Idealized EPDM polymer, red = ethylene-derived; blue = propylene-derived; black = ethylidene norbornene-derived

EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber)[1][2][3] is a type of synthetic rubber that is used in many applications.

EPDM is an M-Class rubber under ASTM standard D-1418; the M class comprises elastomers with a saturated polyethylene chain (the M deriving from the more correct term polymethylene). EPDM is made from ethylene, propylene, and a diene comonomer that enables crosslinking via sulfur vulcanization. Typically used dienes in the manufacture of EPDM rubbers are ethylidene norbornene (ENB), dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), and vinyl norbornene (VNB). Varying diene contents are reported in commercial products, which are generally in the range from 2-12%.[4][5]

The earlier relative of EPDM is EPR, ethylene propylene rubber (useful for high-voltage electrical cables), which is not derived from any diene precursors and can only be crosslinked using radical methods such as peroxides.[6]

As with most rubbers, EPDM is always used compounded with fillers such as carbon black and calcium carbonate, with plasticisers such as paraffinic oils, and has functional rubbery properties only when crosslinked. Crosslinking mainly occurs via vulcanisation with sulfur but is also accomplished with peroxides (for better heat resistance) or phenolic resins. High-energy radiation, such as from electron beams, is sometimes used to produce foams, wire, and cable.

Properties

Typical properties of EPDM vulcanizates are given below. EPDM can be compounded to meet specific properties to a limit, depending first on the EPDM polymers available, then the processing and curing method(s) employed. EPDMs are available in various molecular weights (indicated in Mooney viscosity ML(1+4) at 125 °C), varying levels of ethylene, third monomer, and oil content.[citation needed]

Because of chemical interactions, EPDM degrades when in contact with bituminous material such as EPDM gaskets on asphalt shingles.[7]

Mechanical properties of EPDM
Property Value
Appearance Non-transparent black color
Hardness, Shore A 30–90
Tensile failure stress, ultimate 17 MPa (500-2500 PSI)
Elongation after fracture in % ≥ 300%
Density Can be compounded from 0.90 to >2.0 g/cm3
Thermal properties of EPDM
Property Value
Coefficient of thermal expansion, linear[8] 160 μm/(m·K)
Maximum service temperature[9] 150 °C
Minimum service temperature[9] −50 °C
Glass transition temperature −54 °C

Uses

An EPDM rubber roof

Relative to rubbers with unsaturated backbones (natural rubber, SBR, neoprene), rubbers with saturated polymer backbones, such as EPDM, exhibit superior resistance to heat, light, and ozone exposure. For this reason they are useful in external harsh environments.[10] EPDM in particular exhibits outstanding resistance to heat, ozone, steam, and weather. As such, EPDM can be formulated to be resistant to temperatures as high as 150 °C, and, properly formulated, can be used outdoors for many years or decades without degradation. EPDM has good low-temperature properties, with elastic properties to temperatures as low as −40 °C depending on the grade and the formulation.

A roll of EPDM flashing with fleece on the back, used for waterproofing roofs

EPDM is stable towards fireproof hydraulic fluids, ketones, hot and cold water, and alkalis.

As a durable elastomer, EPDM is conformable, impermeable, and a good electrical insulator. Solid EPDM and expanded EPDM foam are often used for sealing and gasketing, as well as membranes and diaphragms. EPDM is often used when a component must prevent fluid flow while remaining flexible. It can also be used to provide cushioning or elasticity. While EPDM has decent tensile strength, its flexibility makes it inappropriate for rigid parts such as gears, shafts, and structural beams.

It is used to create weatherstripping, seals on doors for refrigerators and freezers (where it also acts as an insulator), face masks for industrial respirators, glass run channels, radiators, garden and appliance hose (where it is used as a hose material as well as for gaskets), tubing, washers, O-rings, electrical insulation, and geomembranes.

A common use is in vehicles, where EPDM is used for door seals, window seals, trunk seals, and sometimes hood seals.[11] Other uses in vehicles include wiper blades,[12] cooling system circuit hoses; water pumps, thermostats, EGR valves, EGR coolers, heaters, oil coolers, radiators, and degas bottles are connected with EPDM hoses. EPDM is also used as charge air tubing on turbocharged engines to connect the cold side of the charge air cooler (intercooler) to the intake manifold.

EPDM seals can be a source of squeaking noise due to the movement of the seal against the opposing surface (and its attendant friction). The noise can be alleviated using specialty coatings that are applied at the time of manufacture of the seal. Such coatings can also improve the chemical resistance of EPDM rubber. Some vehicle manufacturers also recommend a light application of silicone dielectric grease to weatherstrip to reduce noise[citation needed].

This synthetic rubber membrane has also been used for flat roofs because of its durability and low maintenance costs.[13] As a roofing membrane it does not pollute the run-off rainwater (which is of vital importance for rainwater harvesting).[citation needed]

It is used for belts, electrical insulation, vibrators, solar panel heat collectors, and speaker cone surrounds. It is also used as a functional additive to modify and enhance the impact characteristics of thermoset plastics, thermoplastics, and many other materials.[14][15]

EPDM is also used for components that provide elasticity; for example, it is used for bungee cords, elastic tie-downs, straps, and hangers that attach exhaust systems to the underfloor of vehicles (since a rigid connection would transfer vibration, noise, and heat to the body). It is also used for cushioned edge guards and bumpers on appliances, equipment, and machinery.

Colored EPDM granules are mixed with polyurethane binders and troweled or sprayed onto concrete, asphalt, screenings, interlocking brick, wood, etc., to create a non-slip, soft, porous safety surface for wet-deck areas such as pool decks.[16] It is used as safety surfacing under playground play equipment (designed to help lessen fall injury).[16] (see Playground surfacing.)

Annual production of synthetic rubber in the 2010s exceeded 10 million tonnes annually and was over 15 million tonnes in triplets 2017, 2018, and 2019, only slightly lower in 2020.[17]

Further reading

References

  1. ^ Ravishankar, P.S. (2012). "Treatise on EPDM". Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 85 (3): 327–349. doi:10.5254/rct.12.87993.
  2. ^ Green, Mark M.; Wittcoff, Harold A. (July 2003). Organic Chemistry Principles and Industrial Practice. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley. p. 170. ISBN 978-3-527-30289-5. In addition to natural rubber, many synthetic rubbers... such as... ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber...
  3. ^ Louie, Douglas K. (2005). "Elastomers". Handbook of sulphuric acid manufacturing. Richmond Hill, Canada: DKL Engineering, Inc. pp. 16–116. ISBN 978-0-9738992-0-7. EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) is a M class Rubber containing a saturated chain of the polyethylene type.
  4. ^ Winters, R.; Heinen, W.; Verbruggen, M. A. L.; Lugtenburg, J.; Van Duin, M.; De Groot, H. J. M. (2002). "Solid-State 13C NMR Study of Accelerated-Sulfur-Vulcanized 13C-Labeled ENB−EPDM". Macromolecules. 35 (5): 1958–1966. Bibcode:2002MaMol..35.1958W. doi:10.1021/ma001716h. hdl:1887/3239453.
  5. ^ "ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENE RUBBER". www.rado-rubber.com. Retrieved February 19, 2024.
  6. ^ Traz Ouhadi; Sabet Abdou-Sabet; Hans-Georg Wussow; Larry M. Ryan; Lawrence Plummer; Franz Erich Baumann; Jörg Lohmar; Hans F. Vermeire; Frédéric L.G. Malet (2014). "Thermoplastic Elastomers". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 1–41. doi:10.1002/14356007.a26_633.pub4. ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2.
  7. ^ "A Little Known Solar Racking Problem: EPDM and Asphalt". Sunmodo. 2020-04-07. Archived from the original on 2023-01-28. Retrieved 2022-08-23.
  8. ^ "Designing with Rubber" (PDF), Technical Documentation Orings, Eriks, p. 30
  9. ^ a b "All Seals Inc. - The Sealing Specialists". allsealsinc.com.
  10. ^ "EPDM Rubber Sheeting | Next Day UK Delivery | Walker Rubber". Walker Rubber Ltd. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  11. ^ "What is EPDM Rubber and Its Uses for Automotive?". June 23, 2015.
  12. ^ "The science and ingenuity behind the humble wiper blade". www.imeche.org. Retrieved 2022-01-21.
  13. ^ "EPDM Rubber Roofing Explained". Roof Online. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  14. ^ "Ethylene Propylene Rubbers – Properties and Applications of Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM) and Ethylene Propylene Copolymers (EPM)". AZoM.com. January 29, 2003.
  15. ^ "Ethylene-Propylene Rubbers & Elastomers (EPR / EPDM)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Wet pour surfacing- EPDM". Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  17. ^ "Consumption of natural and synthetic rubber worldwide from 1990 to 2020". Statista. Retrieved 20 December 2022.
  18. ^ Ghahramani, Nikoo; Iyer, Krishnan A.; Doufas, Antonios K.; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G. (2020). "Rheology of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVS)". Journal of Rheology. 64 (6): 1325–1341. Bibcode:2020JRheo..64.1325G. doi:10.1122/8.0000108. S2CID 224904367.