Edward Stanhope
Edward Stanope.jpg
President of the Board of Trade
In office
19 August 1885 – 28 January 1886
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded byThe Duke of Richmond
Succeeded byA. J. Mundella
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
3 August 1886 – 14 January 1887
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded byThe Earl Granville
Succeeded bySir Henry Holland, Bt
Secretary of State for War
In office
14 January 1887 – 11 August 1892
MonarchVictoria
Prime MinisterThe Marquess of Salisbury
Preceded byW. H. Smith
Succeeded bySir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Personal details
Born(1840-09-24)24 September 1840
London
Died21 December 1893(1893-12-21) (aged 53)
NationalityBritish
Political partyConservative
Parent(s)Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope
Emily Harriet
Alma materChrist Church, Oxford

Edward Stanhope PC (24 September 1840 – 21 December 1893) was a British Conservative Party politician who was Secretary of State for War from 1887 to 1892.

Background and education

Born in London, Stanhope was the second son of Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, by his wife Emily Harriet, daughter of General Sir Edward Kerrison, 1st Baronet. Arthur Stanhope, 6th Earl Stanhope was his elder brother and Philip Stanhope, 1st Baron Weardale his younger brother. He was educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford. Stanhope studied law, being called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1865. In 1861 he played three first-class cricket matches for Kent.

Political career

Caricature by Spy published in Vanity Fair in 1879.
Caricature by Spy published in Vanity Fair in 1879.

In 1874 Stanhope was elected to the House of Commons for Mid Lincolnshire, a seat he held until 1885, and then represented Horncastle until his death. He soon rose to a position of prominence within the party. In 1875, he became Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade, and in 1878 moved up to Under-Secretary of State for India, where he was a key assistant to India Secretary Lord Cranbrook.

After the Tories' fall from power in 1880, Stanhope supported Commons leader Sir Stafford Northcote against younger Tories led by Lord Randolph Churchill in internal Conservative party squabbling. When the Conservatives returned to the power, Stanhope became vice-president of the Committee of Council on Education, with a seat in the cabinet, and almost immediately thereafter President of the Board of Trade. He moved up to major cabinet office in Salisbury's second government, serving first as Colonial Secretary from 1886 to 1887 and then as Secretary of State for War from 1887 to 1892 following a cabinet reshuffle in January 1887.

As War Secretary, Stanhope fought for reform against the reactionary high officers – most notably the Duke of Cambridge, the Commander in Chief, and Sir Garnet Wolseley, the Adjutant-General. In spite of his own inexperience in military affairs and this formidable opposition, Stanhope achieved a fair amount, although it was his Liberal successor, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who managed to push Cambridge into retirement.

Personal life

In December 1893, Stanhope died suddenly of a heart attack, aged 53.

The school house 'Stanhope' at Alderwood School in the garrison town of Aldershot in Hampshire is named in his honour.

References

Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded byWeston Cracroft AmcottsHenry Chaplin Member of Parliament for Mid Lincolnshire 18741885 With: Henry Chaplin Constituency abolished New constituency Member of Parliament for Horncastle 1885–1893 Succeeded byLord Willoughby de Eresby Political offices Preceded byGeorge Cavendish-Bentinck Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade 1875–1878 Succeeded byJohn Gilbert Talbot Preceded byLord George Hamilton Under-Secretary of State for India 1878–1880 Succeeded byThe Marquess of Lansdowne Preceded byA. J. Mundella Vice-President of the Council 1885 Succeeded bySir Henry Holland, Bt Preceded byThe Duke of Richmond President of the Board of Trade 1885–1886 Succeeded byA. J. Mundella Preceded byThe Earl Granville Secretary of State for the Colonies 1886–1887 Succeeded bySir Henry Holland, Bt Preceded byW. H. Smith Secretary of State for War 1887–1892 Succeeded bySir Henry Campbell-Bannerman