates his commanding position". The Guardian. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  37. ^ "Directly-elected mayors: Final day of public consultation". BBC News. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
  38. ^ ONS Population estimates – local authority based by five year age band [2020] via Nomis
  39. ^ "Government announces Greater Lincolnshire devolution proposal". Lincolnshire County Council. Lincoln. 22 November 2023. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  40. ^ "Devolution deal announced for Hull and East Yorkshire". Hull City Council. Hull. 22 November 2023. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  41. ^ Gove, Michael (8 December 2022). "Historic devolution deals transfer building, regeneration and skills powers to level up Suffolk and Norfolk". Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities. London. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  42. ^ Gove, Michael (8 December 2022). "Historic devolution deals transfer building, regeneration and skills powers to level up Suffolk and Norfolk". Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities. London. Retrieved 8 December 2022.
  43. ^ Davison, Dehanna (2 December 2022). "Historic £360 million devolution deal transfers building and skills powers to level up Cornwall". Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities. London. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  44. ^ "Cornwall drops devolution plan with elected mayor over public 'concern'". The Independent. 4 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  45. ^ "Devolution deal with elected mayor dropped by Cornwall Council". BBC News. 4 April 2023. Retrieved 5 April 2023.