тyъһа тыл Tuha tıl
Native toMongolia
RegionKhövsgöl Province
Native speakers
(undated figure of 500)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3dkh (rejected)
Dukha is classified as Severely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger[2]

Dukha or Dukhan is an endangered Turkic variety spoken by approximately five hundred people of the Dukhan (a.k.a. Tsaatan) people in the Tsagaan-Nuur county of Khövsgöl Province in northern Mongolia. Dukhan belongs to the Taiga subgroup of Sayan Turkic (which also includes Soyot–Tsaatan and Tofa).[1] This language is nearly extinct and is only spoken as a second language. The ISO 639-3 proposal (request) code was dkh,[3] but this proposal was rejected.[4]

It is mostly related to the Soyot language of Buryatia.[5] Also, it is related to the language of Tozhu Tuvans and the Tofa language. Today, it is spoken alongside Mongolian.[6]

Dukhan morphophonemic units are written with capital letters, similar to its sister languages and standard grammars.[1]



The Dukha language or Dukhan is an endangered Turkic language. It is spoken by about five hundred people of the Dukhan (also Tsaatan) from Tsagaan-Nuur County, Tsagaannurr (Khövsgöl) Mongolia. Цагааннуур сум) is a Sum (district) of Mongolia in the province of Khövsgöl, located in Northern Mongolia.

Classification of the Turkic languages

Proto-Turkic Common Turkic Northeastern Common Turkic (Siberian) North Siberian
South Siberian Sayan Turkic
Yenisei Turkic
Chulym Turkic
Old Turkic

Alexander Vovin (2017) notes that Tofa and other Siberian Turkic languages, especially Sayan Turkic, have Yeniseian loanwords.[16]

Current situation

Currently, the Dukhan language is mainly related to an amalgam of dialects from the nomadic people of Inner Mongolia, China, Russia, and surrounding areas.



  1. ^ a b c d Elisabetta Ragagnin (2011), Dukhan, a Turkic Variety of Northern Mongolia, Description and Analysis, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden
  2. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger Archived 22 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Ted Bergman 2011. Request for New Language Code Element in ISO 639-3
  4. ^ Comments received for ISO 639-3 Change Request 2011-057
  5. ^ Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia: The Soyot Language
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-06. Retrieved 2014-04-10.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Rassadin, V.I. "The Soyot Language". Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia. UNESCO. Retrieved 2021-07-18.
  8. ^ "Kumandin". ELP Endangered Languages Project. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
  9. ^ Bitkeeva, A.N. "The Kumandin Language". Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia. UNESCO. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  10. ^ "Northern Altai". ELP Endangered Languages Project. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  11. ^ Deviating. Probably of South Siberian origin (Johanson 1998)
  12. ^ Coene 2009, p. 75
  13. ^ Coene 2009, p. 75
  14. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Contributors: Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (revised ed.). Elsevier. 2010. p. 1109. ISBN 978-0080877754. Retrieved 24 April 2014.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  15. ^ Johanson, Lars, ed. (1998). The Mainz Meeting: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Turkish Linguistics, August 3-6, 1994. Turcologica Series. Contributor: Éva Ágnes Csató. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 28. ISBN 3447038640. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  16. ^ Vovin, Alexander. 2017. "Some Tofalar Etymologies." In Essays in the history of languages and linguistics: dedicated to Marek Stachowski on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Krakow: Księgarnia Akademicka.
  17. ^ Roland Breton, Atlas des langues du monde, Éd. Autrement, 2003 ISBN 2-7467-0400-5