Dungannon
Church of St Patrick, Dungannon - geograph.org.uk - 112576.jpg

St Patrick's Roman Catholic church
Dungannon Coat of Arms v2.png

Dungannon Coat of Arms
Dungannon is located in Northern Ireland
Dungannon
Dungannon
Location within Northern Ireland
Population14,340 (2011 Census)
Irish grid referenceH7962
• Belfast40 miles (64 km)
District
County
CountryNorthern Ireland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townDUNGANNON
Postcode districtBT70, BT71
Dialling code028
PoliceNorthern Ireland
FireNorthern Ireland
AmbulanceNorthern Ireland
UK Parliament
NI Assembly
List of places
UK
Northern Ireland
Tyrone
54°30′N 6°46′W / 54.50°N 6.77°W / 54.50; -6.77Coordinates: 54°30′N 6°46′W / 54.50°N 6.77°W / 54.50; -6.77

Dungannon (from Irish: Dún Geanainn, meaning 'Geanann's fort')[1] is a town in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland. It is the second-largest town in the county (after Omagh) and had a population of 14,340 at the 2011 Census.[2] The Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council had its headquarters in the town, though since 2015 it has been covered by Mid-Ulster District Council.

For centuries, it was the 'capital' of the O'Neill dynasty of Tír Eoghain, who dominated most of Ulster and built a castle on the hill. After the O'Neills' defeat in the Nine Years' War, the English founded a plantation town on the site, which grew into what is now Dungannon. Dungannon has won Ulster in Bloom's Best Kept Town Award five times. It currently has the highest percentage of immigrants of any town in Northern Ireland.

History

For centuries, Dungannon's fortunes were closely tied to that of the O'Neill dynasty which ruled a large part of Ulster until the 17th century. Dungannon was the clan's main stronghold. The traditional site of inauguration for 'The O'Neill' was Tullyhogue Fort, an Iron Age mound some four miles northeast of Dungannon. The clan O'Hagan were the stewards of this site for the O'Neills. In the 14th century the O'Neills built a castle on what is today known as Castle Hill; the location was ideal for a fort, for it was one of the highest points in the area and dominated the surrounding countryside, giving (depending on the weather) the ability to see seven counties.

Dungannon Market Square in the 1880s
Dungannon Market Square in the 1880s

This castle was burned in 1602 by Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, as Crown forces under Lord Mountjoy closed in on the Gaelic lords towards the end of the Nine Years' War. In 1607, ninety-nine Irish chieftains and their followers, including Hugh O'Neill, set sail from Rathmullan, bound for the continent, in an event known as the Flight of the Earls. In what became known as the Plantation of Ulster, their lands were confiscated and awarded to Protestant English and Scots settlers; Dungannon and its castle were granted to Sir Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland.[3]

Sir Phelim O'Neill seized the town in the opening stages of the Irish Rebellion of 1641, and issued the Proclamation of Dungannon, in which the rebels set out their aims and proclaimed their loyalty to Charles I. O'Neill claimed they had been ordered to rise by the King, and later produced a forged commission in support of this.[4] During the course of the Irish Confederate Wars, Dungannon changed hands several times; Scots Covenanter forces under Alexander Leslie captured it in September 1642, before O'Neill took it back in spring 1643.[5]

The castle was partially excavated in October 2007 by the Channel 4 archaeological show Time Team, uncovering part of the moat and walls of the castle. In 1973, the town became the seat of the new district of the Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council. In 1782, the town was the location where the independence of the Irish Parliament was declared by members of the Protestant Ascendancy who controlled the parliament at the time.[6]

The Troubles

In the late 1960s Northern Ireland was plunged into an ethnopolitical conflict known as the Troubles. On 24 August 1968, the Campaign for Social Justice (CSJ), the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA), and other groups, held Northern Ireland's first civil rights march from Coalisland to Dungannon. The rally was officially banned, but took place and passed off without incident. The publicity surrounding the march encouraged other groups to form branches of NICRA.[7]

During the conflict Dungannon suffered numerous bombings, and almost 50 people were killed in and around the town.[8] The deadliest attack was on 17 March 1976, when a loyalist car bomb killed four Catholic civilians.

Demography

Dungannon had a population of 14,340 at the 2011 census, rising by 3,349 (over 30%) from 10,983 in 2001, making it one of the fastest growing towns in Northern Ireland. [2] It has the highest percentage of immigrants of any town in Northern Ireland.[9] Immigrants make up about 11% of its population; more than twice the average. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of immigrants in Dungannon increased tenfold; the biggest increase of any town.[9] Many came to work in the local food processing plants. There have been several attacks on immigrants[10] and clashes between rival groups of immigrants[11] in the area.

The population of the town increased slightly overall during the 19th century:[12][13]

Year 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891
Population 3,801 3,854 3,994 3,886 4,084 3,812
Houses 675 686 720 727 812 830

On Census day (27 March 2011) there were 14,340 people living in Dungannon (5,388 households), accounting for 0.79% of the NI total.[2] Of these:

Places of interest

Georges Street in the late 19th century
Georges Street in the late 19th century

An interesting feature of the town is the former police barracks at the top right-hand corner of the market square which is quite unlike any other barracks of a similar vintage in Ireland. A popular but apocryphal story relates that the unusual design of this building is due to a mix-up with the plans in Dublin which meant Dungannon got a station designed for Nepal and they got a standard Irish barracks, complete with a traditional Irish fireplace. Dungannon Park is a seventy-acre oasis centred round an idyllic still-water lake, with miles of pathways and views of the surrounding townland.[14][15]

Geography

Dungannon is in the southeast of County Tyrone, within the historic barony of Dungannon Middle and the civil parish of Drumglass.[16]

The town grew up around a hill, known locally as Castle Hill. There are three small lakes on the southern edge of town, the biggest of which is Black Lough. There are also two parks in the eastern part of town: Dungannon Park and Windmill Park. Surrounding settlements include Moygashel (a village at the southern edge of Dungannon), Coalisland (to the northeast), Donaghmore (to the northwest), Eglish (to the south) and Castlecaulfield (to the west).[citation needed]

Townlands

Dungannon sprang up in a townland called Drumcoo. Over time, the urban area has spread into the neighbouring townlands. Many of its roads and housing estates are named after them. The following is a list of these townlands and their likely etymologies:[17][18]

Economy

Former Tyrone Crystal building in Dungannon (2008)
Former Tyrone Crystal building in Dungannon (2008)

The economy of Dungannon has evolved from agriculture and linen production dominating the landscape to food and light engineering being the main industrial employers.[citation needed] A well-known crystal glass producer was Tyrone Crystal.

Schools

Primary
Secondary

Transport

Dungannon is linked to the M1 motorway, which runs from the southeast of the town to Belfast. There is an Ulsterbus town bus service that runs daily that serves the town's suburbs.[20] Formally operated by the Optare Solo buses. The nearest railway station is Portadown on Northern Ireland Railways.

Former railways

The Irish gauge 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Portadown, Dungannon and Omagh Junction Railway (PD&O) linked the town with Portadown from 1858 and Omagh from 1861,[21] completing the PortadownDerry railway route that came to be informally called "The Derry Road".[22] The Great Northern Railway took over the PD&O in 1876[23] and built a branch line from Dungannon to Cookstown in 1879.[21]

The GNR Board cut back the Cookstown branch to Coalisland in 1956[24] and the Ulster Transport Authority (UTA) closed the branch altogether in 1959.[24] In accordance with the Benson Report submitted to the Government of Northern Ireland 1963 the UTA closed the "Derry Road" through Dungannon in 1965.[24][25] The site of Dungannon station is now a public park and the former trackbed through the station is now a greenway.

Notable people

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1800s

1900s

Sport

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Cricket

Dungannon Cricket Club is the oldest sporting club in Dungannon dating back to at least 1865. The club played continuously through to 1914 with a break from 1901 to 1904 when Lord Ranfurly was Governor of New Zealand and there was no ground available until his return. The club became affiliated to the NCU in 1913 and played in the Junior Cup in 1913 and 1914 until the club was discontinued during the Great War.

Attempts were made to reestablish the club after the war and this was done in 1929 and survived until 1933 when Lord Ranfurly died to again leave the club without a ground. Cricket was kept alive by the Royal School, Bankers and the RUC until 1939 when the Second World War broke out. The club was reformed in 1948 mainly due to the efforts of Eddie Hodgett and the NCU leagues in 1952 and continues to do so to the present time. The club has never quite reached senior cricket as it has limited resources and relies on the District Council for a ground. The club has played on at least five different locations during its existence. Home games are played at Dungannon Park.[30]

Football

Dungannon Swifts F.C. is the town's local team, which plays in the IFA Premiership, and is Tyrone's only representative in the league, following Omagh Town's collapse. The club represented Northern Ireland in European competition in 2005–06 and 2006–06.

Gaelic games

The town has also achieved much success in Gaelic games, Gaelic football and hurling. Dungannon has produced many footballers, especially for the Tyrone County Team, who won the All-Ireland Gaelic Football Championship in 2003, 2005 and 2008.[citation needed]

The local boys' Gaelic football club is Dungannon Thomas Clarkes (Thomáis Uí Chléirigh Dún Geanainn) while the ladies' football team is Aodh a Ruadh. The local hurling club is Eoghan Ruadh, Dungannon and the Camogie club is Naomh Treasa.[citation needed]

Golf

PGA tour golfer Darren Clarke grew up in Dungannon, and was a member of Dungannon Golf Club. The club is one of the oldest 18-hole courses in Northern Ireland, having been founded in 1890.

Hare coursing and greyhound racing

The local Hare Coursing Club has been in existence since the 1920s but the sport was popular in the area long before the formation of the club. With hare coursing currently banned in Northern Ireland the Dungannon club organises meetings in the Republic of Ireland.[31] Greyhound racing was a popular sport in Dungannon from the 1940s until the Oaks Park Greyhound Stadium finally closed in January 2003. Large crowds attended the weekly meetings on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Saturdays with visitors travelling from as far away as Dublin to enjoy the races.[32][33]

Rugby

Dungannon was one of the first towns in Ireland to form a rugby club. Dungannon Rugby FC's most recent success was sharing the Ulster Senior League title with Ballymena. They were also the first Ulster club to win the All Ireland League. The rugby club was founded in 1873 and was a founder member of the IRFU. Despite being a rugby union club since inception its official title is Dungannon Football Club.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dún Geanainn/Dungannon". Logainm.ie. 3 November 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Census 2011 Population Statistics for Dungannon Settlement". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA). Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  3. ^ McCavitt 2004.
  4. ^ Royle 2004, p. 140.
  5. ^ Clarke 2004.
  6. ^ 'Dungannon' from Britannica 2001 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM, 1999–2000.
  7. ^ "A Chronology of the Conflict – 1968". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  8. ^ CAIN Archived 30 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, cain.ulst.ac.uk; accessed 17 June 2016.
  9. ^ a b "NI migrant population triples in decade, says study" Archived 20 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News, 26 June 2014
  10. ^ "Politicians unite to condemn ‘racist’ sign in Moygashel" Archived 10 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Tyrone Courier, 8 January 2014; accessed 7 September 2014.
  11. ^ "Loyalists blamed as racist attacks on migrants double in Ulster" Archived 7 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 30 May 2006.
  12. ^ "Census of Ireland 1851". Enhanced Parliamentary Papers on Ireland. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  13. ^ "Census of Ireland 1891". Enhanced Parliamentary Papers on Ireland. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  14. ^ Discover Northern Ireland – Dungannon Park Archived 15 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Discovernorthernireland.com; accessed 25 September 2015.
  15. ^ Dungannon Park – Tourist attraction in Dungannon district Archived 5 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Inthedistrict.com; accessed 25 September 2015.
  16. ^ "Townlands of County Tyrone". IreAtlas Townland Database. Archived from the original on 28 June 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  17. ^ "Northern Ireland Placenames Project". Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  18. ^ "OSI Dungannon". Ordnance Survey Ireland. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
  19. ^ "Home". Stpatrickscollege-dungannon.net. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 October 2004. Retrieved 27 May 2010.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ a b Hajducki, S. Maxwell (1974). A Railway Atlas of Ireland. Newton Abbott: David & Charles. map 8. ISBN 0-7153-5167-2.
  22. ^ FitzGerald, J.D. (1995). The Derry Road. Colourpoint Transport. Gortrush: Colourpoint Press. ISBN 1-898392-09-9.
  23. ^ Hajducki, op. cit., page xiii
  24. ^ a b c Hajducki, op. cit., map 39
  25. ^ Baker, Michael H.C. (1972). Irish Railways since 1916. London, UK: Ian Allan. pp. 155, 209. ISBN 0711002827.
  26. ^ "Professor P. G. (Gerry) McKenna". www.gerrymckenna.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  27. ^ "Pulitzer prize for Dungannon-born journalist". Ulster Herald. 17 May 2020. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ Brennan, Colin (1 April 2016). "Michaella McCollum Connolly released from jail in Peru". Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  30. ^ "Dungannon Cricket Club". Dungannoncricketonline.moonfruit.com. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  31. ^ "Cross-border row over hare coursing ban". Belfast Telegraph. 5 July 2008. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 28 July 2021. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  32. ^ "Dungannmon" (PDF). Greyhoundracinghistory.co.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  33. ^ Owen Bowcott. "Northern Ireland bans hare coursing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.

Sources