Earth observation (EO) is the gathering of information about the physical, chemical, and biological systems of the planet Earth.[1] It can be performed via remote-sensing technologies (Earth observation satellites) or through direct-contact sensors in ground-based or airborne platforms (such as weather stations and weather balloons, for example).[2][3]

According to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), the concept encompasses both "space-based or remotely-sensed data, as well as ground-based or in situ data".[4] Earth observation is used to monitor and assess the status of and changes in natural and built environments.[1]


In Europe, Earth observation has often been used to refer to satellite-based remote sensing,[1] but the term is also used to refer to any form of observations of the Earth system, including in situ and airborne observations, for example. The GEO, which has over 100 member countries and over 100 participating organizations, uses EO in this broader sense.[4]

In the US, the term remote sensing was used since the 1960s[5] to refer to satellite-based remote sensing. Remote sensing has also been used more broadly for observations using any form of remote sensing technology, including airborne sensors and even ground-based sensors such as cameras.[5] Perhaps the least ambiguous term to use for satellite-based sensors is satellite remote sensing (SRS), an acronym which is gradually starting to appear in the literature.[5][6]


Earth observations may include:[3][5]


Just as Earth observations consist of a wide variety of possible elements, they can be applied to a wide variety of uses. Some of the specific applications of Earth observations are:[6]


The quality and quantity of Earth observations continue to mount rapidly. In addition to the ongoing launch of new remote-sensing satellites, increasingly sophisticated in situ instruments located on the ground, on balloons and airplanes, and in rivers, lakes and oceans, are generating increasingly comprehensive, nearly real-time observations.

In 2017 [8] Earth observation have become increasingly technologically sophisticated. It has also become more important due to the dramatic impact that modern human civilization is having on the world and the need to minimize negative effects (e.g. geohazards),[8] along with the opportunities such observation provides to improve social and economic well-being.

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Earth observation". Retrieved 2022-09-23.
  2. ^ "Aims and Scope". International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. Elsevier. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  3. ^ a b "Newcomers Earth Observation Guide | ESA Business Applications". Retrieved 2022-09-23.
  4. ^ a b "GEO at a Glance". Retrieved 2020-08-25.
  5. ^ a b c d Pennisi, Elizabeth (10 September 2021). "Meet the Landsat pioneer who fought to revolutionize Earth observation". Science. 373 (6561): 1292. doi:10.1126/science.acx9080. S2CID 239215521.
  6. ^ a b Eklundh, Lars. "Remote sensing and Earth observation". Retrieved 2022-09-27.
  7. ^ Ashley Strickland, CNN (16 Dec 2022) 'Game changer' satellite will measure most of the water on the planet
  8. ^ a b c d Tomás, Roberto; Li, Zhenhong (2017-02-24). "Earth Observations for Geohazards: Present and Future Challenges". Remote Sensing. 9 (3): 194. Bibcode:2017RemS....9..194T. doi:10.3390/rs9030194. hdl:10045/63528. ISSN 2072-4292.