|Dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne|
|Creation date||1665 (first creation)|
1694 (second creation)
1715 (third creation)
|Monarch||Charles II (first creation)|
William III and Mary II (second creation)
George I (third creation)
|Peerage||Peerage of England (first creation)|
Peerage of Great Britain (second and third creation)
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
Special remainder for the third creation
|Extinction date||1691 (first creation)|
1711 (second creation)
1768 (third creation)
|Dukedom of Newcastle-under-Lyne|
|Peerage||Peerage of Great Britain|
|First holder||Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne|
|Last holder||Edward Pelham-Clinton, 10th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne|
|Remainder to||Special remainder|
Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was a title that was created three times, once in the Peerage of England and twice in the Peerage of Great Britain. The first grant of the title was made in 1665 to William Cavendish, 1st Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne. He was a prominent Royalist commander during the Civil War.
The related title of Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne [sic] was created once in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was conferred in 1756 on Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne (of the third creation), to provide a slightly more remote special remainder. The title became extinct in 1988, a year that saw the deaths of the distantly related ninth and tenth Dukes of Newcastle-under-Lyne.
William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle, was a son of Charles Cavendish and his second wife Catherine Ogle, 8th Baroness Ogle. Her father was Cuthbert Ogle, 7th Baron Ogle. Charles Cavendish was the third son of Sir William Cavendish and his wife Bess of Hardwick. One of Charles Cavendish's elder brothers became the 1st Earl of Devonshire (see Duke of Devonshire for further history about this branch of the family).
William Cavendish became Viscount Mansfield in 1620, as well as Baron Cavendish of Bolsover and Earl of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1621. He succeeded his mother as ninth Baron Ogle in 1629, and he became Marquess of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1643. He was elevated to the dukedom of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1665. He also was granted the title of Earl of Ogle as a subsidiary title for the dukedom, to be used as a courtesy title by his heir apparent. Upon his death in 1676, he was succeeded by his son, the second Duke, who was a politician. However, the second Duke's only son and heir apparent (Henry Cavendish, Earl of Ogle) predeceased him. Upon the second Duke's death in 1691, all of the titles became extinct except the barony of Ogle, which fell into abeyance between his four daughters (one of whom was Lady Elizabeth Cavendish).
One of the second Duke's daughters, Lady Margaret Cavendish, married John Holles, 4th Earl of Clare. In 1694, the dukedom was revived when he was created Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne. The Holles family descended from John Holles, who was created Baron Haughton, of Haughton in Nottinghamshire, in 1616 and Earl of Clare in 1624. His second son was a politician, Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles. Lord Clare was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Earl. He represented East Retford, Nottinghamshire, in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. His son, the third Earl, was briefly MP for Nottinghamshire in 1660. He was succeeded by his son, the aforementioned fourth Earl, who was raised to Duke in 1694; together with Lady Margaret, he had one daughter but no sons and on his death in 1711, all his titles became extinct.
The Duke's sister, Lady Grace Holles (died 1700), married Thomas Pelham, 1st Baron Pelham (see Earl of Chichester for earlier history of the Pelham family). Their elder son Thomas, upon his uncle's death in 1711, succeeded to the substantial Holles estates and assumed by Royal Licence the additional surname and arms of Holles. In 1714, the earldom of Clare was revived when he was created Viscount Haughton and Earl of Clare, with remainder to his younger brother Henry Pelham. The following year, the dukedom was revived when he was made Marquess of Clare and Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne, with like special remainder. These titles were in the Peerage of Great Britain. In 1756, when his brother died without male issue and it was evident that the Duke would have no children, the Duke of Newcastle upon Tyne was additionally created Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyne [sic] with a different special remainder: to his nephew-by-marriage Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, who rapidly took on the additional surname Pelham. (For the history of this title from the 1768 inheritance upon the 1st Duke's death, see Earl of Lincoln.) The 1st Duke's other titles became extinct, except for the Pelham baronetcy (of Laughton) and the barony of Pelham (of Stanmer), which devolved to his first cousin once-removed, Thomas Pelham. (For the history of these titles, see Earl of Chichester.)
Extensive personal, transaction and estate papers of the dukes are held in the Portland (Welbeck) and Newcastle (Clumber) collections at the University of Nottingham's Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections.