This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Early timeline of Nazism" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The early timeline of Nazism begins with its origins and continues until Hitler's rise to power.
19th century influences
This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (June 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- 1841: German economist Friedrich List publishes Das Nationale System der Politischen Ökonomie (National System of Political Economy), espousing settlement farming and agricultural expansion eastwards along with economic industrialization manipulated by the state, and the establishment of a German-dominated European economic sphere as part of the solution to Germany's economic woes (predecessor ideas to Nazi imperialism).
- 1856: French aristocrat and author Arthur de Gobineau publishes his An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races in which he divides the human species into three races, black, white, and yellow; arguing therein that racial distinctions form a clear and natural genetic barrier of sorts. Gobineau wrote that racial mixing would lead to chaos. While not an anti-Semite, his work is often characterized as philosemitic (since he wrote positively about the Jews), but it is still considered an early manifestation of scientific racism. Historian Joachim C. Fest, in his biography of Hitler, claims that Arthur de Gobineau's negative views on race mixing influenced Hitler and thereby, the ideology of Nazism.
- 1888: German jurist and international law reformer, Franz von Liszt argues that criminal characteristics are innate as opposed to being determined by a person's social environment and coins the term, Kriminalbiologie (Criminal Biology), a theory that would later influence Nazi anthropologists and racial hygiene proponents in their justification for sterilization and euthanasia.
Chart: The political system of Germany in 1935, two years into the Nazi dictatorship
- 4 January: Secret meeting between Hitler and Papen occurs.
- 23 January: Schleicher resigns as Chancellor.
- 30 January: President Hindenburg appoints Hitler chancellor of a Nazi-DNVP coalition.
- 1 February: Dissolution of the Reichstag
- 2 February: Hitler meets with top military leaders, describes his plans to rearm Germany.
- 17 February: Prussian Interior Ministry permits the shooting of "enemies of the state" under the direction of Hermann Göring.
- 20 February: Secret Meeting between Adolf Hitler, and 20 to 25 industrialists to raise funds for the election campaign of the Nazi Party.
- 27 February: Reichstag fire occurs, it was officially blamed on Marinus van der Lubbe, a communist.
- 28 February: Hitler awarded emergency powers under the presidential decree, Law for the Protection of People and State ("Reichstag Fire Decree"), the process of exerting totalitarian control over Germany, begins. Over the next five months, the Nazis systematically force all opposition political parties to shut down.
- 5 March: General Elections result in slim majority of Hitler's coalition, though not a majority for the Nazi Party.
- 9 March: Heinrich Himmler becomes Police President in Munich.
- 13 March: Joseph Goebbels named Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
- 16 March: Hjalmar Schacht takes over the role of President of the Reichsbank from Hans Luther.
- 17 March: Sepp Dietrich assumes command of Hitler's body guard, the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler.
- 22 March: Dachau concentration camp opens, begins receiving political prisoners. First Nazi "racial hygiene" office established in the Interior Ministry.
- 24 March: Enabling Act, passed with help of Catholic Center Party, effectively hands the legislative powers of the Reichstag over to the Chancellor. Act permits Chancellor and cabinet to issue laws without a vote of Parliament and to deviate from the Constitution.
- 1 April: One day boycott of Jewish shops. Himmler is appointed police commander of Bavaria.
- 7 April: "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service" - Jewish and Communist inclined workers from the Civil Service purged, around 5% removed in total. Nazi governors appointed to rule the German states. End of federalism. Papen resigns as Reich Commissioner of Prussia.
- 21 April: Kosher slaughter outlawed
- 26 April: Hermann Göring forms the Gestapo (Secret State Police) in the state of Prussia.
- 2 May: Trade union offices are stormed by SA.
- 10 May: Deutsche Arbeitsfront DAF (German Labour Front) created and headed by Robert Ley
- 10 May: A large number of Nazi book burnings takes place across Germany.
- 23 May: Hitler visits Kiel Harbor to see the fleet consisting of the old pre-dreadnought battleships Schlesien, Hessen, and Schleswig-Holstein and the light cruisers Karlsruhe, Königsberg, and Leipzig. He boards Leipzig with leading SS and government officials including General Werner von Blomberg, Admiral Erich Raeder, Hermann Göring, and Franz von Papen.
- 6 July: At a gathering of high-ranking Nazi officials, Hitler declares the success of the National Socialist, or Nazi revolution.
- 14 July: Hitler proclaims the Nazi Party "the only political party in Germany." All others banned.
- 20 July: Reichskonkordat signed with Holy See. Violations by Germany begin immediately.
- 22 September: The Reich Chamber of Culture is established with Joseph Goebbels becoming its figurehead.
- 14 October: Germany officially withdraws from the League of Nations.
- 9 November: Freikorps symbolically pledge allegiance to Hitler in a huge ceremony.
- 12 November: Reichstag elections occur with the Nazis acquiring 95.2 percent of the vote (unsurprisingly) in a new single-party state.
- 27 November: Kraft durch Freude (Strength through Joy) program established.
- 30 November: The secret state police organization known as the Gestapo, which had only previously existed in Prussia is given authority throughout Germany.
- November: As part of the Rauschgiftbekämpfung ("war on drugs"), the Reichstag passes a law allowing the imprisonment of drug addicts for up to two years, a period that could be extended indefinitely by legal decree.
- Fall: Hitler reveals to his close associates a plan to annex Western Poland and create a ring of puppet states around Germany without any policies of their own
- 11 April: Pact of the Deutschland: Hitler persuades the top officials of the army and navy to back his bid to succeed Hindenburg as president, by promising to "diminish" the three-million-man-plus SA and greatly expand the regular army and navy.
- 20 April: The Gestapo is transferred from Göring to Himmler and Heydrich, who begin to integrate it into the SS.
- 16 May: German officer corps endorses Hitler to succeed the ailing President Hindenburg.
- 30 June – 2 July: Night of the Long Knives or Blood Purge: On pretext of suppressing an alleged SA putsch, much of the brownshirt leadership (i.e. Ernst Röhm) are arrested and executed. Schleicher and other political enemies are murdered. Papen briefly imprisoned; between 150 and 200 were killed. The SS, formerly part of the SA, now comes to the forefront.
- 13 July: Defending the purge, Hitler declares that to defend Germany he has the right to act unilaterally as "supreme judge" without resort to courts.
- 2 August: President Hindenburg dies. The previous day, the cabinet had enacted the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich". This law stated that upon Hindenburg's death, the office of president would be abolished and its powers merged with those of the chancellor. The decree is illegal but goes unchallenged. The army swears oath to Hitler.
- 19 August: The German people in a plebiscite overwhelmingly (90%) approve merger of the offices of President and Chancellor. Hitler assumes the new title of Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and Reich chancellor). He is now both the head of state and the head of government.