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El Alamein
العلمين
al-ʿAlamayn
Clockwise from top:
Marina's Porto Resort, Alamein Port, Sunset on Alamein's Beaches, German Memorial s
El Alamein
El Alamein
Location in North Africa
Coordinates: 30°50′N 28°57′E / 30.833°N 28.950°E / 30.833; 28.950
Country Egypt
GovernorateMatrouh
Population
 (2007)
 • Total7,397
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)

El Alamein (Arabic: العلمين, romanizedal-ʿAlamayn, lit.'the two flags', IPA: [elʕælæˈmeːn] (audio speaker iconlisten)) is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt. Located on the Arab's Gulf, Mediterranean Sea, it lies 106 kilometres (66 mi) west of Alexandria and 240 kilometres (149 mi) northwest of Cairo. As of 2007, it had a population of 7,397 inhabitants.

History

The city's history dates back to the Roman era, when the city of Leucaspis, an ancient Roman coastal city, was located on its land, with a population of 15,000 people at the time. The city center features a Roman cathedral and a large hall that has been converted into a church. In the past, the village represented a commercial center between Egypt and Libya and the imports of the Cretan. The ancient settlement was destroyed in 365 by a tsunami wave caused by an earthquake that occurred off the coast of Crete. The town was not rebuilt, due to the state of turmoil in which the Roman Empire was at the time. All the trace of Leucaspis was lost until the year 1986, when a group of engineers who were working on building roads in Marina El Alamein uncovered old houses and tombs. The surrounding 200 acres of land have been designated an archaeological area, and archaeological excavations began in the 1990s.[1][2]

The First Battle of El Alamein

Main article: First Battle of El Alamein

The First Battle of El Alamein or Battle of Alam Halfa is one of the battles of World War II, which took place in the city of El Alamein between the Allied countries, represented by the British under the command of Montgomery and the Axis Powers represented by the Afrika Korps made up of the forces of Germans and Italians under the command of Rommel during the period from 31 August to 7 September 1942. The battle ended with the victory of the British Eighth Army under the command of Montgomery and the withdrawal of the forces of The African Legion, which suffered from scarce supplies and continued British bombardment by air and artillery fire, leading to its failure to reach the Suez Canal in what was known as the Six-Day Race.[3]: 4 [4]

The Second Battle of El Alamein

Main article: Second Battle of El Alamein

The Battle of El Alamein or the Second Battle of El Alamein is the battle that took place from 23 October to 4 November 1942 during the events of World War II on the land of the city of El Alamein between The British Eighth Army was commanded by Montgomery and the Afrika Korps was commanded by Erwin Rommel. The battle ended with the victory of the British as a result of their superiority in terms of numbers and equipment, as the British forces amassed more than a thousand tanks, which is twice the number of German tanks and 450 cannons, in addition to the air superiority of British bombers, while the German forces lacked adequate air cover and suffered from the age of their artillery model in addition to poor supplies. [5]

El Alamein Fountain

The El Alamein Fountain is a monument erected in Sydney, Australia, in memory of the soldiers who died in 1942 during the battles of World War II in the Egyptian town of El Alamein. It was designed by Australian architect Phil Taranto.[6]

Tourism

El Alamein war museum

El Alamein has a war museum with artifacts from North African battles.[citation needed]

Military cemeteries

Germany

Visitors can also see the Italian and German military cemeteries on Tel el-Eisa Hill outside the town. The German cemetery is an ossuary, built in the style of a medieval fortress.[7]

Italy

The Italian cemetery is a mausoleum containing 5,200 tombs. Many tombs bear the soldier's name with others simply marked IGNOTO, i.e. unknown.[citation needed]

Greek

There is a separate Greek cemetery at El Alamein.

Commonwealth of Nations

There is also a Commonwealth war cemetery, built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, with graves of soldiers from various countries who fought on the Allied side. Buried here are 6,425 identified Commonwealth service personnel, 815 unidentified ones, and 102 of other nationalities;[8] These include four Victoria Cross recipients:[9]

Others buried here include

This has monuments commemorating Greek, New Zealand, Australian, South African, Indian and Canadian forces. The cemetery entrance is through the Alamein Memorial and there is also a separate Alamein Cremation Memorial to 603 Commonwealth service personnel who died in Egypt and Libya and were cremated in line with their religion.[12]

The names of 213 Canadian airmen appear on the Alamein Memorial in Egypt.[13]

The cemetery was designed by Sir J. Hubert Worthington.[14]

Climate

El Alamein has a hot desert climate, Köppen climate classification BWh, common with most of the Middle East and north Africa. However, like the rest of the northern coast of Egypt, its climate is slightly less hot, compared to the rest of Egypt, because of the prevailing Mediterranean Sea winds.

Climate data for El Alamein
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.8
(64.0)
18.7
(65.7)
20.3
(68.5)
23.5
(74.3)
25.7
(78.3)
28.8
(83.8)
29.5
(85.1)
30.5
(86.9)
28.7
(83.7)
27.5
(81.5)
23.6
(74.5)
19.7
(67.5)
24.5
(76.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
13.3
(55.9)
14.9
(58.8)
17.7
(63.9)
20.5
(68.9)
23.8
(74.8)
25.2
(77.4)
25.7
(78.3)
24.4
(75.9)
22.1
(71.8)
18.3
(64.9)
14.4
(57.9)
19.4
(66.9)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
7.9
(46.2)
9.5
(49.1)
12
(54)
15.4
(59.7)
18.8
(65.8)
20.9
(69.6)
21
(70)
20.1
(68.2)
16.7
(62.1)
13
(55)
9.2
(48.6)
14.3
(57.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.1)
17
(0.7)
8
(0.3)
2
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(0.2)
21
(0.8)
24
(0.9)
107
(4.1)
Source: climate-data.org[15]

World War II

Two important World War II battles were fought in the area:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference elaph was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ "Film about El Alamein City" (in Arabic). Youtube. 14 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017.
  3. ^ Michael Carther' , "The Battle of El Alamein", translated by: Mohamed Ibrahim Abdel Aziz, review: Hussein Al-Hout, 170 pages, The National House for Printing and Publishing.
  4. ^ Ervin Rommel, "Memoirs of World War II Leaders - Rommel's Memoirs", Presentation, Analysis and Presentation: A Yemen Muhammad Adel, 2007 edition, 234 pages, The Window Library.
  5. ^ Cite error: The named reference Rommel's notes was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ "Kings Cross". withincooee. Unknown parameter |path= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Archive path= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Archive date= ignored (|archive-date= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |access date= ignored (|access-date= suggested) (help); Missing or empty |url= (help)
  7. ^ El Alamein at Find a Grave
  8. ^ "Cemetery Details | CWGC".
  9. ^ [1][permanent dead link] Burial locations of VC holders in Egypt.
  10. ^ "Casualty Details | CWGC".
  11. ^ "Casualty Details | CWGC".
  12. ^ "Cemetery Details | CWGC". www.cwgc.org.
  13. ^ "Monuments, World Wars I and II". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
  14. ^ "The Commonwealth War Graves Commission | CWGC". www.cwgc.org.
  15. ^ "Climate El Alamein Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". climate-data.org. Retrieved 13 August 2013.

Media related to El Alamein at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 30°50′N 28°57′E / 30.833°N 28.950°E / 30.833; 28.950