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Drvar uprising
Part of World War II in Yugoslavia
Drvar Total View.jpg

Drvar in 2007
Date27 July 1941 — 26 September 1941
Location
Result

Rebel victory

  • rebels captured the whole region of Western Bosnia
  • Muslim and Croatian civilians massacred in Kulen Vakuf, Trubar, Bosansko Grahovo, Vrtoče and Krnjeuša.
Belligerents
 Independent State of Croatia

Initially:
HQ of Guerilla Detachments for Bosnian Grahovo and Surrounding


Later division:


Commanders and leaders
  • Logornik Kazimir Kuharski
    • Vladimir Vlatko Marek
  • Ljubo Babić
  • Milutin Morača
  • Slavko Rodić
  • Zdravko Čelar
  • Mane Rokvić
  • Ilija Desnica
  • Branko Bogunović
  • Vlado Morača
  • Uroš Drenović
  • Lazar Tešanović
  • Units involved

     Independent State of Croatia

  • Crvljevica detachment
  • Zaglavica detachment
  • Kamenica detachment
  • Javor detachment
  • Strength
  • Initially 400

    • Reinforcements of Croatian Army
      • 8 battallions
      • several artillery batteries
  • Initially
    • 4 detachments

    • After the expansion of the uprising
      • 4,000 Serb rebels
    Casualties and losses
  • Deaths in the Battle for Drvar:
    • 25 Ustaše
    • 5 Home Guard

    • Unknown in the rest of uprising
    Unknown
    More than 1,000 or more than 3,000 Muslim and Croatian civilians massacred in Drvar, Kulen Vakuf, Trubar, Bosansko Grahovo, Vrtoče and Krnjeuša

    The Drvar uprising (Serbian: Устанак у Дрвару) was the World War II uprising of the Serb population of Bosnian Krajina (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina). Italy supported it, both politically and in arms, in its struggle against the fascist puppet state of the Independent State of Croatia between 27 July and 26 September 1941.

    The genocidal activities of the Independent State of Croatia forced the Serb population to organize an uprising. It had no ideological background and was simply a struggle for physical survival, with rebels considering themselves guerilla. Italy used the uprising to create an opening to establish its influence beyond the zones of Croatia it already occupied per formal agreements.

    A group of Serb nationalist rebels first attacked Croatian military units on 26 July 1941 in Pasjak near Drvar. This attack and subsequent conflicts later that day sped up the mass uprising of Serbs from the region of Bosnian Krajina and Lika. The uprising started with the attack of four rebel detachments on the Drvar garrison of the Croatian army, which consisted of 400 Ustaše and Home Guard soldiers, early on 27 July. The rebels captured Drvar that afternoon, along with nearby Oštrelj and Bosansko Grahovo.

    The uprising had an immediate influence on other regions of Bosnian Krajina and the nearby region of Lika. When Serbs from Lika were informed about the uprising in Drvar, they decided to start the Srb uprising on the same day. On the first day of uprising, the Serb rebels from Bosnian Krajina and Lika managed to seize control over territory 270 kilometres (170 mi) long and 45 kilometres (28 mi) wide. The communists gradually forged their Partisan republic, and on 30 July, they established the Military-Revolutionary Council, which became the supreme governing institution for the entire region.

    During the next two months, rebels managed to capture additional territory including Mrkonjić Grad, Kulen Vakuf and many other Western Bosnian towns. Several retaliatory massacres of Muslim and Croatian war prisoners and civilians were committed by rebels, including the Trubar massacre, Bosansko Grahovo massacre, Krnjeuša massacre and Kulen Vakuf massacre. The number of victims is estimated to be between 1,000 to over 3,000 people.

    Based on agreement with non-communist rebel leaders, the Second Italian Army peacefully took control over the region and temporarily shielded local Serbs from the Independent State of Croatia on 26 September 1941. The communists were dissatisfied and continued armed attacks, primarily against other non-communist rebels. To fight against Chetniks who gained substantial support of the local population, the communists established two Anti-Chetnik Battalions in March and April 1942 and reestablished their control over the region of Drvar at the beginning of July 1942.

    Background

    See also: Independent State of Croatia and Genocide of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia

    The Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was founded on 10 April 1941 during the invasion of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The NDH consisted of most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with some parts of modern-day Serbia. It was essentially an Italo-German quasi-protectorate, as it owed its existence to the Axis powers, who maintained occupation forces within the puppet state throughout its existence.[1]

    According to the Treaties of Rome between Benito Mussolini and Ante Pavelić, Italy annexed Zone I, and Zone II was demilitarized.[2] After that, Italy pulled out the bulk of its army from Zones II and III.[3]

    In the weeks following the invasion, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian Latin: Komunistička partija Jugoslavije, KPJ) managed to tie up its cells. Some members of the KPJ and the Union of Communist Youth of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian Latin: Savez komunističke omladine Jugoslavije, SKOJ) were returnees from the defeated Royal Yugoslav Army, including Zdravko Čelar, Slavko Rodić, and Rajko Bosnić. There were also students like Ilija Došen, and workers and refugees from Hungarian-occupied Bačka, including Milutin and Pero Morača.[4] KPJ committees in Drvar and Bosansko Grahovo succeeded in obtaining rifles, light machine guns, and ammunition belonging to the surrendered Royal Yugoslav Army, and hid them from German, Italian and later Ustashe searches.[5] Independent of the efforts of the KPJ, local peasants also hid arms.[6]

    During late April and early May, Ustashe couldn't easily consolidate their rule in an area with a predominantly Serbian population. They were only able to achieve that with Italian support and a Ustashe squad brought in from Herzegovina.[5] Italian units left Drvar area in the beginning of June.[5]

    After the NDH consolidated its rule in Drvar at the end of May 1941, Ustaše imprisoned many Serbian men from Drvar and began with preparation to imprison and indiscriminately kill all Serbs from Drvar.[7][non-primary source needed]

    Milutin Morača

    Through June, communists across Bosanska Krajina continued to prepare for an uprising. Ljubo Babić was chosen to be the head of the military committee for Drvar, and Ilija Došen was chosen for Bosanski Petrovac.[8] Axis invasion of the Soviet Union encouraged locals to accelerate preparations.[9] Ustashe authority anticipated rebellion, so reinforcements were brought to the area. The Party advised Drvar workers who were in danger of being arrested to leave Drvar and hide in nearby villages. [10] On 17 July, communists set up the Headquarters of Guerilla Detachments for Bosanski Petrovac with Zdravko Čelar in command, Vaso Kelečević as his deputy and Ilija Došen as the political commissar. [11] The following day, the Headquarters for Drvar was established, with Babić as commander and Milutin Morača as his deputy.[11] Between 20–26 July, the first detachment of fifty men was formed in the village of Kamenica (commander Jole Marić, political commissar Nikola Kotla). In the following days, new detachments were formed in the villages of Javorje (commander Mile Kecman, deputy Slavko Rodić) and Crvljivci (commander Vlado Morača).[12] In Bosansko Grahovo, a detachment was formed, with Simo Bajić as commander. In the village of Trubar, a detachment was formed, with Nikola Rodić as commander and Pero Boltić as commissar.[12] There were also smaller detachments.[12]

    The Ustaše genocidal policy resulted in a mass uprising of Serbs which began on 27 July 1941 in Bosnian Krajina (Western Bosnia) and Lika simultaneously.[citation needed]

    The uprising in Drvar was inspired by Orthodox priest Ilija Rodić, worker Ilija Desnica and teacher Uroš Drenović.[13][non-primary source needed] Since 22 June 1941, more than 2 months after Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, the communists also planned to organize an uprising in Bosnian Krajina on 1 August 1941.[14][non-primary source needed] Notably, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Croatia pushed for rebellion only after the uprising was in its advanced stages in an attempt to shape the character of the uprising into one that pushed for communist ideals rather than mere survival.[15][attribution needed]

    Drvar uprising is located in NDH
    Map of the NDH showing the three Italian zones of occupation and major towns affected by Drvar uprising

    Forces

    Initially, the Serbian uprising had no ideological background because it was a struggle for physical survival. While Croatian reports referred to the rebellion as Chetnik-Communist action, rebels simply considered themselves rebels or guerilla.[16][attribution needed] Only in September, after the Stolice conference, would communist rebels adopt the name "partisans", and nationalists around same time begun calling themselves "chetniks". Because the vast majority of rebels in Krajina and the Independent State of Croatia were Serbs in 1941 to 1942, Ustashe propaganda initially called all rebels chetniks.[citation needed]

    One detachment of rebels were under command of Vlado Morača.[17][non-primary source needed] Some of the rebel units were under the control or influence of the communist party while many others were not, including a group of rebels under command of Nikica Kecman.[18] The commanders of the rebel units of Drvar district included Mane Rokvić and Branko Bogunović.[19] Some participants of the uprising became Chetniks, like Mane Rokvić, Uroš Drenović[20][non-primary source needed] and Ilija Desnica.[21][non-primary source needed] The rebel forces during the uprising eventually numbered 4,000 men.[22] The Serb rebel detachments were armed with 270 rifles and 7 machine guns.[23][non-primary source needed]

    The Drvar garrison had a total of 400 Ustaše and Croatian Home Guard soldiers of Independent Croatia.[24]

    First rebel action

    The Italian Military Intelligence Service reported that the uprising began on 26 July 1941 when rebels attacked isolated gendarmerie stations, railroads and communication lines.[25] The rebels cut all telephone poles between Drvar, Grahovo and Knin.[26][non-primary source needed]

    On 26 July 1941, in an road ambush near village Pasjak, a group of Serb nationalists, including Nikica Kecman and three of his men, killed Croatian major Ferdinand Konrad who was travelling from Drvar to Prijedor by car.[27][28][non-primary source needed][29] The ambush was actually targeted at logornik Kuharski, who had issued an order to kill 40 notable Serbs from Drvar, but was still considered a success as it ignited the uprisings in Lika and Krajina.[30][non-primary source needed]

    The Ustaše and Home Guard forces soon arrived from Drvar by train and harassed the local population until they were forced to retreat by guerilla groups of rebels from the hamlets of Crvljivica and Zaglavica.[31][non-primary source needed] The rebels knew the Ustaše would return. Thus, their Headquarter of Guerilla Detachments for Bosnian Grahovo and Surrounding (Serbian: Штаб герилских одреда за Босанско Грахово и околину) decided to start the uprising early the following day, on 27 July 1941.[32][33]

    Capture of Drvar

    Slavko Rodić

    The plan for attack on Drvar was prepared by Slavko Rodić, a partisan.[34][non-primary source needed]

    One of the rebels was local schoolteacher Lazar Tešanović[35][non-primary source needed] who read the order for attack on Drvar using a battery lamp.[36][non-primary source needed] The beginning of rebel attack was signaled with a fire of signal gun from the citadel on Šobića Glavica at 3:30 AM.[37][non-primary source needed][38][non-primary source needed] The detachment commanded by Morača attacked a Ustaše unit in Oštrelj, a village on the road toward Bosanski Petrovac which became the first populated place under rebel control during uprising.[39][non-primary source needed] Rajko Bosnić, who would later be recognized as a People's Hero of Yugoslavia, distinguished himself as a member of Crvljevičko-Zaglavički detachment.[40][verification needed]

    The first platoon was given the order to capture Ustaše barracks in the pre-war Apprentices' Home building.[41][non-primary source needed]

    The mass uprising in Bosnian Krajina first started in Drvar on 27 July when three rebel detachments from Kamenica, Javor and Crvljivica, accompanied by hundreds of armed peasants, captured a garrison of 400 Ustaše and Home Guard soldiers in Drvar.[42][43] The rebels were under the command of Mane Rokvić.[44][unreliable source?][45][non-primary source needed] In Drvar, Ustaša Mijo Sarić fired heavy machine guns at rebels from the tower of local church.[46][non-primary source needed]

    The rebels captured all surviving enemy soldiers, including 120 members of Croatian Home Guard, as well as a substantial quantity of arms and ammunition.[47][48] The Croatian commanders, logornik Kuharski and Ustaša Sarić, known as Šeponja, managed to escape.[49]

    The rebels, fueled by resentment against earlier massacres of Serbs, committed numerous massacres of war prisoners, as well as Muslim and Croatian civilians. The number of victims are estimated to be between 1,000 to over 3,000 people. Some massacres occurred on the first day of the uprising, such as the Trubar massacre and Bosansko Grahovo massacre, while others happened later, such as the Krnjeuša massacre and Kulen Vakuf massacre.[citation needed]

    Capture of other towns

    On 27 July 1941, the rebels captured Oštrelj and Bosansko Grahovo under the command of rebel leader Branko Bogunović.[50][51][non-primary source needed] The Drvar uprising had a large impact on the development of the Srb uprising in Lika, where the largest number of communists were present, along with many armed people from Srb and the surrounding area.[52][non-primary source needed] On the first day of the uprising, Serbian rebels from Bosnian Krajina and Lika managed to seize control over territory which was 70 kilometres (43 mi) long and 45 kilometres (28 mi) wide.[53][non-primary source needed]

    The rebel unit commanded by Simo Šolaja captured the gendarmerie station in Pljeva, while rebels from the southern part of Mrkonjić Grad municipality and rebels from Glamoč and Pljeva captured the gendarmerie stations in Gerzovo and the villages of Čardak, Podgorje, Gerzovo, Dragnić, Trnovo, Baraći, Pecka, Medna and many other villages in the southern part of Mrkonjić Grad municipality.[54]

    Drvar Republic

    The rebels immediately established the command of the Drvar municipality, which operated until 25 September 1941 and was reestablished at the beginning of July 1942 when Drvar was captured by communist forces.[55] The headquarter of joint Partisan-Chetnik rebels was housed in Drvar.[56][non-primary source needed] The Chetnik commander Uroš Drenović was subordinated to this joint headquarter.[57][non-primary source needed] The partisans organized revolutionary court in Drvar.[58]

    Since the first days of the uprising in Bosnian Krajina, the communists gradually forged their Partisan republic, and on 30 July 1941, established a Military-Revolutionary Council that became the supreme governing institution for the whole region.[59][verification needed] The Partisans referred to this territory as Drvar Republic.[60][non-primary source needed]

    In the regions of Bosansko Grahovo and Mrkonjić Grad, the influence of the communists was not as strong as in Drvar, and Chetnik representatives like Uroš Drenović neutralized communist attempts to impose their ideology on rebels and consolidate their own forms of government.[61]

    Suppression attempts

    Mane Rokvić

    To suppress the uprising, Croatian authorities sent eight battalions and several artillery batteries to Drvar.[62] Both Italian and German intelligence reports concluded that the Drvar uprising had "Communist and Serbian" character and that the main reason for uprising was the Ustaša terror of the Serbian population.[63] The units engaged by Croatian authorities were unable to suppress the uprising.[64] Italy used the uprising to try to expand the territory of NDH under Italian control deeper into Western Bosnia.[65] As the uprising spread from Drvar to other parts of Western Bosnia, the Serb rebels in Banja Luka, Jajce, Prijedor, Livno, Dubica and Sisak were actually supported by Italy, both in politics and in arms.[66] On 26 August 1941, NDH and Italy agreed that the Second Italian Army would occupy and pacify rebels in the second and third zone.[67] Thus, Italy supported Serbian rebels to create an opening to establish its influence beyond the zones they occupied per formal agreements.[68]

    Similar to the uprising in Montenegro, the rebels disagreed about their further actions. Nationalist rebels concluded that it was in the best interest of the people to accept integration of the territory into the Italian zone of interest, where they would be protected from Ustaše genocide. The Chetnik leaders wished to save Serbs from their most feared and violent enemy - Ustaše, even if they had temporarily to accept the rule of Italians and Germans.[69] The leaders of rebellion, Mane Rokvić, Vlado Morača and Ilija Desnica, organized a gathering of the people in the village of Zaglavice and, in presence of Italian soldiers, insisted that nobody should attack Italians.[70] The Italians occupied Drvar and the region previously held by rebels on 26 September 1942. The Partisans destroyed the cellulose factory in Drvar before they retreated in front of advancing Italian units in September 1941.[71][non-primary source needed]

    The Communist Party insisted on proceeding with rebellion in order to carry on with the communist revolution. Rebels who disagreed were quickly labeled as traitors and representatives of Greater Serbian bourgeois elements.[72][non-primary source needed] The communists targeted those who did not support their revolutionary methods and soon executed Ilija Desnica and many other non-communist rebel leaders. The priest Ilija Rodić, one of the initiators of the uprising, was later also killed by communists.[73]

    Aftermath

    After Italians captured the territory previously held by the rebels, the Chetniks gained the confidence of the local population, especially in central Bosnia and the region of Bosansko Grahovo.[74][verification needed] The local population organized a gathering on 14 November 1941 in Crni Potoci, and agreed on decisions against communist violence after communists secretly killed Ilija Desnica.[75] To fight against the Chetniks, the communists established the Grmeč Proletarian Company at the beginning of March 1942 in Srpska Jasenica.[76][verification needed] On 1 April 1942 the communists established the Kozara Shock Anti-Chetnik Battalion by recruiting 400 Partisans selected from the best fighters.[77][verification needed][78][non-primary source needed][79][non-primary source needed] In the period of April–May 1942, the communists established another military unit to struggle against Chetniks - Grmeč Anti-Chetnik Battalion, with 800 Partisans ordered to destroy Chetniks of Drenović, Vukašin Marčetić and Lazo Tešanović.[80] The pressure of the Grmeč Anti-Chetnik Battalion forced Uroš Drenović to sign an accord with representatives of the Independent State of Croatia on 25 April 1942.[81]

    Legacy

    The monument to Zdravko Čelar in Čelarevo, Serbia
    The monument to Zdravko Čelar in Čelarevo, Serbia

    In post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina, 27 July was celebrated as public holiday in honor of the uprising of the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina, completely ignoring the much earlier June uprising in eastern Herzegovina.[82] The monument in honor of the uprising in Drvar, constructed by sculptor Marijan Kocković, was erected in Drvar.[83] In 1996 the Croatian Army destroyed the monument designed by Kocković and it was never rebuilt.[84]

    In 1988 Božidar Sokolović published a book in honor of Ilija Desnica, one of the leaders of the uprising, titled Ilija Desnica: The Hero from Oštrelj.[85]

    References

    1. ^ Tomasevich 2001, pp. 233–241.
    2. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 237.
    3. ^ Tomasevich 1975.
    4. ^ Lukač 1967, pp. 73–74.
    5. ^ a b c Lukač 1967, p. 74.
    6. ^ Lukač 1967, p. 74-75.
    7. ^ (Dedijer & Miletić 1989, p. 221):"Posle odvođenja Srba muškaraca iz Drvara u toku juna i jula 1941 god počele su ustaške vlasti vršiti pripreme za odvođenje i ubistvo svih Srba iz Drvara bez razlike u pogledu pola i starosti: bilo je predviđeno da se imaju pobiti i sve žene i sva deca."
    8. ^ Lukač 1967, p. 77.
    9. ^ Lukač 1967, p. 78.
    10. ^ Lukač 1967, p. 79.
    11. ^ a b Lukač 1967, p. 86.
    12. ^ a b c Lukač 1967, p. 87.
    13. ^ (Vučković 2001, p. 48) Покретачи устанка - поп Илија Родић, радник Илија Десница, учитегь Урош Дреновић и други, заузимали су редом Дрвар, Мркоњић-град...
    14. ^ (Bokan 1972a, p. 590):"Како ми је Вулин пренио, устанак је требало дигнути око 1. августа 1941, с тим да се у првом реду нападају жандармеријске станице, усташке постаје итд... У Дрвару је подигнут устанак прије одређеног рока..."
    15. ^ (Nikolić 2009, p. 104):"Tek krajme jula, kada je ustanak već bio u poodmakloj fazi usledio je poziv CK KP Hrvatske na oružanu borbu. Ta činjenica se nije dala sakriti ali je trebalo reinterpretirati karakter ustanka...
    16. ^ (Nikolić 2009, p. 33):"У овоу почетноу фази српски устанак ниуе имао идеолошку позадину: борба уе вобена за голи опстанак,"
    17. ^ (Morača 1972, p. 118)
    18. ^ (Lukač 1967, p. 93)
    19. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 158):"Mane Rokvic, who commanded the guerilla units around Drvar during the uprising,...Brane Bogunović was also one of the leaders of the guerilla units of the Drvar district during the uprising..."
    20. ^ (Milovanović 1984, p. 244):"Na početku ustanka Uroš Drenović je bio komandant jednog ustaničkog odreda koji je nešto kasnije kao bataljon ušao u sastav NOP odreda....
    21. ^ (Bokan 1972b, p. 197):"...oko pojedinih ustaničkih ličnosti za koje se već znalo da su postali četnici (Mane Rokvić i Ilija Desnica iz Drvara....)
    22. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 14)
    23. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 704)
    24. ^ (Antonić 1990, p. 227)
    25. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 13)
    26. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 398):"Prve akcije su počele noću 26/27. jula, sečenjem telefonskih stu- bova između Grahova, Drvara i Knina."
    27. ^ (Đurović 1964, p. 172)
    28. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 703)
    29. ^ (Lukač 1967, p. 93)
    30. ^ (Milovanović 2004, p. 55)
    31. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 703): Za kratko vrijeme razvila se borba između ustaša i domobrana, koji su vozom stigli iz Drvara...
    32. ^ (Antonić 1973, p. 706)
    33. ^ (Terzić 1957, p. 77):"Ustanak je prvo otpočeo na području Drvara. Prema odluci Štaba gerilskih odreda za Bos. Grahovo i okolinu, 27 jula 1941, u zoru, tri gerilska odreda iz okoline Drvara, sa kojima su se kretale stotine seljaka naoružanih vilama, sekirama, ..."
    34. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 701): Kao stručnjak — geometar, Slavko je izradio plan napada na Drvar i predao ga štabu gerilskih odreda za Drvar i okolinu.
    35. ^ (Bokan 1972a, p. 590)
    36. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 703): Potom je Tešanović stao ispred postrojenog odreda, koji je Slavko organi- zovao i pripremio za borbu i, prema baterijskoj lampi, pročitao zapovijest za napad
    37. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 704)
    38. ^ (Morača 1972, p. 118)
    39. ^ (Morača 1972, p. 118)
    40. ^ Razvitak. Novinska Ustanova Timok. 1971. p. 43.
    41. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 701)
    42. ^ (Terzić 1957, p. 77):"...kosama i sličnim oruđima, izvršili su napad na ustaško-domobranske snage u Drvaru i istoga dana oslobodili Drvar."
    43. ^ (Antonić 1990, p. 227)
    44. ^ (Plećaš 1983, p. 176):"У станици у За падној Босни под воћством Мане Роквића, заузели су Дрвар , "
    45. ^ (Plećaš 2004, p. 168):"...под вођством Мане Роквића, заузели су Дрвар"
    46. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 398):"Teški mitraljez se nalazio na tornju crkve iz koga je tukao ustaša Mijo Sarić"
    47. ^ (Antonić 1990, p. 227): S ciljem da spriječi dalje nasilje nad seljaštvom i uništavanje njihove imovine u selima oko Drvara, koje su vršile ... su likvidirana sva neprijateljska uporišta, Drvar je oslobođen i u njemu je zarobljen čitav neprijateljski garnizon vojnika i zaplijenjene veće količine oružja i opreme.
    48. ^ (Colić 1973, p. 301):"U toku napada na Drvar zarobljeno je oko 120 domobrana."
    49. ^ (Đurović 1964, p. 179):"Njihov glavni šef, Sreski načelnik Kuharski, uspio je još prije da umakne. Iz ove borbe je uspio da utekne ustaša Sarić, zvani »Šeponja«."
    50. ^ (Vujnović 1986, p. 39):" 27. juli kao dan ustanka naroda Bosne i Hercegovine, kada su gerilski odredi izvršili napad i oslobodili Drvar gde su razbijene ustaško-domobranske snage jačine od oko 400 vojnika, a istog dana je oslobođeno Bosansko Grahovo i Oštrelj "
    51. ^ (Plećaš 2004, p. 267):"Устаници у западној Босни, под вођством Мане Роквића, заузели су Дрвар, а Брана Богуновић је са својима заузео Босанско Грахово"
    52. ^ (Dedijer 1990, p. 465):"The uprising in Drvar had a special impact on the development of the uprising in Lika. News about the victory at Drvar electrified the masses of Lika. The armed people of Srb and its vicinity, who were well equipped with arms and where the...."
    53. ^ (Morača 1972, p. 18):"Тако је 27. јула — првог дана устанка у овим крајевима — ослобођена пространа територија дужине око 70, а ширине око 45 километара."
    54. ^ (Lukač 1967, p. 108):"Istoga dana ustanici iz južnog dela sreza Mrkonjić - Grad , u zajednici sa ustanicima iz Glamoča i delom ustanika iz Pljeve , zauzeli su..."
    55. ^ (Antonić 1973, p. 375):"Odmah poslije oslobođenja Drvara, 27. jula 1941. godine, obrazovana je komanda mjesta koja je postojala do 25. septembra 1941. godine, a obnovljena je početkom jula 1942. godine, kada je ponovo oslobođen Drvar. "
    56. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 564)
    57. ^ (Kadenić & Petković 1981, p. 564)
    58. ^ (Čolaković 1962, p. 465)
    59. ^ Socijalizam. Savez komunista Jugoslavije. 1985. p. 1086. U Bosanskoj krajini se već od prvog dana ustanka stvarala jedna partizanska republika sa centrom u Drvaru (»Drvarska ... Vojno-revolucionarno vijeće, koje je 30. jula 1941. oformljeno u Drvaru, mada po svom nazivu podseća na neku vojnu, ratnu instituciju, od prvog je dana bilo i najviši predstavnik vlasti za ceo kraj...
    60. ^ (Morača 1972, p. 662)
    61. ^ (Historical Society of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1973, p. 263)
    62. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 13)
    63. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 13)
    64. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 13)
    65. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 15)
    66. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 14)
    67. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 16)
    68. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 16)
    69. ^ (Dizdar 2002, p. 155):"Mane Rokvić, Dobroslav Jevđević i Brana Bogunović; ... Vođe srpskih četnika... žele da zasad srpski narod spase bar od najkrvavijeg protivnika, ustaša, makar privremeno primio vlast Nemaca i Italijana"
    70. ^ (Lukač 1967, p. 243):"Tako su Mane Rokvić , Ilija Desnica i Vlado Morača organizovali zbor naroda u selu Zaglavice uz učešće italijanskih vojnika i govorili da više niko ne sme pucati u Italijane "
    71. ^ (Dedijer 1970, p. 295)
    72. ^ (Milovanović 1984, p. 244):"Ohrabreni krizom koja je krajem 1941. godine, zbog izdaje buržoaskih velikosrpskih elemenata, nastala u ustaničkim redovima Dalmacije, Kninske krajine, Like i istočne i zapadne Bosne, a pod uticajem neprijateljske propagande ... počeli su da seju razdor među ustanicima"
    73. ^ (Džomić 1997, p. 83)
    74. ^ Vojno-istoriski glasnik. 1983. p. 148. Najteža poslijedica je bila ta što su na tim područjima četnici stekli znatno povjerenje naroda i gotovo uništili sav ustanički politički kadar.
    75. ^ (Đuretić 1997, p. 334):"На састанку националних првака одржаном 14. новембра 1941. у Црним потоцима поводом тајновитог убиства једног од њих, Илије Деснице из Дрвара, донете су одлуке против насилничке политике комуниста: "
    76. ^ Vojno-istoriski glasnik. 1983. p. 148. Radi razbijanja četničke organizacije u centralnoj Bosni, od ljudstva četa 1. i 5. krajiškog partizanskog odreda početkom marta je u Srpskoj Jasenici formirana Grmečka proleterska četa
    77. ^ Vojno-istoriski glasnik. 1951. p. 48. Крајем марта и почетком априла од најбољих козарских бораша фор- миран је батаљон за борбу против четника — Први ударни противчет- нички батаљон. Овај батаљон бројао је 400
    78. ^ (Bokan 1972b, p. 80)
    79. ^ (Vignjević 1978, p. 18): Козарски ударни противчетнички батаљон формиран је 1. априла 1942. године од бораца 1. и 2. батаљона 2. крајишког НОП одреда"
    80. ^ (Petranović 1981, p. 271): ", a novoformirani Grmečki protučetnički bataljon, od 800 boraca, operisao aprila-maja protiv četničkih jedinica Drenovića, Vukašina Marčetića i Laze Tešanovića.
    81. ^ (Redžić 2005, p. 140): "Owing to the pressure of the Grmec anti-Chetnik battalion, Uros Drenovic, the commander of the Petar Kocic Chetnik unit, decided to sign an accord with the representatives of the NDH in Mrkonjic-Grad on 25 April 1942."
    82. ^ (Vujnović 1986, p. 39):" Isključujući junski ustanak u Hercegovini, u istoriji je utvrđen 27. juli kao dan ustanka naroda Bosne i Hercegovine, ..."
    83. ^ (Runić 2019):Kada će čuveni monument, poznat kao “četiri kraka”, biti obnovljen i da li će se to ikad desiti, danas u Drvaru niko ne zna. Zna se, međutim, da su ovo djelo hrvatskog vajara Marijana Kockovića.
    84. ^ (Runić 2019):Zna se, međutim, da su ovo djelo hrvatskog vajara Marijana Kockovića, koje je junački preživjelo i posljednji rat u BiH, srušili – hrvatski vojnici i to 1996. godine, nakon potpisivanja Dejtonskog mirovnog sporazuma.
    85. ^ (Sokolovic 1988)

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