Taoism, Buddhism
King / Duke 
• 350 - 356
Duan Kan
Historical eraSixteen Kingdoms
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Later Zhao
Former Yan
Today part ofChina

Duan Qi was a kingdom located in Shandong peninsula of northern China during the Sixteen Kingdoms period. It was founded by Duan Kan, a member from the Duan tribe of Xianbei people. In 350, Ran Min overthrew the Later Zhao kingdom and caused chaos in the North China Plain. Duan Kan took this chance to lead his people to the city of Guanggu in Shandong and established Duan Qi kingdom.[1] Duan Kan did not claim to be an emperor because he regarded the emperor of Jin dynasty as the son of heaven. In 351, Duan Qi became a vassal state of Jin dynasty after the emperor of Jin appointed Duan Kan to be the Zhenbei General and Duke of Qi. However, Duan Qi was still considered to be an independent state since Jin had no direct control on it.[2]

In 355, Murong Jun, a person from another tribal clan of Xianbei, claimed to be the emperor of Former Yan. Duan Kan was annoyed because he did not think anyone from a Xianbei tribe should claim to be an emperor. He wrote a letter to denounce Murong Jun, which exasperated Former Yan. In 356, a war broke out between Former Yan and Duan Qi, and Duan Qi was defeated in the war. Duan Kan asked for help from Jin, but it was too late. He was captured by Murong Jun and was executed in the following year.[3]


  1. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, Chapter 98:初,段兰卒于令支,段龛代领其众,因石氏之乱,拥部落南徙。秋,七月,龛引兵东据广固,自称齐王。
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, Chapter 99:段龛请以青州内附;二月,戊寅,以龛为镇北将军。封齐公。
  3. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, Chapter 99:镇北将军段龛与燕主俊书,抗中表之仪,非其称帝。俊怒,十一月,以太原王恪为大都督、抚军将军,阳鹜副之,以击龛。