Dutch Celebes
Celebes en Onderhoorigheden (nl)
Sulawesi dan Kepulauannya (id)
Flag of Celebes
Coat of arms of Celebes
Coat of arms
StatusDutch Colony
Part of the Great East
Common languagesDutch, Malay, Indonesian
Governor of Makassar/Governor of Celebes 
Historical eraImperialism
• Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar
CurrencyNetherlands Indies gulden
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Portuguese Empire
State of East Indonesia

Dutch Celebes refers to the period of colonial governance on the island of Sulawesi - as a commandment of the Dutch East India Company from 1699[1] until its demise in the early 1800s, and then as a part of the Netherlands Indies or Dutch East Indies until 1945. Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Sulawesi from the Portuguese, and ended with the establishment of the State of East Indonesia. Celebes is now referred to as Sulawesi. Makassar, the capital, was also referred to as: Macassar, Makassar, Macaçar, Mancaçar, or Goa, Gowa (not to be confused with Goa, the capital of Portuguese India).[2]


Sulawesi prior to Dutch governance had been a part of the Sultanate of Gowa. In 1660 a large fleet under Johan van Dam bombarded Makassar. From 1667 onward the VOC held Fort Rotterdam in the port of Makassar. The fortress was established in 1669.[3] After four months of conflict to force Sultan Hasanuddin to submit, on 18 November 1667 the Treaty of Bongaya was signed, by which Dutch governance was accepted.[4] Celebes and Dependencies ("Celebes en Onderhoorigheden") was the name of a government of 1847-1924 and from 1925 of a residence of the Dutch East Indies, divided into sections. The capital was Makassar, which before 1847 had been the name of the government.[5][6]


See also


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-11.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "WHKMLA : History of Makassar". www.zum.de.
  3. ^ D. F. Lach, E. J. Van Kley, Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia. University of Chicago Press, 1993. ISBN 0-226-46754-6
  4. ^ D. G. E. Hall, A history of South-East Asia. St Martin's Press, New York, 1981. ISBN 0-333-24164-9
  5. ^ Martinus Nijhoff en E.J. Brill, Encyclopædie van Nederlandsch-Indië. 's-Gravenhage en Leiden, 1917-1939
  6. ^ Cribb, Robert, Historical Atlas of Indonesia. Richmond Surrey: Curzon Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7007-0985-1
  7. ^ H. Hägerdal, Hindu rulers, Muslim subjects: Lombok and Bali in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. White Lotus Press, 2001. ISBN 974-7534-11-8
  8. ^ W. Cummings, Makassar Annals. University of Hawaii Press, 2011. ISBN 90-6718-366-0
  9. ^ A. J. P. Raat, The Life of Governor Joan Gideon Loten (1710 - 1789). A Personal History of a Dutch Virtuoso. Verloren, 2010. ISBN 90-8704-151-9
  10. ^ B. F. Matthes, Boeginesch Heldendicht Op Daeng Kalaboe, Waarin Onder Andere De Dood Van Den Ambtenaar T. Baron Collot D' Escury ... Bezongen Worden: (door Abdoe-r-rasjied.). Nabu Press, 2011. ISBN 1-245-03226-7.
  11. ^ Mijer, P. (1878). Jean Chrétien Baud geschetst (in Dutch). Kemink &Zoon. p. 102. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
  12. ^ E. L. Poelinggomangm, Trade policy of the colonial government in Makassar in the 19th century. KPG, 2002. ISBN 979-9023-81-5
  13. ^ a b c d K. Sutherland, Jaarboekje Celebes. 1864
  14. ^ "H.N.A. Swart". parlement.com (in Dutch). Retrieved 14 April 2023.