Double First Class Universities
Double first class universities.png
Map of the Double First Class Universities in China
Formation2015; 7 years ago (2015)
TypePublic Universities, National Key Universities, Project 985, Project 211
Legal statusMinistry of Education of the People's Republic of China
Region served
China
Membership
147 Chinese Universities
Official language
Chinese

The World First Class University and First Class Academic Discipline Construction (Chinese: 世界一流大学和一流学科建设), together known as Double First Class (Chinese: 双一流; pinyin: shuāngyīliú),[1][2] is a tertiary education development initiative designed by the People's Republic of China central government in 2015,[3] which aims to comprehensively develop elite Chinese universities into world-class institutions by the end of 2050 through developing and strengthening their individual faculty departments.[4][5] The Double First-Class University Plan has made new arrangements for the Chinese higher education institution development. The universities included in this plan are called Double First Class Universities.[2][4][6]

The Double First-Class Universities are considered to be the most elite institutions of Chinese tertiary education, representing the top 5% of overall universities and colleges in Mainland China (approximately 3,000 higher education institutions).[2][7]

History

In October 2015, the State Council of China published the 'Overall Plan for Promoting the Construction of World First Class Universities and First Class Disciplines' (Double First Class University Plan), which made new arrangements for the development of higher education in China.[4][8]

In September 2017, the full list of the universities and their disciplines of the Double First Class University Plan was published by the Ministry of Education of China, the Ministry of Finance of China and the National Development and Reform Commission of China. According to the list, 140 universities have been approved as ‘Double First Class Universities’ by the State Council of China. The Double First Class University Plan underlines that driving the overall development of universities by building and strengthening their faculties and departments, and eventually developing the 140 listed elite universities into world-class universities by 2050.[4][9][1]

The Double First Class University Plan represents a new way of ranking universities in China.[9] In 2019, the Ministry of Education of China reconfirmed that both Project 211 and Project 985 had been coordinated into the Double First Class University Plan.[10]

By 2021, the 140 Double First Class Universities accounted for roughly 4.65% of the 3,012 universities and colleges in Mainland China,[7] representing the most elite part of higher education institutions in this country.[11][12]

In December 2021, the 23rd meeting of Central Comprehensively Deepening Reforms Commission chaired by General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Xi Jinping deliberated and approved 'Some Suggestions on Further Promoting the Construction of World First Class Universities and First Class Disciplines'.[13]

In February 2022, the 'Some Suggestions on Further Promoting the Construction of World First Class Universities and First Class Disciplines' were published by the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, and the National Development and Reform Commission.[14] In addition, with the approval of the State Council of China, the list of "Double First Class Universities" has been updated and released. According to the Phase 2 List of the Double First Class University Plan, the previous university classifications have been abolished,[15][16] and 147 universities have been included in the plan, after 7 universities newly adding into the list since February 2022.[17]

Double First Class Universities

See also: List of universities in China

The Phase 1 list of 140 Double First Class Universities were issued by Chinese Ministry of Education, Ministry of Finance, and National Development and Reform Commission without any ranking within the lists (by "school code") in 2017.[1] In February 2022, the Ministry of Education of China announced that the classifications had been invalidated,[15] and the universities included in the Double First Class University Plan would be referred to as Double First Class Universities.[18][6] According to the updated Phase 2 list of the Double First Class University Plan (without any ranking within the list), a total of 147 universities have been approved and identified as Double First Class Universities.[17]

Double First Class Universities listing follow in alphabetical order

Double First Class Universities listing based on geographical locations

Province/Municipality City University
Beijing (34) Beijing (34)
Jiangsu (16) Xuzhou
Wuxi
Suzhou
Nanjing (13)
Shanghai (15) Shanghai (15)
Guangdong (8) Guangzhou (7)
Shenzhen
Shaanxi (8) Xi'an (7)
Xianyang
Sichuan (8) Chengdu (7)
Ya'an
Hubei (7) Wuhan (7)
Tianjin (6) Tianjin (6)
Hunan (5) Changsha (4)
Xiangtan
Heilongjiang (4) Harbin (4)
Liaoning (4) Shenyang (2)
Dalian (2)
Anhui (3) Hefei (3)
Jilin (3) Changchun (2)
Yanji
Shandong (3) Qingdao (2)
Jinan
Zhejiang (3) Hangzhou (2)
Ningbo
Chongqing (2) Chongqing (2)
Fujian (2) Xiamen
Fuzhou
Henan (2) Kaifeng
Zhengzhou
Shanxi (2) Taiyuan
Xinjiang (2) Shihezi
Ürümqi
Guizhou Guiyang
Gansu Lanzhou
Hainan Haikou
Jiangxi Nanchang
Qinghai Xining
Yunnan Kunming
Zhejiang Hangzhou
Guangxi Nanning
Inner Mongolia Hohhot
Ningxia Yinchuan
Tibet Lhasa

* represent the newly added universities in the Phase 2 list of Double First Class University Plan.

Valuation

The Double First Class University Plan underlines that developing the listed Chinese elite universities into world-class universities by 2050 through strengthening their developments of disciplines and faculties.[4]

On 18 September 2020, the members of "Double First Class" expert valuation group, which was headed by Lin Huiqing, Chairman of the Medical Education Expert Committee of the Ministry of Education and former Vice Minister of the Ministry of Education, unanimously agreed that Tsinghua University has been fully established as a world-class university.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "教育部 财政部 国家发展改革委 关于公布世界一流大学和一流学科建设高校及建设 学科名单的通知 (Notice from the Ministry of Education and other national governmental departments announcing the list of double first class universities and disciplines)" (in Simplified Chinese).
  2. ^ a b c "Implementation measures released for China's new world-class university policy".
  3. ^ "Print China sets direction for world class universities".
  4. ^ a b c d e "国务院关于印发统筹推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设总体方案的通知_政府信息公开专栏". www.gov.cn. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  5. ^ "China to develop 42 world-class universities". People's Daily. September 21, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "教育部2022年工作要点 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
  7. ^ a b "全国高等学校名单 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  8. ^ Li, Jian; Xue, Eryong (2021), Li, Jian; Xue, Eryong (eds.), "The Policy Analysis of Creating World-Class Universities in China", Creating World-Class Universities in China : Ideas, Policies, and Efforts, Singapore: Springer, pp. 1–33, doi:10.1007/978-981-16-6726-8_1
  9. ^ a b "双一流大学 (shuāngyīliú dàxué): Double top university plan".
  10. ^ "关于985、211名单的咨询 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  11. ^ "Higher education making steady progress". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  12. ^ "'World-class' universities list expanded". global.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  13. ^ "习近平主持召开中央全面深化改革委员会第二十三次会议强调 加快建设全国统一大市场提高政府监管效能 深入推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设-新华网". www.news.cn. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  14. ^ "教育部 财政部 国家发展改革委关于深入推进世界一流大学和一流学科建设的若干意见 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  15. ^ a b 财经头条. "教育部:双一流高校不再区分A类B类,避免划分"三六九等"". cj.sina.com.cn. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  16. ^ "'World-class' universities list expanded - People's Daily Online". en.people.cn. Retrieved February 19, 2022.
  17. ^ a b "教育部 财政部 国家发展改革委关于公布第二轮"双一流"建设高校及建设学科名单的通知 - 中华人民共和国教育部政府门户网站". www.moe.gov.cn. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  18. ^ "教育部:逐步淡化一流大学建设高校和一流学科建设高校的身份色彩". news.cyol.com. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
  19. ^ Tsinghua University. ""Double First Class" Expert Council: Tsinghua University is fully built into a world-class university". Tsinghua University. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2020.