|Trade names||Landel (ランデル)|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||631.666 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Efonidipine (INN) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker marketed by Shionogi & Co. of Japan. It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel (ランデル). The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has approved the use of efonidipine in India. It is launched under the brand name "Efnocar" (Zuventus Health care ltd, India).
Efonidipine is a dual Calcium Channel Blocker (L & T-type). It has a unique chemical structure. The phosphonate moiety (Figure 1) at the C5 position of the dihydropyridine ring is considered to be important for the characteristic pharmacological profile of the drug. (figure-1)
Efonidipine, a new generation dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blocker, inhibits both L-type and T-type calcium channels.
Peak plasma concentration is achieved in about 1.5 to 3.67 hours after administration. Half life is approximately 4 hours. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Efonidipine are depicted in Table-1.
Table 1: PK Parameters in Adult Healthy Male Subjects
Efonidipine is primarily metabolized in the liver. The important metabolites are N-dephenylated Efonidipine (DPH), deaminated Efonidipine (AL) and N-debenzylated Efonidipine (DBZ). DBZ and DPH exhibit activity as calcium antagonists. The vasodilating properties of DBZ and DPH were about two-thirds and one-third respectively than that of the parent compound. Results suggest that the majority of the pharmacological effect after oral dosing of Efonidipine hydrochloride in man is due to unchanged compound and its metabolites make a small contribution to the pharmacological effect.
Biliary route is the main pathway of excretion. No significant amount of unchanged drug was excreted in urine. In the urine collected for 24 h after an oral dosing, 1.1 % of the dose was excreted as deaminated Efonidipine, and 0.5% as a pyridine analogue of deaminated Efonidipine.
The common side effects are hot flushes, facial flushing and headache. In addition, elevation in serum total cholesterol, ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT) and BUN may occur. Frequent urination, pedal edema, increased triglycerides occurs in less than 0.1%.
One common adverse effect of the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers like Amlodipine is vasodilatory Pedal edema. Combined L-/T-type Ca2+ channel blockers, such as Efonidipine, display antihypertensive efficacy similar to their predecessors (Amlodipine) with much less propensity of pedal edema formation. Efonidipine equalizes the hydrostatic pressure across the capillary bed through equal arteriolar and venular dilatation, thus reducing vasodilatory edema. These incremental microcirculatory benefits of efonidipine over the conventional L-type Ca2+ channel blockers (Amlodipine) are likely attributed to their additional T-type Ca2+ channel blocking properties and the increased presence of T-type Ca2+channels in the microvasculature (e.g. arterioles, capillaries, venules etc.).
Among the CCBs, Efonidipine (<0.1%) has lowest incidence of pedal edema compared to amlodipine ( 5-16%), cilnidipine (5%), benidipine (5%)
The drug should be started at low dose (20 mg/day) in elderly. Patient should be carefully observed for development of hypo-tension. Dose may be halved if there is intolerance to the 20 mg/day dosage regimen.
The drug should not be administered to pregnant women and women suspected of being pregnant. Administration to lactating women should be avoided unless benefit significantly surpasses the risk to the child. Mothers on Efonidipine treatment should avoid breast feeding.
Safety of Efonidipine in low birth weight infants, newborns, infants and children has not been established.