Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. (September 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (July 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:新幹線E5系・H5系電車]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ja|新幹線E5系・H5系電車)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

E5 & H5 series
Teal and white bullet train with pink stripe
E5 series set U3 on a Hayabusa service, March 2011
Teal and white bullet train with purple stripe
H5 series set H1 on a Hayabusa service, March 2016
In service
  • E5: 2011–present
  • H5: 2016–present
ManufacturerHitachi Rail, Kawasaki Heavy Industries Rolling Stock Company
Replaced200 series, E1 series, E2 series, E4 series
Constructed
  • E5: 2009–present
  • H5: 2014–2015
Entered service
  • E5: 5 March 2011; 11 years ago (2011-03-05)
  • H5: 26 March 2016; 6 years ago (2016-03-26)
Number under constructionE5: 130 vehicles (13 sets)
Number built
  • E5: 460 vehicles (46 sets)
  • H5: 40 vehicles (4 sets)
Number in service
  • E5: 450 vehicles (45 sets)
  • H5: 30 vehicles (3 sets)
Number scrapped
Formation10 cars per trainset
Fleet numbers
  • E5: U1–
  • H5: H1–H4
Capacity731 (658 Standard, 55 Green, 18 Gran Class)[2]
Operator(s)
  • E5:

JR East
NHSRCL (2026)

Depot(s)Sendai
Line(s) servedTōhoku Shinkansen
Hokkaido Shinkansen
Mumbai–Ahmedabad HSRC (2026)
Specifications
Car body constructionAluminium alloy
Train length253 m (830 ft 58 in)
Car length26.5 m (86 ft 11+516 in)(end cars)
25 m (82 ft 14 in)(intermediate cars)[3]
Width3,350 mm (10 ft 11+78 in)
Height3,650 mm (11 ft 11+1116 in)
Doors
  • E514/H514: one per side plus one cab access door per side
  • E515/H515: one per side
  • E523/H523: two per side plus one cab access door per side
  • Other cars: two per side
Maximum speed320 km/h (198.8 mph)
Weight453.5 t (446.3 long tons; 499.9 short tons)
Traction system3-level IGBT-VVVF (Mitsubishi Electric, Toshiba or Hitachi)
Traction motors32 × MT207 300 kW (402 hp) 3-phase AC induction motor[4]
Power output9.6 MW (12,874 hp)
Acceleration0.48 m/s2 (1.1 mph/s)
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead catenary
Current collector(s)Pantograph
BogiesDT209 (motored), TR7008 (trailer)
Braking system(s)Electro-pneumatic regenerative
Safety system(s)DS-ATC
Multiple workingE3 series/E6 series
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Notes/references
Wikipedia blueribbon W.PNG
This train won the 55th Blue Ribbon Award in 2012.
Awarded for E5 series

The E5 series (Japanese: E5系, Hepburn: E5-kei) and the related H5 series (Japanese: H5系, Hepburn: H5-kei) are Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train types built by Hitachi Rail and Kawasaki Heavy Industries.

The E5 series is operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East); it was introduced on Tohoku Shinkansen services on 5 March 2011[5] and on Hokkaido Shinkansen services on 26 March 2016. A total of 59 10-car sets are on order, with three sets in service in time for the start of new Hayabusa services to Shin-Aomori in March 2011.[6]

The H5 series, a cold-weather derivative of the E5 series, is operated by Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido); it has been in use on Tohoku and Hokkaido Shinkansen services since 26 March 2016.[7][8] Ordered in February 2014, a total of four 10-car sets were built by Hitachi and Kawasaki Heavy Industries at a cost of approximately ¥18 billion (US$169.9 million).[8] The first two sets were delivered in October 2014.

Design

Technology incorporated in these trains is derived from the experimental Fastech 360S train tested by JR East. The initial maximum speed in service was 300 km/h (186 mph), but this was raised to 320 km/h (199 mph) between Utsunomiya and Morioka from the start of the revised timetable on 16 March 2013.[9] The trains feature an electric active suspension.[10]

H5

The H5 series is directly based on the E5 series trains operated by JR East on the Tohoku Shinkansen since 2011, and has an identical maximum operating speed of 320 km/h (199 mph), although this is limited to 260 km/h (162 mph) on the Hokkaido Shinkansen, and to 160 km/h (99 mph) on the dual gauge track extending through the undersea Seikan Tunnel connecting Hokkaido with mainland Honshu.[11] All cars feature active suspension, and tilt by up to 1.5 degrees through curves, allowing the maximum speed of 320 km/h (199 mph) to be maintained even on curves with a radius of 4,000 m (13,123 ft 4 in).[11] The units feature a number of cold-weather improvements, including an upgraded snowplow on the lead units, durable rubber to protect the various connections between cars and a stainless-steel underframe to protect the electronics (upgraded from the usual aluminium underframe protection for added durability).[12] They also incorporate minor interior design differences compared with the E5 series.[8][13]

Operations

E5 series set U6 on a Hayate service, November 2011
E5 series set U6 on a Hayate service, November 2011

As of 26 March 2016, E5 series and H5 trainsets work with each other,[14] and are used on the following services on the Tohoku and Hokkaido Shinkansen lines:[15]

E5 series trainsets were first introduced on the new Hayabusa services between Tokyo and Shin-Aomori from 5 March 2011, initially operating at a maximum speed of 300 km/h (186 mph). From 19 November 2011, a total of six E5 series trainsets were in operation, with sets also used on some Hayate and Yamabiko services. Hayate services operated coupled with E3 series Komachi services, and were limited to a maximum speed of 275 km/h (171 mph).[16] From the start of the revised timetable on 17 March 2012, E5 series sets were also introduced used on some Nasuno all-stations services.[17]

The H5 series is the first JR Hokkaido train type to use the "H" prefix, following the method used by JR East (with an "E" prefix).

Exterior

The exterior design of the trains is broadly based on the experimental Fastech 360S train, with a colour scheme of "Tokiwa" (常盤) green for the upper body and "Hiun" (飛雲) white for the lower body, separated by a "Hayate" pink stripe.[18][19] For the H5 series, the "Hayate" pink stripe is replaced by a "Saika" (彩香) purple stripe intended to evoke images of lilac, lupin, and lavender flowers for which Hokkaido is famous.[20][21]

Interior

The trains have three classes of accommodation: premium Gran Class (car 10), Green class (car 9), and Ordinary class (cars 1 to 8).[11]

Gran Class

Car 10 is designated "Gran Class", featuring 18 power-reclining "shell" seats with leather seat covers arranged in 2+1 abreast configuration.[22] Originally given the provisional name "Super Green Car", seat pitch in the Gran Class car is 1,300 mm (51.2 in).[21][23] Seats are 520 mm (20.5 in) wide and recline to a maximum angle of 45 degrees.[22] The pre-series set, S11, did not initially include Gran Class accommodation.[2] The carpet in the H5 series's Gran Class car is blue with a pattern intended to evoke images of Hokkaido's sea and lakes.[24] All seats in the H5 series feature AC power outlets.[21]

Green car

Car 9 is designated as "Green car" (first class) accommodation with 55 seats arranged in 2+2 abreast configuration. Seat pitch is 1,160 mm (45.7 in).[21] Seats are 475 mm (18.7 in) wide and recline to an angle of 31 degrees.[22] The carpet in the H5 series's Green car is dark grey with a pattern depicting the ocean with fragments of drift ice.[24] All seats in the H5 series feature AC power outlets.[21]

Ordinary class

Ordinary-class cars (cars 1 to 8) have a seat pitch of 1,040 mm (40.9 in), which is 60 mm (2.4 in) larger than on the E2 series trains.[3] Seating is arranged in 3+2 abreast configuration. AC power outlets are provided for window seats and rows of seats at car ends for the E5 series,[25] and all seats for the H5 series.[21] The interior of the H5 series's ordinary-class cars is intended to evoke images of snow and the night view of Hakodate.[24]

Gallery

E5

H5

Formation

E5

The production E5 series sets are formed as follows, with car 1 at the Tokyo end and car 10 at the Aomori end.[26]

Car No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Designation T1c M2 M1 M2 M1k M2 M1 M2 M1s Tsc
Numbering E523 E526-100 E525 E526-200 E525-400 E526-300 E525-100 E526-400 E515 E514
Weight (t) 41.9 45.9 46.0 46.3 46.1 46.8 46.8 46.0 45.8 42.7
Capacity 29 100 85 100 59 100 85 100 55 18
Facilities Toilet   Toilet, cardphone   Toilet, AED, cardphone, wheelchair space   Toilet   Toilet, wheelchair space, conductor's compartment  

Cars 3 and 7 each have one single-arm pantograph, although only one is normally raised in service.[27]

H5

The 10-car sets, numbered "H1" onward, are formed with eight motored ("M") cars and two non-powered trailer ("T") cars.[11] Car 1 is at the southern end.[11] Cars 3 and 7 each have one N-PS208 single-arm pantograph.[11]

Car No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Designation T1c M2 M1 M2 M1k M2 M1 M2 M1s Tsc
Numbering H523 H526-100 H525 H526-200 H525-400 H526-300 H525-100 H526-400 H515 H514
Capacity 29 98 85 98 59 98 85 98 55 18
Facilities Toilet   Toilet, cardphone   Toilet, AED, cardphone, wheelchair space   Toilet   Toilet, wheelchair space, conductor's compartment  

History

Pre-production set S11 at Sendai General Depot, July 2009
Pre-production set S11 at Sendai General Depot, July 2009

The pre-series set, S11, was delivered to Sendai Depot in May 2009 ahead of extensive test running on the Tohoku Shinkansen.[28] Cars 1 to 5 were built by Hitachi in Yamaguchi Prefecture, and cars 6 to 10 were built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Hyogo Prefecture.[29] Set S11 made its first appearance at Tokyo Station on 9 December 2009.[30]

The first full-production set, U2, was delivered to Sendai Depot in December 2010.[27]

In May 2012, the E5 series was awarded the 2012 Blue Ribbon Award, presented annually by the Japan Railfan Club.[31] A formal presentation ceremony was held at Tokyo Station on 20 November 2012.[32]

The pre-series set, S11, was upgraded to full-production standard in February 2013 and renumbered U1.[33] It retains the flush plug doors for the passenger doors immediately behind the driving cabs, whereas the full-production sets have recessed sliding doors.[33]

From the start of the revised timetable on 16 March 2013, the maximum speed in service was raised from 300 km/h (186 mph) to 320 km/h (199 mph) between Utsunomiya and Morioka.[9]

H5 series

H5 series set H1 on test in November 2015
H5 series set H1 on test in November 2015

Details of the new H5 series trains on order were announced by JR Hokkaido in April 2014.[7] The first set, H1, was shipped from Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Kobe to Hakodate Depot in October 2014.[34] The second set was also delivered in October 2014.[35]

In November 2014, JR Hokkaido officially announced details of the bodyside logos to be applied to the trains, combining an outline of Hokkaido with an image intended to portray the gyrfalcon native to Hokkaido.[20]

Slow-speed test-running on the Hokkaido Shinkansen tracks within Hokkaido commenced from 1 December 2014, with the maximum speed of 260 km/h reached on 26 December.[36] Test-running on the Tohoku Shinkansen south of Shin-Aomori commenced in November 2015.[37]

Fleet list

E5

As of 1 October 2021, the fleet is as follows.[38]

Set number Manufacturer Date delivered Remarks
U1 Hitachi/Kawasaki HI 15 June 2009 Pre-series set, originally numbered S11, modified February 2013
U2 Kawasaki HI 13 December 2010 Full-production sets
U3 Hitachi 31 January 2011
U4 18 February 2011
U5 19 August 2011
U6 Kawasaki HI 27 September 2011
U7 Hitachi 13 October 2011
U8 Kawasaki HI 14 November 2011
U9 5 December 2011
U10 Hitachi 30 January 2012
U11 Kawasaki HI 17 February 2012
U12 2 April 2012
U13 Hitachi 26 April 2012
U14 Kawasaki HI 31 May 2012
U15 Hitachi 11 June 2012
U16 26 July 2012
U17 Kawasaki HI 24 August 2012
U18 14 September 2012
U19 12 October 2012
U20 Hitachi 22 November 2012
U21 Kawasaki HI 25 December 2012
U22 Hitachi 31 January 2013
U23 Kawasaki HI 22 February 2013
U24 Hitachi 28 March 2013
U25 Kawasaki HI 10 April 2013
U26 Hitachi 30 May 2013
U27 Kawasaki HI 7 June 2013
U28 Hitachi 26 July 2013
U29 Kawasaki HI 7 December 2015
U30 Hitachi 15 January 2016
U31 Kawasaki HI 1 February 2016
U32 Hitachi 3 February 2017
U33 Kawasaki HI 16 January 2017
U34 Hitachi 13 October 2017[39]
U35 Kawasaki HI 19 July 2017
U36 25 August 2017
U37 21 September 2017
U38 9 February 2018
U39 Hitachi 24 August 2018
U40 11 January 2019
U41 Kawasaki HI 23 March 2018
U42 Hitachi 4 February 2019
U43 Kawasaki HI 4 March 2019
U44 Hitachi 29 May 2019
U45 25 February 2020
U46 Kawasaki HI 21 September 2021
U47
U48
U49
U50
U51
U52
U53
U54
U55
U56
U57
U58
U59

H5

As of 1 October 2021, the H5 series fleet is as follows.[9] Set H2 was withdrawn in April 2022 following damage sustained from the 2022 Fukushima earthquake.[1]

Set number Manufacturer Official delivery date
H1 Kawasaki Heavy Industries 1 November 2014
*H2 Hitachi 8 November 2014
H3 Kawasaki Heavy Industries 23 May 2015
H4 3 August 2015

Accidents and incidents

H5 series set H2, coupled with E6 series set Z9 and operating as Yamabiko No. 223 bound for Sendai, derailed during the 2022 Fukushima earthquake while traveling between Fukushima and Shiroishi-Zaō stations. There were no injuries on board.[40][41]

Future developments

The E5 series trains have been chosen for use on the planned ₹1.08 trillion Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor in India,[42] scheduled to open in December 2027.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "福島県沖地震で脱線したH5系H2編成が廃車へ". 北海道の鉄道情報局. 29 April 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  2. ^ a b MLIT press release: 東北新幹線に導入予定の新型高速新幹線車両(E5系)に係る安全性確認書の交付を行います (9 June 2009)[permanent dead link]. Retrieved on 18 June 2009. (in Japanese)
  3. ^ a b JR東日本 E5系新幹線電車(量産先行車) [JR East E5 series shinkansen pre-series train]. Tetsudō Daiya Jōhō. Japan: Kotsu Shimbun. 38 (304): 68–69. August 2009.
  4. ^ 鉄道のテクノロジー 3 JR高速特急Part.1 [Railway Technology 3: JR High-speed Limited Express Trains Part.1] (in Japanese). Sanei Shobo Publishing. July 2009. p. 9. ISBN 978-4-7796-0669-4.
  5. ^ 新しい東北新幹線の列車愛称等の決定について [Name selected for new Tohoku Shinkansen services] (PDF) (in Japanese). JR East. 11 May 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  6. ^ 新型新幹線は白とピンク スピード感表現 [New Shinkansen trains will be white and pink, expressing sense of speed] (in Japanese). Sankei News. 3 February 2009. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  7. ^ a b 北海道新幹線用車両について [Hokkaido Shinkansen Train Details] (PDF). News release (in Japanese). Japan: Hokkaido Railway Company. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b c 北海道新幹線「H5系」、内装には雪の結晶も [Hokkaido Shinkansen "H5 series" - Interiors to feature snowflake design]. Yomiuri Online (in Japanese). Japan: The Yomiuri Shimbun. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  9. ^ a b c JR電車編成表 2016冬 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2016] (in Japanese). Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 18 November 2015. pp. 11, 12. ISBN 978-4-330-62315-3.
  10. ^ "NSSMC's Active Suspensions for Railway Cars Are Adopted for Kyushu Railway Company's Cruise Train "Seven Stars in Kyushu"". nipponsteel.com. Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation. 11 October 2013. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d e f H5系新幹線電車 [H5 Series Shinkansen EMU]. Japan Railfan Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 55, no. 651. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. July 2015. pp. 101–108.
  12. ^ Special Preview: Hokkaido Shinkansen - Hopes and Challenges. Hakodate: NHK. 25 February 2016. Event occurs at 5:20. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  13. ^ 北海道新幹線4編成40両、年内に納入開始 JR社長会見、総額180億円 [4 Hokkaido Shinkansen sets to be delivered this year at cost of 18 billion yen]. Doshin Web (in Japanese). Japan: The Hokkaido Shimbun Press. 13 March 2014. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
  14. ^ "Hokkaido Shinkansen inaugurated". railwaygazette.com. DVV Media International. 29 March 2016. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020.
  15. ^ JR時刻表 [JR Timetable] (in Japanese). Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 2016. pp. 977–979. EAN 4910053110464.
  16. ^ 東北新幹線「はやぶさ」に投入しているE5系車両を「はやて」「やまびこ」に導入! [Tohoku Shinkansen "Hayabusa" E5 series trains to be introduced on "Hayate" and "Yamabiko" services] (PDF). Press release (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. 12 September 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  17. ^ 2012年3月ダイヤ改正について [March 2012 Timetable Revision] (PDF) (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. 16 December 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  18. ^ 新型高速新幹線車両(E5系)のデザインについて [Information on Design of New Shinkansen E5 Series Trains] (PDF) (in Japanese). JR East. 3 February 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  19. ^ Karuzawa, Masanobu (October 2014). 50 Years of High Speed Railways - Measures taken by JR East to expand Shinkansen network and increase train speeds (PDF) (Report). Japan Railway & Transport Review. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  20. ^ a b 北海道新幹線用車両H5系のシンボルマーク決定について [Details of the Hokkaido Shinkansen H5 series train logo] (PDF). News release (in Japanese). Japan: Hokkaido Railway Company. 20 November 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d e f 北海道新幹線車両(H5系)の概要 [Outline of Hokkaido Shinkansen rolling stock (H5 series)] (in Japanese). Japan: Hokkaido Railway Company. 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  22. ^ a b c 新型高速新幹線車両(E5 系)「スーパーグリーン車(仮称)」の正式名称・インテリアデザイン決定について [Official name and interior design selected for new Tōhoku Shinkansen "Super Green Car"] (PDF) (in Japanese). JR East. 11 May 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
  23. ^ "First Introduction of a 1st Class "Super Green Car" (tentative name) for New "Hayate" Shinkansen Trains (E5 Series)!" (PDF). JR East. 8 April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  24. ^ a b c Ishibashi, Ryosuke (17 April 2014). "JR Hokkaido reveals design of new bullet train series". Asia & Japan Watch. Japan: The Asahi Shimbun Company. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
  25. ^ Osaka, Naoki (10 April 2014). なぜ北陸新幹線は全席コンセント付きなのか [Why does the Hokuriku Shinkansen have power outlets for every seat?]. Toyo Keizai Online (in Japanese). Japan: Toyo Keizai Inc. p. 3. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  26. ^ JR東日本 E5系新幹線電車(量産車) [JR East E5 series Shinkansen (full-production version)]. Tetsudō Daiya Jōhō Magazine. Vol. 40, no. 322. Japan: Kotsu Shimbun. February 2011. pp. 80–83.
  27. ^ a b JR電車編成表 2012冬 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2012]. Japan: JRR. October 2011. p. 10. ISBN 978-4-330-25611-5.
  28. ^ E5系S11編成仙台港に陸揚げ [E5 series set S11 unloaded at Sendai Port]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Koyusha Co., Ltd. 24 May 2009. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  29. ^ JR車両の動き [JR Rolling Stock Changes]. Tetsudō Daiya Jōhō. Japan: Kōtsū Shimbun. 38 (305): 125. September 2009.
  30. ^ E5系が東京へ初入線 [E5 series reaches Tokyo for first time]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Koyusha Co., Ltd. 10 December 2009. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2009.
  31. ^ ブルーリボン賞・ローレル賞 選定車両一覧 [Blue Ribbon Award & Laurel Prize Winner List] (in Japanese). Japan: Japan Railfan Club. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  32. ^ ブルーリボン賞・ローレル賞受賞式 [Blue Ribbon and Laurel Prize Presentation Ceremonies]. Japan Railfan Magazine. Vol. 53, no. 622. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. February 2013. p. 64.
  33. ^ a b E5系S11編成が量産化改造を実施 [E5 series set S11 modified to full-production standard]. RM News (in Japanese). Japan: Neko Publishing. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  34. ^ "H5系が川崎重工から出場" [H5 series shipped from Kawasaki Heavy Industries]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 12 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  35. ^ フル編成、堂々 北海道新幹線、線路に [A complete Hokkaido Shinkansen trainset proudly takes to the rails]. Doshin Web (in Japanese). Japan: The Hokkaido Shimbun Press. 1 November 2014. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  36. ^ Ito, Hisami (March 2015). 北海道新幹線H5系 雪中で順調に試運転中 [Hokkaido Shinkansen H5 series: Test-running proceeds in the snow]. Japan Railfan Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 55, no. 647. Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. p. 57.
  37. ^ H5系が東北新幹線内で試運転 [H5 series test run on Tohoku Shinkansen]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 4 November 2015. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
  38. ^ JR電車編成表 2018冬 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2018] (in Japanese). Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 15 November 2017. p. 12. ISBN 978-4-330-84117-5.
  39. ^ JR車両のうごき [JR rolling stock changes]. Tetsudo Daiya Joho Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 47, no. 407. Japan: Kotsu Shimbun. March 2018. p. 102.
  40. ^ "Earthquake derails Japan's bullet train, cuts supply chains". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  41. ^ "東北新幹線下り「やまびこ223号」脱線確認 乗客96人けがなし" [Southbound Tohoku Shinkansen "Yamabiko 223" confirmed derailed; 96 passengers uninjured]. NHK (in Japanese). 17 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  42. ^ "Indian high speed rail project launched by Prime Ministers". railwaygazette.com. DVV Media International. 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2022.

Further reading