Education in Belarus is free at all levels except for higher education.[1] The government ministry that oversees the running of the school systems is the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Belarus. Each of the regions inside Belarus has oversight of the education system, and students may attend either a public (state) or a private school. The current structure of the educational system was established by decree in 1994. The education system is also based on The Education Code of the Republic of Belarus and other educational standards.[2]

Pre-school education

Kindergarten in Minsk
Kindergarten in Minsk

Pre-school education is not compulsory in Belarus, but around 70% of children attend nursery (at the ages 1 to 2) and kindergarten (at the ages of 3 to 5) before they start school.[3]

Some kindergartens are specialized to work with psycho-physically challenged children to help them socialize.

Very few kindergartens work in Belarusian language, and some parents experience difficulties trying to find a Belarusian-speaking kindergarten.[4]

Primary and secondary education

School No. 86 in Minsk
School No. 86 in Minsk

Education in primary and secondary schools is required for children from the ages of six until fifteen and lasts for 9 years. After finishing basic education, each student must pass the basic educational curriculum and is given a certificate by the state. Then students are able to enter a professional technical institutions where they can focus on completing their high school education and study to get a professional certificate.

Completion of 11 years of school or a professional certificate allows students to enter higher educational establishments or enter professional technical institutions as well; the length of the schooling depends on what the student has chosen.[3]

The majority of children are educated in Russian language, some regions have no schools working in Belarusian language.[4]

Belarusian schools use administrative resource to drag the pupils into the state-controlled BRSM youth union.[5][4] Those who deny to join to the "voluntary" organization, are considered "problem children" and experience pressure.[4] Younger schoolchildren are enrolled in the Soviet-style Little Octobrists and Young Pioneers.[4] Schools has deputy principals for ideology and education.[4]

Higher education

See also: List of universities in Belarus

Higher education is in constant growth since 1991. In 2011, 4,725 per 10,000 citizens were undergraduates. Belarus has also adopted the ECTS system, allowing more student mobility.[6] Belarus counts 55 higher education institutions (45 state-owned, 10 private).

To enter a higher educational establishment a student must pass three centralized tests (and get up to 100 points per test).[7]

There are two leading establishments of higher education in national education system:

In 2020—2021, several teachers were fired for political reasons from universities.[8][9][10][11][12] Ethnologist Uladzimir Lobač [be] claimed that that he was fired after Natalya Kochanova and Ihar Marzaliuk threatened the Polack State University not to certify it.[12]

A number of students who participated in the protests or openly expressed their civil position were expelled.[13][14][15][16] A number of expelled students were forced to leave the country[12]

Marks

A ten-point grading scale has been used since 2002. It is used in primary, secondary and higher education.

The grading scale is divided into five levels:

Level Grade Russian equivalent[2]
High 10 5+
9 5
Good 8 4+
7 4
Average 6 4-
5 3+
Satisfactory 4 3
3 3-
Low 2 2
1 1

Marks "1" and "2" are considered as "Fail" at school. In higher education, "3" is also considered as "Fail".

Bologna process

Main article: Bologna process

Belarus has been a member of Bologna Process since May 2015.

References

  1. ^ Education in Belarus|Study in Belarus, Study in Belarus Universities, 15 April 2018
  2. ^ a b "Home". adu.by. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Education, Belarus". www.belarus.by. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Šałajeva Alena, Education in Belarus
  5. ^ Youth Protests against Compulsory Membership of Pro-Lukashenka Youth Union
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-22. Retrieved 2014-04-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Республиканский Институт Контроля Знаний". rikc.by. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  8. ^ Маці адваката Бабарыкі будзе судзіцца з БДУ праз звальненне
  9. ^ З БДУ звольнілі выкладчыка ангельскай мовы. Ён толькі выйшаў пасьля 15 сутак
  10. ^ З БДУ звольнілі выкладчыка клясычных моваў і антычнай літаратуры, які выкладаў па-беларуску і асуджаў гвалт
  11. ^ Выкладчык журфака БДУ застаўся без працы за подпіс супраць гвалту і беззаконня
  12. ^ a b c Уволенные преподаватели, покинувшие страну студенты. Как протесты 2020 года изменили школы и вузы Беларуси в 2021-м
  13. ^ Дваіх юнакоў адлічылі з ФПМІ БДУ за падтрымку студэнтаў-палітвязняў
  14. ^ Студэнта-палітвязня Арцёма Баярскага адлічылі з БДУ
  15. ^ Журналістку «Народнай Волі» Глафіру Жук адлічылі з факультэта журналістыкі БДУ
  16. ^ ІЛЛЯ ТРАХТЭНБЕРГ