Doda district
View of Doda city
Location of Doda district in Jammu and Kashmir
Coordinates (Doda): 33°08′45″N 75°32′52″E / 33.145733°N 75.547817°E / 33.145733; 75.547817Coordinates: 33°08′45″N 75°32′52″E / 33.145733°N 75.547817°E / 33.145733; 75.547817
Country India
Union territoryJammu and Kashmir
DivisionJammu Division
HeadquartersDoda
Tehsils
Government
 • District MagistrateVikas Sharma (KAS) [1]
 • Additional Deputy CommissionerKishori Lal (JKAS)[2]
 • Assistant Commissioner RevenueSanjeev Kumar (KAS)[2]
Area
 • Total8,912 km2 (3,441 sq mi)
 • Urban
19.75 km2 (7.63 sq mi)
 • Rural
8,892.25 km2 (3,433.32 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)[4]
 • Total409,936
 • Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Urban
32,689
 • Rural
377,247
Demographics
 • Literacy64.68%
 • Sex ratio919
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
Vehicle registrationJK-06
Major highwaysNH 244
Websitedoda.nic.in

Doda is a district in the eastern part of Jammu Division in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The district consists of 18 tehsils viz. Thathri, Bhaderwah, Doda, Mahalla, Bhagwa, Assar, Bhalla, Gundna, Marmat, Kahara, Gandoh (Bhalessa), Bhella, Bharth Bagla, Chiralla, Chile Pingal, Phagsoo and Kashtigarh.[5]

History

The demography of district Doda is complex as compared to its neighbouring districts primarily because of the wide diversity in its population. The district is located inside Chenab Valley and shares borders with valley of Kashmir. In the past, Doda was largely inhabited by Sarazi population before people started settling here from Kashmir and other adjoining areas.[6][7] It got name Doda due to Opium plant which is known as Doddi in local language. The reasons for kashmiri population settling here in the past in 17th and 18th century is matter of ambiguity between historians.[8] However Sumantra Bose says it was repression by Brahmin feudal class that drew people to the district of Doda, Ramban and Kishtwar.[9][10]

The Doda district consists of areas drawn from the ancient principalities of Kishtwar and Bhadarwah, both of which became part of a district by the name of 'Udhampur' in the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.[11]

In 1948, the erstwhile Udhampur district was partitioned into the present Udhampur district, containing the Udhampur and Ramanagar tehsils, and 'Doda' district containing the Ramban, Bhadarwah, Thathri and Kishtwar tehsils.[12][9][13]

In 2006, Ramban was made into an independent district and the hilly area to the east of the present Doda district was separated as the Kishtwar district. The remaining areas include the Doda tehsil carved out of Kishtwar and the original Bhadarwah, now divided into three tehsils.[12][14]

In 1990s, various incidents were reported about the suppression of communal elements by the Militant organizations. In response to the rising terrorism, the Indian authorities made Village Defense Committee (VDC) in various villages. However some reports of VDC members indulging in criminal activities have also reported in the past. In a village called Karada, four Muslims were brutally killed by VDC members. This incident also triggered the militant organisations to target those who supported the VDCs, believing them to be anti-Muslim. Since 1990s, many such incidents of killings by militants and VDCs have been reported.[15]

Demographics

Religion in Doda district (2011)[4]
Religion Percent
Islam
53.82%
Hinduism
45.77%
Other or not stated
0.41%

Languages of Doda district (2011)[16]

  Kashmiri (41.59%)
  Bhadarwahi (20.00%)
  Siraji (13.84%)
  Gojri (7.53%)
  Hindi (5.20%)
  Dogri (3.96%)
  Pahadi (2.43%)
  Haryanvi (1.55%)
  Others (3.90%)

According to the 2011 census, Doda district has a population of 409,936,[17] roughly equal to the nation of Malta.[18] This gives it a ranking of 556th in India (out of a total of 640).[17] The district has a population density of 79 inhabitants per square kilometre (200/sq mi) .[17] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 27.89%.[17]

Doda has a sex ratio of 922 females for every 1000 males[17] (this varies with religion), and a literacy rate of 65.97%.[17]

Demographics

Sex Ratio in Doda District in 2011 Census.[4]
(no. females per 1,000 males)
Religion (and population) Sex Ratio
Muslim (pop 220,614)
929
Hindu (pop 187,621)
910
Other (pop 1,701)
673
Total (pop 409,936)
919

The district has a Muslim majority 53.82%, with Hindus constituting 45.77% of the population and the remainder consisting of Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains.[19]

Doda's society is a mixture of all religions with Hindus and Muslims being two major communities. The population ratio between the Muslims and the Hindus as per the census report of 2011 is around 55:45. Muslims of the region are mostly ethnic Kashmiris and are culturally and linguistically connected to the people of Kashmir.[9][8][20]

Doda district: religion, gender ratio, and % urban of population, according to the 2011 Census.[4]
Hindu Muslim Christian Sikh Buddhist Jain Other Not stated Total
Total 187,621 220,614 472 422 21 22 42 722 409,936
45.77% 53.82% 0.12% 0.10% 0.01% 0.01% 0.01% 0.18% 100.00%
Male 98,252 114,372 324 286 9 11 24 363 213,641
Female 89,369 106,242 148 136 12 11 18 359 196,295
Gender ratio (% female) 47.6% 48.2% 31.4% 32.2% 57.1% 50.0% 42.9% 49.7% 47.9%
Sex ratio
(no. of females per 1,000 males)
910 929 989 919
Urban 9,786 22,668 40 153 0 14 0 28 32,689
Rural 177,835 197,946 432 269 21 8 42 694 377,247
% Urban 5.2% 10.3% 8.5% 36.3% 0.0% 63.6% 0.0% 3.9% 8.0%

Languages

Prominent Scholar Sumantra Bose states that the plurality of population of Doda speaks Kashmiri as their mother language.[21][22] A study conducted in 2014 identified 40% of the population as Kashmiri-speaking.[23] The Pahadi languages are spoken by the second largest group: Bhadarwahi and Siraji are the main ones.[24] Others in the district speak Gojri and Dogri.

Doda's population comprises different communities who live together peacefully despite following different religions and speak different languages. Most of the people of the region are well-versed with all the languages spoken in the area.[25][7]

Administration

Administratively, the district has 406 villages. Doda District has been divided into three subdivisions viz., Doda, Bhaderwah and Bhalessa (Gandoh). It has eighteen tehsils.[26]

Politics

Doda District has two assembly constituencies: Bhaderwah and Doda. Some areas of Doda district lies under Inderwal constituency of Kishtwar District.[27]

Terrorism

Doda had a long history of terrorism with one of the highest concentration of militants in Jammu and Kashmir. According to local authorities, about 200 militants were active in the district in early 2000s.[28]

Militants targeted the Hindu community while Muslim villagers were also targeted by militants as well as some anti-social outfits mostly who misused the VDCs. A report said that of the 489 civilians killed in the region till 2005.[29] There have been a number of killings of innocent civilians by militants and some anti-social outfits including:

On 29 June 2020, Doda district was declared as 'terrorist free' district in Jammu and Kashmir, after the killing of the Hizbul Mujahideen district Commander Masood.[40]

References

  1. ^ "Deputy commissioner of Doda - Official Website".
  2. ^ a b "Who's Who in Doda district". Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  3. ^ District Census Handbook Doda, Part B (PDF). Census of India 2011 (Report). 18 June 2014. pp. 9, 12, 99. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d C-1 Population By Religious Community – Jammu & Kashmir (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  5. ^ Statement showing the number of blocks in respect of 22 Districts of Jammu and Kashmir State including newly Created Districts Archived 10 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine dated 2008-03-13, accessed 30 August 2008
  6. ^ "Sarazi: Endangered Language of the Chenab Valley".
  7. ^ a b "Story of Doda misunderstood by Kashmir". Greater Kashmir. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Mini Kashmir". Kashmir Life. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Snedden, Christopher (2015), Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Oxford University Press, p. xxi, 23, ISBN 978-1-84904-342-7
  10. ^ "Sarazi: Endangered Language of the Chenab Valley". Sahapedia. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  11. ^ "About Doda District". Jammu Redefining. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016.
  12. ^ a b "District profile". Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Doda. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  13. ^ Behera, Navnita Chadha (2007), Demystifying Kashmir, Pearson Education India, p. 28, ISBN 978-8131708460
  14. ^ "8 New Districts in JK, 13 New Tehsils". Greater Kashmir. 7 July 2006.
  15. ^ a b Joshi, Rajesh (17 August 1998). "Slow Death in Doda". Outlook. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  16. ^ C-16 Population By Mother Tongue – Jammu & Kashmir (Report). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  17. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  18. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Malta 408,333 July 2011 est.
  19. ^ "District Census Handbook: Doda" (PDF). Directorate of Census Operations, Jammu & Kashmir, 2017.
  20. ^ "Untitled Document". fathom.lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  21. ^ Bose, Sumantra (10 September 2010). "Geography, Politics and the Fighters of Kashmir". London School of Economics. Archived from the original on 16 December 2011.
  22. ^ "Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace". 28 January 2009. ISSN 0015-7120. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  23. ^ Bukhari, Shujaat (29 June 2014). "Nearly 35% People Speak Kashmiri In Erstwhile J&K: Study". Rising Kashmir.
  24. ^ "Saraz and Sarazi: Situating a Language and Linguistic Zone in Jammu and Kashmir".
  25. ^ "Saraz and Sarazi: Situating a Language and Linguistic Zone in Jammu and Kashmir". Sahapedia. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  26. ^ Creation of new Administrative Units in the State (PDF). Government of Jammu and Kashmir. 16 July 2014.
  27. ^ "ERO's and AERO's". Chief Electoral Officer, Jammu and Kashmir. Archived from the original on 22 October 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  28. ^ Hussain, Aijaz (15 May 2006). "The Doda Deathtrap". India Today. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  29. ^ "India: Kashmir massacre sparks ethnic cleansing fears". ReliefWeb, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). 6 May 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  30. ^ Pillai, Ajith; Meraj, Zafar (29 June 1998). "Slaughter Of The Innocents". Outlook India.
  31. ^ "Chronology for Kashmiris in India". 25 October 1998. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  32. ^ "Ultras massacre 17 in Doda". The Tribune. 5 August 2001.
  33. ^ "Militants massacre 15 Hindu villagers in Doda". Rediff. 4 August 2001.
  34. ^ Sengupta, Somini (2 May 2006). "Militants Kill 35 Hindus Days Before Talks on Kashmir". New York Times.
  35. ^ "Voices of Doda". Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  36. ^ Hussain, Aijaz (15 May 2006). "19 villagers massacred in Kashmir Valley, act suspected to polarise two communities". India Today.
  37. ^ "Cow vigilantes kill lone breadwinner of family in J&K". Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  38. ^ Naseem, Ishfaq (16 May 2019). "Nayeem Ahmad Shah, who was killed by cow vigilantes in Jammu's Bhaderwah, was carrying no animal during attack, claims relative". Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  39. ^ "J&K: Five-member SIT constituted to probe killing of a man by alleged cow vigilantes in Bhaderwah". Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  40. ^ "J&K: With killing of Hizbul Commander, Doda becomes 'terrorist-free'". 29 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.

Further reading