Dobrujan Tatar
Tatar tílí
Dobrujan Tatar written in Latin, Perso-Arabic and Cyrllic scripts
Native toBulgaria, Romania, Turkey
RegionEastern Europe
EthnicityTatars
Native speakers
70,000 (Dobruja)
Turkic
Dobrujan Tatar alphabet
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologdobr1234
IETFcrh-RO
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Dobrujan Tatar is a variant of the Crimean Tatar language,[2][3][4][5][6] but has also connection with the Nogai language, spoken mainly in Dobruja by the Tatars of Romania. The same variant is also spoken by the Tatars in Bulgaria and Turkey. Compared to the Crimean Tatar language in Crimea, this variant is more close to Kipchak, specifically with Kipchak-Nogai and influenced by Turkish and Romanian.[2]

Name

In Romania is it commonly called as Tatar language. But in some sources is also seen Romanian Tatar,[2] Dobrujan Tatar,[2] Danube Tatar, Budjak Tatar,[7] Moldovan-Romanian Tatar,[8] Nogai, Nogai-Tatar, Dobrujan Nogai, Budjak Nogai, Crimean Tatar, Dobrujan Crimean Tatar, Authentic Crimean Tatar or Colloquial Crimean Tatar.

Dialects

Tatar language in Romania has three dialects:[2][9]

  1. The Şól dialect spoken by about 70% of Romanian Tatars. It's spoken mainly in the south and center of Constanța and has been heavily influenced by Oghuz.
  2. The Nogay dialect spoken by about 20% of Romanian Tatars. It's spoken in Tulcea, near and far north of Constanța, and is the most conservative in preserving Kipchak elements.
  3. The Yalîbolu or Tat dialect spoken by about 10% of Romanian Tatars. It's spoken around the cities of Hacıoğlu Pazarcık (Dobrich) and is the closest to Oghuz languages.

They differ mainly in pronunciation, and to some extent in vocabulary.[2]

Grammar

Dobrujan Tatar is a highly agglutinative language; that is, much of the grammar is expressed by means of suffixes added to nouns and verbs.[10] It is very regular compared with many other languages of non-Turkic group. For example, "şeherlerden" (from the cities) can be analysed as "şeher" (city), "-ler" (plural suffix) and "-den" (ablative case, meaning "from"); "alaman" (I take) as "al" (take), "-a" (present tense) and "-man" (first person singular).

Literary Tatar

Tatar spoken in Romania has two distinct facets existing, interweaving and forming together the literary Tatar language "edebiy Tatarşa". One of these aspects is the authentic Tatar called "ğalpî Tatarşa" or "ğalpak Tatarşa" and the other is the academic Tatar language called "muwallímatşa".[10]

Naturalization

Naturalization is shifting the spelling of academic speech sounds to authentic sounds following the patterns below, where a greater-than sign indicates that one sound changes to another.[10]

ş > s[a]
f > p
v > w
v > b
ç > ş
ç > j
h > (skip over)
h > k
h > y
h > w

Letters

Authentic and Academic letters

There is a total of 10 letters used to represent determinant sounds of which 9 mark authentic determinant sounds: a, e, i, î, í, o, ó, u, ú while the letter á is used for an academic vowel. The writing system registers authentic consonants with 17 letters: b, ç, d, g, ğ, j,k, l, m, n, ñ, p, r, s, ş, t, z and has three signs standing for the academic consonants: f, h, v. There are also two authentic semivowels: y, w. An old authentic Turkic consonant, the sound /ç/ represented by the letter ⟨Ç⟩ is rarely heard because authentic speakers of Tatar spoken in Dobruja spell it /ş/ as letter ⟨Ş⟩. As the written language most often follows the spoken language shifting ⟨Ç⟩ to ⟨Ş⟩, the result is that in Tatar spoken in Romania letter ⟨Ç⟩ and sound /ç/ are often treated as academic.[10]

Pronouns

Personal pronouns
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative men bíz sen síz o olar
Accusative mení bízní sení sízní onî olarnî
Genitive mením bízím seníñ sízíñ onîñ olarnîñ
Ablative menden bízden senden sízden ondan olardan
Locative mende bízde sende sízde onda olarda
Dative maga bízge saga sízge oga olarga

In addition to pronouns above, genitive pronouns can also has absolute possessive suffix -kî/ by adding after genitive forms, resulting on forms menímkí, bízímkí, seníñkí, sízíñkí, onîñkî, and olarnîñkî.[11] This suffix can be also added on nouns.

The accusative forms bízní and sízní can also be bízí and sízí.

The pronoun olar- is also possible as onlar-.[11]

The demonstrative pronouns include proximal bo and şo.

Alphabet

Further information: Dobrujan Tatar alphabet

Status

Education

The Dobrujan Tatar language did get a Latin alphabet in 1956,[2] it was established as a section in University of Bucharest the Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures in 1957 and also in 1977 it was disbanded.[12] Most of the teachers who taught at the Tatar language department graduated from the Faculty of History and Philology of Kazan State University (Tatarstan - Russian Federation), specializing in Tatar language and literature.[12] In the communist period, Tatar books were brought from the USSR to teach the Tatar language in Romania, but it failed. Nowadays the Tatar language is taught in some Romanian schools using Tatar language books.[2][13]

Media

There are some Tatar magazines in Romania, also novels, dictionaries, poetry books, school books and science books.[14][15][2][13] Some of the dictionaries are printed by the help of UDTTMR.[16] In Romanian television broadcasts was also Tatar learning rubrics called „Tatarşa üyrenemĭz“ (Romanian: Învățăm tătărește; "We learn Tatar") and the TV show „Romanya'dan Tatarlar“ (Romanian: Tătarii din România; "Tatars from Romania") showed.[17][18] However, the language is not supported in language keyboards or in language codes.

Official status

The Government of Romania recognises the Tatar community. Also every 5 May is the official Tatar language Day in Romania.[19]

Nilghuin Ismail describes the situation: "Nowadays the Romanian Tatar language is preserved only as spoken language. Even so in accordance with the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, in the Recommendation 1201 (1993), on an additional protocol on the rights of national minorities, is stipulated: Every person belonging to a national minority shall have theright to freely use his/her mother tongue in private and in public, both orally and inwriting. This right shall also apply to the use of his/her language in publications andin the audiovisual sector. Despite all these recommendations, in Romania we still do not have literary Tatar language."[2]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Appears mostly in Nogai dialect.[2]

Sources

References

  1. ^ "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 – European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ismail, Nilghiun. "Romanian Tatar language communication in the multicultural space".
  3. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287996468_Ekstra_Kucuk_Bir_Dil_Olarak_Romanya_Tatar_Turkcesi_As_an_Extra_Small_Language_Romania_Tatar_Turkish
  4. ^ THE TURKISH LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE TURK-TATAR COMMUNITY LIVING IN ROMANIA
  5. ^ "Общие сведения о татарах Добруджи". Академия наук Республики Татарстан. Archived from the original on 2022-01-19. Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  6. ^ "Дунайские или румынские татары. Откуда взялись и как живут в настоящее время" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2022-01-18. Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  7. ^ "Некоторые итоги переписи 2004 года в Молдавии". www.demoscope.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  8. ^ https://www.turkedebiyati.org/dil-lehce-sive-agiz-nedir/
  9. ^ Eker, Süer (2006). Ekstra küçük bir dil olarak Romanya "Tatar Türkçesi" Archived 2012-04-17 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b c d The Sounds of Tatar Spoken in Romania: The Golden Khwarezmian Language of the Nine Noble Nations, Taner Murat, Anticus Press, Constanța, 2018, ISBN 978-606-94509-4-9
  11. ^ a b Kîrîm tatarşa — Kazakşa Sózlík, Taner Murat, CreateSpace, Charleston SC, USA, 2011, ISBN 978-1461083108
  12. ^ a b Secția de Limba tătară
  13. ^ a b Implementation of the Tatar Language in the Schools of Romania
  14. ^ UDTTMR Publications
  15. ^ Books of Taner Murat
  16. ^ "Dobruca Kırımtatar Ağzı Sözlüğü".
  17. ^ UDTTMR Rubric; Friday, 18:00 in LITORAL TV (See description)
  18. ^ UDTTMR TV show; Friday, 18:00 in LITORAL TV (See description)
  19. ^ Tatar language Day in Romania