Djuanda Kartawidjaja
Photograph of Djuanda Kartawidjaja around the 1950
Photograph, c. 1950's
11th Prime Minister of Indonesia
In office
9 April 1957 – 9 July 1959
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byAli Sastroamidjojo
Succeeded bySukarno (unofficial)
Office abolished
11th Minister of Finance of Indonesia
In office
10 July 1959 – 6 March 1962
PresidentSukarno
Preceded bySutikno Slamet
Succeeded byR. M. Notohamiprodjo
11th Minister of Defence of Indonesia
In office
9 April 1957 – 9 July 1959
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byAli Sastroamidjojo
Succeeded byAbdul Haris Nasution
5th Minister of Public Works of Indonesia
In office
29 January 1948 – 4 August 1949
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byHerling Laoh
Succeeded byHerling Laoh
3rd Minister of Transportation of Indonesia
In office
6 September 1950 – 30 July 1953
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byMananti Sitompul
Succeeded byAbikoesno Tjokrosoejoso
In office
2 October 1946 – 4 August 1949
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byEndun Abdul Karim
Succeeded byHerling Laoh
Personal details
Born(1911-01-14)14 January 1911
Tasikmalaya, Dutch East Indies
Died7 November 1963(1963-11-07) (aged 52)
Jakarta, Indonesia
Cause of deathHeart Attack
NationalityIndonesia
ProfessionTechnocrat

Raden Djuanda Kartawidjaja (EYD: Raden Juanda Kartawijaya; 14 January 1911 – 7 November 1963), commonly known as Djuanda Kartawidjaja, usually referred to simply as Djuanda, was an Indonesian politician and ethnic Sundanese noble from the court of Cirebon, who served as the 11th and last Prime Minister of Indonesia. He previously served as Minister of Communications in seven cabinets from 1946 to 1949 and 1950 to 1953; as Minister of State in 1949 and Minister of Welfare from 1949 to 1950. Djuanda was Indonesia's final Prime Minister in the Sukarno "Karya" cabinets, the final cabinets of the Liberal Democracy Era (prior to the Guided Democracy period) and as First Minister from 1959 until his death in 1963.

Djuanda's death and the abolition of the post of Prime Minister in the Indonesian Republican system allowed far greater power to be exercised by the President, now being given full ruling power with minimal oversight, as both Head of State and Head of Government. This had an enormous impact on Indonesian politics, allowing the constitutional legality of the autocracy of Sukarno and Suharto.

Juanda International Airport, located in Surabaya, is named after him, who suggested development for the airport. Juanda railway station in Jakarta got its name from the nearby road, which is also named after him. He is also depicted in the recent 2016 edition of Rp 50,000 Indonesian rupiah banknotes.

Early life, family, and education (1911-1933)

Early life and family

Raden Djuanda Kartawidjaja was born on 14 January 1911, in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia (then the Dutch East Indies). His family was of ethnic Sundanese noble descent. His father, Raden Kartawidjaja, was a young teacher, while his mother, Nyi Monat, was a housewife. He also has 3 brothers and 2 sisters.[1][2]

Education

In his childhood, Djuanda Kartawidjaja went to elementary school at the Hogere Burger School (HBS). Then he transferred to the Europesche Lagere School (ELS). After that, he continued to the Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (now the Bandung Institute of Technology), majoring in civil engineering. While a student, he was also active in non-political organizations such as the Paguyuban Pasundan and Muhammadiyah organizations. He graduated from the Bandung Institute of Technology in 1933.[2][3]

Early career (1933-1942)

He became a teacher at a Muhammadiyah Islamic School in Batavia (now Jakarta), eventually becoming the principal of the school. In 1937, he became an engineer in the West Java Water Conservancy Bureau. In 1939, he became a senior advisor to the bureau. In addition, he also actively participated in the work of the Batavia Municipal Council.[1]

World War II (1942-1945)

In 1942, the Japanese Empire invaded and occupied the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese changed Batavia to its current name Jakarta. In the same year, Juanda participated in the Jakarta City Council election but was not elected.[4][5]

Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1950)

See also: Indonesian National Revolution

Background

In 1943, the Japanese appointed Indonesian advisors (sanyo) to the administration and appointed nationalist leader Sukarno leader of a new Central Advisory Board (Chuo Sani-kai) in Jakarta. On 7 August, the day after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (Indonesian: Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia) or PPKI was established. Sukarno was chairman, and Mohammad Hatta as vice chairman. On 19 August 1945, this body created 12 ministries for Indonesia's first cabinet, the Presidential cabinet.

Cabinet minister

Juanda was known as the "marathon minister." In the first 16 cabinets of Indonesia, he has been in the cabinet 12 times, mainly serving as Minister of Transport or Minister of Economy. He joined Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir ’s second cabinet (formed in March 1946) as a junior minister of the Ministry of Communications. In the third cabinet of Sjahrir, he joined the cabinet again and was promoted to minister of transportation.[6] Apart from being the Minister of Transportation, he also held other strategic positions, including the Minister of Water, Prosperity, Finance and Defense.

He was also trusted to lead Dutch negotiations, one of which was negotiations at the Round Table Conference. During the conference, Djuanda was sent to be the Chair of the Economic and Finance Committee for the Indonesian Delegation. In the negotiations, the Netherlands officially recognized the independence of the Indonesian government.

Djuanda was also entrusted to lead the Japanese Railways Bureau. This was followed by the takeover of the Mining Bureau, Municipality, Residency and military objects in North Bandung Warehouse. After carrying out this task, he was appointed Head of the Railway Bureau for the Java and Madura regions.

Political career (1950-1963)

Prime Minister of Indonesia

Djuanda declaration

Djuanda Cabinet

The Djuanda Declaration which was initiated on 13 December 1957 by Djuanda. This declaration stated to the world that the Indonesian seas included the seas around, between and within the Indonesian archipelago into one unitary territory of the Republic of Indonesia or in the convention on the law of the sea. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), is known as an archipelagic state.

  1. The content of this Juanda Declaration states:
  2. That Indonesia declares as an archipelagic country that has its own style
  3. That since time immemorial, the archipelago has been a single entity
  4. The provisions of the 1939 Ordinance concerning the Ordinance, can divide the territorial integrity of Indonesia. The declaration contains a purpose:
  5. To realize the form of the territory of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia which is complete and round
  6. To determine the boundaries of the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, in accordance with the principles of the Archipelago State
  7. To regulate peaceful shipping traffic that further ensures the security and safety of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia

The statement read by Djuanda became the legal basis for the drafting of the law used to replace the Territoriale Zee en Maritime Kringen Ordonantie in 1939.

Death (1963)

On the afternoon of 6 November 1963, Djuanda, accompanied by his wife and daughter, went to a hotel in Jakarta to participate in the opening ceremony. He fell suddenly at 11:25 p.m., and his pulse stopped 20 minutes later. His personal doctor rushed to the scene and gave him artificial respiration, but it was unsuccessful. On 7 November, the Indonesian government announced that Djuanda died of a heart attack.

Legacy

The Rp50,000 banknote depicting Djuanda Kartawidjaja
The Rp50,000 banknote depicting Djuanda Kartawidjaja

After his death, Djuanda was appointed a national figure, based on the Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia No. 224/1963. Juanda International Airport, located in Surabaya, is named after him, who suggested development for the airport. Juanda railway station in Jakarta got its name from the nearby road, which is also named after him. He is also depicted in the recent 2016 edition of Rp 50,000 Indonesian rupiah banknotes.[7]

Honours

Foreign honour

References

  1. ^ a b "Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Jawa Barat". dishut.jabarprov.go.id. Retrieved 26 September 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ a b "Profil - Djuanda Kartawidjaja". merdeka.com. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  3. ^ "Djuanda Kartawidjaja". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  4. ^ Liang, Yingming; 梁英明. (2010). Dong nan Ya shi = Southeast Asia history (Di 1 ban ed.). Beijing: Ren min chu ban she. pp. 163–164. ISBN 978-7-01-007653-9. OCLC 643403609.
  5. ^ Shi jie zheng zhi jia da ci dian. Yuanke Yang, 杨元恪. (Di 1 ban ed.). [Beijing]: Ren min ri bao chu ban she. 1993. pp. 2614–2615. ISBN 7-80002-538-1. OCLC 32011435.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  6. ^ Simanjuntak, PNH Kabinet-Kabinet Republik Indonesia: Dari Awal Kemerdekaan Sampai Reformasi. Jakarta: Penerbit Djambatan. 2003: pp. 23–238. ISBN 979-428-499-8 (Indonesian).
  7. ^ Angga Aliya ZRF (19 December 2016). "Rupiah Desain Baru Terbit Hari Ini". detikfinance. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
  8. ^ "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1959" (PDF).

Bibliography