Scene from a polling booth in Bangladesh
Scene from a polling booth in Bangladesh

Bangladesh elects on national level a legislature with one house or chamber. The unicameral Jatiyo Sangshad, meaning national parliament, has 350 members of which 300 members are directly elected through a national election for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies while 50 memberships are reserved for the women who are selected by the ruling party or coalition. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The president who is the head of the state is elected by the National Parliament. The president of Bangladesh is a ceremonial post and does not exercise any control over the running of the state.

Bangladesh has an unofficial two-party system which has evolved over time since the election of 1991. It means that there are two dominant political parties or coalitions, one headed by Bangladesh Awami League and the other by Bangladesh Nationalist Party, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party in terms of achieving a majority.

Historical Overview

The constitution was adopted in 1972 and declared Bangladesh as a parliamentary republic. However, in 1975 executive powers were transferred to the Presidency, reducing the Jatiyo Sangshad and the Prime Minister to legislative powers only. This system was maintained until 1991 when the Twelfth Amendment was passed, returning the state to a parliamentary system. Since 1971, 11 parliamentary elections have been held and three Presidential elections have been held by popular vote.

Parliamentary elections

Electoral system

See also: Jatiya Sangsad and Government of Bangladesh

Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban

The Parliament of Bangladesh (Jatiya Sangsad) consists of 350 members elected to five-year terms. Of that number, 300 are elected in single-member territorial constituencies according to the first-past-the-post electoral system. The remaining 50 seats are reserved for women, and are filled on the basis of proportional representation by a vote of the 300 members. The number of reserved seats has been revised over the years, increasing from 30 to 45 under the 8th parliament and 45 to 50 under the 9th parliament.[1]

General elections

Since independence in 1971, 11 general elections have been held in Bangladesh to elect members of the Jatiya Sangsad:

1970

1970 Paskistani general election

Main article: 1970 Pakistani general election

The 1970 Pakistani National Assembly election was held on 7 December 1970. The total number of voters were 29,479,386. The number of casting votes was 17,005,163 (57.68%), the valid casting votes was 16,454,278.[2]

Party Votes % Seats
Awami League 12,338,921 74.9 160
Jamaat-e-Islami 991,908 6.0 0
PPP 483,571 2.9 1
Pakistan Muslim League (Convention) 464,185 2.8 0
National Awami Party (Wali) 310,986 1.8 0
Pakistan Muslim League (Kou) 274,453 1.6 0
Pakistan Muslim League (Kayum) 175,822 1.0 0
Independent 561,083 3.4 1

1970 East Pakistan Provincial Council election

Main article: 1970 Pakistani provincial elections § East Pakistan

The 1970 East Pakistan Provincial Council election was held on 17 December 1970. The percentage of casting votes was (57.69%), and the number of reserved women seat was 10.[3]


PartySeats
Awami League288
Pakistan Democratic Party2
National Awami Party (Wali)1
Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan1
Nizam-e-Islam Party1
Independents7
Total300
Source: Baxter[4]


1973

Main article: 1973 Bangladeshi general election

The 1973 general election was held on 7 March 1973. There were 15 seats reserved for women.[5]


PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Awami League13,798,71773.20293+5
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)1,569,2998.320New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal1,229,1106.521New
National Awami Party (Bhashani)1,002,7715.320New
Bangladesh Jatiya League62,3540.331+1
Bangla Jatiya League53,0970.280New
Communist Party of Bangladesh47,2110.250New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal38,4210.200New
Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist)18,6190.100New
Bangladesh Shramik Federation17,2710.090New
Banglar Communist Party11,9110.060New
Bangla Chattra Union7,5640.040New
Bangladesh Jatiya Congress3,7610.020New
Jatiya Ganatantrik Dal1,8180.010New
Independents989,8845.255–2
Total18,851,808100.003000
Valid votes18,851,80897.53
Invalid/blank votes477,8752.47
Total votes19,329,683100.00
Registered voters/turnout35,205,64254.91
Source: Nohlen et al., Government of Bangladesh


1979

Main article: 1979 Bangladeshi general election

The 1979 general election was held on 18 February 1979.[6] There were 30 seats reserved for women.[7]


PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Bangladesh Nationalist Party7,934,23641.17207New
Awami League4,734,27724.5639–254
Bangladesh Muslim LeagueIslamic Democratic League1,941,39410.0720New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal931,8514.838+7
Awami League (Mizan)535,4262.782New
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)432,5142.241New
United People's Party170,9550.890New
Bangladesh Gono Front115,6220.602New
National Awami Party (Nurur-Zahid)88,3850.460New
Communist Party of Bangladesh75,4550.3900
Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist)74,7710.391New
Bangladesh Jatiya League69,3190.362+1
Jatiya Ekata Party44,4590.231New
Bangladesh Ganatantrik Andolan34,2590.181New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal27,2590.140New
National Awami Party (Naser)25,3360.130New
Bangladesh Janata Dal18,7480.100New
National Republican Party for Parity14,4290.070New
Jatiya Janata Party10,9320.060New
Bangladesh Labour Party7,7380.040New
People's Democratic Party5,7030.030New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal4,9540.030New
Bangladesh Democratic Party3,5640.020New
Bangladesh Jatiya Mukti Party3,3630.020New
Bangladesh Tanti Samity1,8340.010New
Bangladesh Nezam-e-Islam Party1,5750.010New
Gano Azadi League1,3780.010New
United Republican Party3890.000New
Bangladesh Ganatantrik Chashi Dal1300.000New
Independents1,963,34510.1916+15
Total19,273,600100.003000
Valid votes19,273,60097.95
Invalid/blank votes402,5242.05
Total votes19,676,124100.00
Registered voters/turnout38,363,85851.29
Source: Nohlen et al., Government of Bangladesh


1986

Main article: 1986 Bangladeshi general election

The 1986 general election was held on 7 May 1986. There were 30 seats reserved for women.[8]

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Jatiya Party12,079,25942.34153New
Awami League7,462,15726.1676+37
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami1,314,0574.6110New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)725,3032.544New
Bangladesh Muslim League412,7651.454+4
National Awami Party369,8241.305+5
Communist Party of Bangladesh259,7280.915+5
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Siraj)248,7050.873New
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)202,5200.712+1
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League191,1070.673New
Workers Party of Bangladesh151,8280.533New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan123,3060.430New
Jana Dal98,1000.340New
Bangladesh Nagarik Sanghati68,2900.240New
Islami Jukta Front50,5090.180New
Jatiya Janata Party (Odud)46,7040.160New
Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (M-L)36,9440.130New
Gano Azadi League23,6320.0800
Bangladesh Islamic Andolan22,9310.080New
Jamaaiatay Olamaya Islam5,6760.020New
Jamaaiatay Olamaya Islam-Nezam-e-Islami party5,5720.020New
Pragotishil Jatiyatabadi Dal2,9970.010New
Jatiya Janata Party (Sujat)1,9880.010New
Bangladesh Jayita League1,9850.010–2
Bangladesh Hindu Oikkya Front1,3380.000New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal1490.0000
Young Muslim Society1410.000New
Bangladesh Islamic Republican Party1100.000New
Independents4,619,02516.1932+16
Total28,526,650100.003000
Valid votes28,526,65098.69
Invalid/blank votes377,2091.31
Total votes28,903,859100.00
Registered voters/turnout47,305,88661.10
Source: Nohlen et al., Government of Bangladesh

1988

Main article: 1988 Bangladeshi general election

The 1988 general election was held on 3 March 1988. There were 30 seats reserved for women.[9]

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Jatiya Party17,680,13368.44251+98
Combined Opposition Party3,263,34012.6319New
Bangladesh Freedom Party850,2843.292New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Siraj)309,6661.2030
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan105,9100.4100
23-Party Alliance102,9300.400New
Ganatantra Bastabayan Party4,2090.020New
Jana Dal28,9290.1100
Independents3,487,45713.5025–7
Total25,832,858100.003000
Source: Nohlen, Government of Bangladesh

1991

Main article: 1991 Bangladeshi general election

The 1991 general election was held on 13 January 1991. There were 30 seats reserved for women.[10]

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Bangladesh Nationalist Party10,507,54930.81140New
Awami League10,259,86630.0888New
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami4,136,66112.1318New
Jatiya Party4,063,53711.9235–216
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League616,0141.815New
Zaker Party417,7371.220New
Communist Party of Bangladesh407,5151.195New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)269,4510.790New
Islami Oikya Jote269,4340.791New
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)259,9780.761New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Inu)171,0110.500New
Ganatantri Party152,5290.451New
National Democratic Party121,9180.361New
Bangladesh Janata Dal120,7290.350New
United Communist League of Bangladesh110,5170.320New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan93,0490.2700
Bangladesh Freedom Party90,7810.270–2
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Siraj)84,2760.251–2
Bangladesh Muslim League (Ainuddin)66,5650.200New
Workers Party of Bangladesh63,4340.191New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Khaliquzzaman)34,8680.100New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Kader)32,6930.100New
Janata Mukti Party30,9620.090New
Jatiya Ganotantrik Party24,7610.070New
Bangladesh Inquilab Party24,3100.070New
Jatiya Oikkya Front21,6240.060New
Jatiya Janata Party–Ganatantrik Oikkya Jote20,5680.060New
Jomiyatay Wulamayya Islami Party15,0730.040New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Mahbub)13,4130.040New
Bangladesh Hindu League11,9410.040New
Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (Marxist-Leninist)11,2750.030New
Oikkya Prakriyya11,0740.030New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Matin)11,0730.030New
National Awami Party (Bhashani)9,1290.030New
Pragotishil Jatiyatabadi Dal6,6770.020New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal6,3960.020New
Jatiya Biplobi Front3,6710.010New
Pragotishil Ganatantrik Sakt3,5980.010New
Jatiya Janata Party (Ashraf)3,1870.010New
Bangladesh Jatiya Tanti Dal3,1150.010New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Yusuf)2,7570.010New
Jatiya Jukta Front2,6680.010New
Jatiya Janata Party (Asad)1,5700.000New
Bangladesh National Congress1,4210.000New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Chhashi Dal1,3170.000New
Gano Azadi League (Samad)1,3140.000New
Janasakti Party1,2630.000New
Bangladesh Nezam-e-Islam Party1,2360.000New
Islamic Samajtantrik Dal Bangladesh1,0390.000New
Bangladesh Freedom League1,0340.000New
Peoples Democratic Party8790.000New
Bangladesh People's League (Goariobi Newaz)7420.000New
Jatiya Mukti Dal7230.000New
Bangladesh Jana Parishad6860.000New
Muslim Peoples Party5150.000New
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Mukti Andolan5030.000New
Bangladesh National Hindu Party5020.000New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal4960.000New
Democratic League4530.000New
Humanitarian organization for the prevention of smoking and drug abuse (JIFSA)4530.000New
Jatiya Tarun Sangha4170.000New
Bangladesh Labour Party3180.000New
Bangladesh Manobatabadi Dal2940.000New
Ideal Party2510.000New
National Awami Party (Sadequr Rahman)2480.000New
Bangladesh Khilafat Party2410.000New
Bangladesh Islamic Biplobi Parishad2140.000New
Bangladesh Islamic Front2020.000New
Bangladesh Bekar Samaj1820.000New
Bangladesh Adarsha Krishak Dal1540.000New
Bangladesh Islamic Revolutionary Party1380.000New
Bangladesh Bekar Party390.000New
Jatiya Sramajibi Party280.000New
National Awami Party (Nur Mohammad Kazi)270.000New
Bangladesh Jatiya People's Party250.000New
Independents1,497,3694.393–22
Total34,103,677100.003000
Valid votes34,103,77798.92
Invalid/blank votes374,0261.08
Total votes34,477,803100.00
Registered voters/turnout62,181,74355.45
Source: Nohlen et al., Bangladesh Election Commission

1996

Main articles: February 1996 Bangladeshi general election and June 1996 Bangladeshi general election

Following boycotts by the main opposition party, the Bangladesh Awami League, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party won the uncontested February 1996 general election. However, amidst protests, they were made to cave in to Awami League's original demands, dissolve the parliament, and hold elections under a neutral caretaker government after the enactment of the 13th amendment.

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Bangladesh Nationalist Party278+138
Bangladesh Freedom Party10
Independents10+7
Vacant11
Total3000
Total votes11,776,481
Registered voters/turnout56,149,18220.97
Source: Nohlen et al.

Bangladesh Awami League won the June 1996 general election for the first time since 1973 by forming a coalition government, since they fell 5 seats short of a majority.

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Awami League15,882,79237.44146New
Bangladesh Nationalist Party14,255,98633.61116–184
Jatiya Party6,954,98116.4032New
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami3,653,0138.613New
Islami Oikya Jote461,5171.091New
Jaker Party167,5970.400New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)97,9160.231New
Workers Party of Bangladesh56,4040.130New
Gano Forum54,2500.130New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Inu)50,9440.120New
Communist Party of Bangladesh48,5490.110New
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh45,5850.110New
Sammilita Sangram Parishad40,8030.100New
Bangladesh Freedom Party38,9740.090New
Samridhya Bangladesh Andolon27,0830.060New
Bangladesh Islami Front23,6960.060New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan18,3970.040New
Bangladesh Jatiyabadi Awami League11,1900.030New
Islami Shasantantra Andolon11,1590.030New
Bangladesher Samajtantrik Dal (Khalekuzzaman)10,2340.020New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Mahbub)6,7910.020New
Bangladesh National Awami Party (NAP Bashani)5,9480.010New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Jamir Ali)4,5800.010New
Ganotantri Party4,1140.010New
Bangladesh National Awami Party (NAP)3,6200.010New
Democratic Republican Party3,6050.010New
Bangladesh Janata Party3,3640.010New
Jatiya Janata Party (Nurul Islam)2,9860.010New
Jatiya Janata Party (Sheikh Asad)2,3950.010New
Social Democratic Party1,9380.000New
Bangladesh Gano Azadi League1,6830.000New
Progotisil Jatiata Badi Dal1,5150.000New
Hak Kathar Mancha1,3400.000New
Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (Marxist-Leninst)1,1480.000New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal9640.000New
Communist Kendra8880.000New
Jatiya Biplobi Front6310.000New
Saat Dalya Jote (Mirpur)6020.000New
Bangladesh Hindu League5700.000New
Bangladesh Peoples Party5580.000New
Bangladesh Bekar Samaj5480.000New
Bangladesh Tafsil Jati Federation (S.K. Mandal)5370.000New
Desh Prem Party5320.000New
Ganotantrik Sarbahara Party5020.000New
Bangladesh Jatiya League (Sobhan)4180.000New
Jana Dal3950.000New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Mahiuddin)3930.000New
Jatiya Seba Dal3650.000New
National Democratic Party3530.000New
Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Janata Party2940.000New
Islami Al Zihad Dal2880.000New
Bangladesh Sarbahara Party2480.000New
Jatiya Daridra Party2440.000New
Sramajibi Oikya Forum2290.000New
Islamic Dal Bangladesh (Saifur)2210.000New
Bangladesh People's League2130.000New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Samsad (Darshan Shava)2090.000New
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Mukti Andolon1890.000New
Gano Oikkya Front (Guff)1860.000New
Bangladesh Mehanati Front1730.000New
Bangladesh Tafsili Federation (Sudir)1500.000New
People's Muslim League1400.000New
National Awami Party (NAP Bhashani)1380.000New
Quran Dorshion Sangshta Bangladesh1370.000New
Progatishil Gonotantrik Shakti1340.000New
Bangladesh Islami Party1320.000New
Bangladesh Jatiya Agragati Party1310.000New
Oikya Prokria1120.000New
Bangladesh Bashani Adarsha Bastabayan Parishad1070.000New
Bangladesh Bastuhara Parishad1050.000New
Bangladesh National Congress990.000New
Quran Sunna Bastabayan Party820.000New
Bangladesh Tanjimul Muslimin810.000New
Samridhya Bangladesh Babosai Samproday480.000New
Bashani Front450.000New
Bangladesh Krishak Raj Islami Party330.000New
National Patriotic Party310.000New
Bangladesh Islami Biplobi Parishad290.000New
Taherikay Olama-e-Bangladesh290.000New
United People's Party260.000New
Bangladesh Manabodjikar Dal200.000New
Independents449,6181.061New
Total42,418,274100.003000
Valid votes42,418,27498.92
Invalid/blank votes462,3021.08
Total votes42,880,576100.00
Registered voters/turnout56,716,93575.60
Source: Bangladesh Election Commission

2001

Main article: 2001 Bangladeshi general election

BNP won two-thirds majority in the parliament and won the 2001 general election.

PartyVotes%Seats
Bangladesh Nationalist Party22,833,97840.97193
Awami League22,365,51640.1362
Islami Jatiya Oikya Front4,038,4537.2514
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami2,385,3614.2817
Bangladesh Jatiya Party621,7721.124
Islami Oikya Jote376,3430.682
Krishak Sramik Janata League261,3440.471
Jatiya Party (Manju)243,6170.441
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal119,3820.210
Communist Party of Bangladesh56,9910.100
Workers Party of Bangladesh40,4840.070
Bangladesh Islami Front30,7610.060
BASAD–Khalekuzzaman21,1640.040
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh19,2560.030
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan13,4720.020
Gano Forum8,4940.020
Islami Shasantantra Andolon5,9440.010
Liberal Party Bangladesh3,9760.010
National Awami Party (NAP)3,8010.010
Bangladesh Progressive Party3,7340.010
Ganatantri Party3,1900.010
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal2,3080.000
Bangladesh Janata Party1,7030.000
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Mukti Andolon1,2480.000
Jaker Party1,1810.000
Bangladesh Peoples Congress1,1550.000
Communist Kendra1,0420.000
Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist)9720.000
Bangladesh Hindu League9220.000
Gano Azadi League7800.000
Jatiyo Janata Party (Adv. Nurul Islam Khan)6570.000
Bangladesh Muslim League (Jamir Ali)5820.000
National Patriotic Party5510.000
National Awami Party (Bhashani)4420.000
Bangladesh Jatiya Tanti Dal4410.000
Samridha Bangladesh Andolon4290.000
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal3910.000
Bangladesh Peoples Party3820.000
Desh Prem Party3660.000
Democratic Republican Party3640.000
Bangladesh Manabadhikar Dal2370.000
Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Janata Party1970.000
Liberal Democrats Party1700.000
Quran Darshan Sangstha Bangladesh1610.000
Jatiya Janata Party (Sheik Asad)1480.000
Pragatishil Ganotantrik Shakti1360.000
Sama-Samaj Ganotantri Party1310.000
National Awami Party (NAP-Bhashani Mushtaq)790.000
Quran and Sunnah Bastabayan Party770.000
Bhashani Front760.000
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League590.000
Bangladesh Bhashani Adarsha Bastabayan Parishad580.000
Bangladesh Sarbahara Party440.000
Jatiya Janata Party (Hafizur)300.000
Independents2,262,0734.066
Total55,736,625100.00300
Valid votes55,736,62599.20
Invalid/blank votes449,0820.80
Total votes56,185,707100.00
Registered voters/turnout74,946,36474.97
Source: ECB

2008

Main article: 2008 Bangladeshi general election

Bangladesh Awami League won two-thirds majority in the parliament and won the 2008 general election.

Party or allianceVotes%Seats+/–
Grand AllianceAwami League33,634,62948.04230+168
Jatiya Party (Ershad)4,926,3607.0427+13
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal506,6050.723+3
Workers Party of Bangladesh262,0930.372+2
Liberal Democratic Party191,6790.271New
Total39,521,36656.45263+186
Four Party
Alliance
Bangladesh Nationalist Party22,757,10132.5030–163
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami3,289,9674.702–15
Bangladesh Jatiya Party173,2920.251–3
Islami Oikya Jote108,4150.150–2
Total26,328,77537.6133–183
Islami Andolan Bangladesh658,2540.9400
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh175,2450.2500
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh146,8270.210New
Zaker Party134,9330.1900
Jatiya Ganotantrik Party107,7960.150New
Krishak Sramik Janata League102,8790.150–1
Gano Forum72,9110.1000
Communist Party of Bangladesh42,3310.0600
Socialist Party of Bangladesh38,6430.0600
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD37,3500.050New
Bangladesh Islami Front31,7850.0500
Khelafat Majlish27,9210.040New
Bangladesh National Awami Party24,1410.030New
Bangladesh Kalayan Party21,6090.030New
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation19,9050.030New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan16,9440.0200
Progressive Democratic Party14,2280.020New
National People's Party10,3480.010New
Bangladesh Jatiya Party8,3830.010New
Jatiya Party (Manju)7,8180.010–1
Bangladesh NAP4,3650.010New
People's Front4,0090.010New
United Citizens Movement3,5420.010New
Ganatantri Party2,5500.0000
Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh2,0210.000New
Bangladesh Muslim League1,1130.0000
Islamic Front Bangladesh1,0200.000New
Bangladesh Freedom Party5660.000New
Communist Party of Bangladesh (ML)2970.0000
Independents2,060,3922.944–2
None of the above381,9240.55
Total70,012,191100.003000
Valid votes70,012,19199.10
Invalid/blank votes636,2940.90
Total votes70,648,485100.00
Registered voters/turnout81,087,00387.13
Source: ECB

2014

Main article: 2014 Bangladeshi general election

In the 2014 general election the Awami League was declared victors in 127 of the 154 uncontested seats by default on 5 January 2014.[11] Of the remaining uncontested seats, the Jatiya Party led by Rowshan Ershad won 20, the JSD won three, the Workers Party won two and the Jatiya Party (Manju) won one.[12]

As a result of violence and the opposition boycott voter turnout was 22%.[13][14] Results of 139 seats out of 147 were released, with the Awami League winning 105, the Jatiya Party winning 13, the Workers Party winning four, the JSD winning two and the Tarikat Federation and BNF winning one each.[12] The remaining 8 constituencies election were suspended due to violence and re-election to be held.[12] The newly elected MPs were sworn in on 9 January.[15]

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Awami League12,357,37472.14234+1
Jatiya Party1,199,7277.0034+10
Workers Party of Bangladesh359,6202.106+4
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal203,7991.195+2
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation177,4491.042+2
Jatiya Party (Manju)124,3890.732+2
Bangladesh Nationalist Front107,9900.631+1
Bangladesh National Awami Party7,1200.0400
Khelafat Majlish5,7250.0300
Gano Front2,7170.020New
Bangladesh Islami Front2,5850.0200
Ganatantri Party2,0310.0100
Independents2,579,32415.0616+14
Total17,129,850100.003000
Valid votes17,129,85098.49
Invalid/blank votes263,0371.51
Total votes17,392,887100.00
Registered voters/turnout43,943,18439.58
Source: Parliament of Bangladesh, Bangladesh Election Commission

2018

Main article: 2018 Bangladeshi general election

The 2018 general election held on 30 December 2018, voter turnout was 80%. Bangladesh Awami League under the leadership of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina won their 4th term as the ruling party with 302 seats. The Jatiya Party became the main opposition party with only 26 seats.[16]

Jatiya Sangsad july2020.svg
PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Awami League[i]63,523,06674.63302+29
Jatiya Party4,443,3515.2226–8
Bangladesh Nationalist Party[ii]11,113,25313.067+7
Islami Andolan Bangladesh1,255,3731.470
Workers Party of Bangladesh[iii]646,0640.764–2
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal[iv]610,0440.722–3
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh[v]565,9400.662+2
Nationalist Democratic Movement496,4270.580
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation[vi]429,9550.511–1
Bangladesh Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal[vii]282,3130.331+1
Bangladesh Congress184,8230.220
Jatiya Party (Manju)182,6110.211–1
Zaker Party109,4400.130
Gano Forum103,5350.122+2
Bangladesh Islami Front60,3720.070
Communist Party of Bangladesh55,4210.070
National People's Party36,6110.040
Islamic Front Bangladesh31,4680.040
Liberal Democratic Party25,1520.030
Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh18,0430.020
Socialist Party of Bangladesh17,5910.020
Bangladesh Muslim League15,1160.020
Bangladesh Nationalist Front13,2890.020–1
Islami Oikya Jote11,3280.010
Khelafat Majlish11,2030.010
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan9,7960.010
Bangladesh National Awami Party8,3670.010
Progressive Democratic Party6,1130.010
Gano Front5,2770.010
Bangladesh National Awami Party-Bangladesh NAP5,1760.010
Bangladesh Jatiya Party4,6060.010
Jatiya Ganotantrik Party3,7980.000
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal-JSD3,1190.000
Bangladesh Khelafat Majlish2,8990.000
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh2,3510.000
Ganatantri Party1,6410.000
Bangladesh Cultural Liberation Front (Muktijote)1,2190.000
Krishak Sramik Janata League5970.000
Communist Party of Bangladesh (M-L)3870.000
Bangladesh Muslim League-BML2280.000
Bangladesh Jatiya Party1110.000
Bangladesh Kalyan Party550.000
Independents816,9020.962–12
Total85,114,431100.003500
Registered voters/turnout104,142,38180.20
Source: ECS, ECS, ECS,
Daily Star, Financial Express, Dhaka Tribune,
Daily Star, Daily Star, parliament.gov.bd, IFES [1]

Presidential elections

Main article: Presidential elections in Bangladesh

From independence until constitutional reform in 1991, the President was elected by popular vote, although this only happened on three occasions - 1978, 1981 and 1986.

Following constitutional reform and a return to a parliamentary democracy in 1991, the office of the President has been largely a ceremonial one. The President is elected by a vote in the Jatiya Sangsad. A Presidential term is for five-years, although they remain in office until their successor is elected. Elections under this system have taken place in 1991, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2009, 2013 and 2018.

1978

Main article: 1978 Bangladeshi presidential election

The 1978 Bangladeshi presidential elections were held on 3 June 1978. They were the first direct elections for the post President, as the post had previously been elected by the Jatiya Sangsad. The result was a victory for Ziaur Rahman, who won 76.6% of the vote. Turnout was 54.3%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Ziaur Rahman Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Front 15,733,807 76.6
M. A. G. Osmani Ganatantrik Oikkya Jote 4,455,200 21.7
Eight other candidates 342,554 1.7
Invalid/blank votes 354,010
Total 20,885,571 100

1981

Main article: 1981 Bangladeshi presidential election

The 1981 Bangladeshi presidential elections were held on 15 November 1981. The result was a victory for the incumbent acting President Abdus Sattar of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), who received 65.5% of the vote, beating his principal challenger Kamal Hossain of the Awami League. Voter turnout was 54.3%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Abdus Sattar Bangladesh Nationalist Party 14,203,958 65.5
Kamal Hossain Bangladesh Awami League 5,636,113 26.0
Maulana Mohammudullah Independent 388,741 1.8
M. A. G. Osmani Independent 293,637 1.4
M. A. Jalil Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal 248,769 1.1
Muzaffar Ahmed NAP (M)-CPB 224,188 1.0
33 other candidates 682,154 3.2
Invalid/blank votes 332,524
Total 22,010,084 100

1989

Main article: 1986 Bangladeshi presidential election

The 1986 Bangladeshi presidential elections were held on 15 October 1986. The result was a victory for incumbent Hussain Muhammad Ershad, who had assumed the office in 1983 following a military coup. Ershad reportedly won 84.1% of the vote with a voter turnout of 54.9%. However the elections were controversial as they were boycotted by all major opposition candidates and there were reports of irregularities.

Candidate Party Votes %
Hussain Muhammad Ershad Jatiya Party 21,795,337 84.1
Mauluna Mohammadullah Independent 1,510,456 5.8
Syed Faruque Rahman Bangladesh Freedom Party 1,202,303 4.6
Nine other candidates 1,408,195 5.4
Invalid/blank votes 380,745
Total 26,297,337 100

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The voting figures of the Awami League does not include the votes for 14 candidates of allied parties who contested on the Awami League 'boat' symbol
  2. ^ The voting figures of BNP includes all votes cast for candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' election symbol, including candidates belonging to allied parties
  3. ^ WPB fielded three candidates on its 'hammer' election symbol, who received 1,729 votes, and five candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 644,335 votes.
  4. ^ JASAD fielded nine candidates on its 'torch' election symbol, who received39,104 votes, and three candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 570940 votes.
  5. ^ Bikalpdhara Bangladesh fielded 23 candidates on its 'winnowing fan' election symbol, who received 18,183 votes, and three candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 547,757 votes.
  6. ^ Bangladesh Tarikat Federation fielded 16 candidates on its 'winnowing fan' election symbol, who received 6,087 votes, and two candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 423,868 votes.
  7. ^ One Bangladesh JASAD candidate ran on the Awami League 'boat' symbol.

References

  1. ^ Reserved parliamentary seats for women gets 25-year extension|Dhaka Tribune|8 July 2018
  2. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-23
  3. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-25
  4. ^ Craig Baxter (1971) "Pakistan Votes – 1970 Asian Survey, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp197–218
  5. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-27
  6. ^ "The Rule of General Zia". Bangladesh Awami League. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  7. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-30
  8. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-33
  9. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-36
  10. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page 40
  11. ^ "Clashes and boycott mar Bangladesh election". BBC News. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "Repolls ordered in 8 constituencies". bdnews24.com. 14 September 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  13. ^ Barry, Ellen (5 January 2014). "Low Turnout in Bangladesh Elections Amid Boycott and Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  14. ^ Barry, Ellen (6 January 2014). "Bangladesh ruling party wins after boycotted vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  15. ^ "Newly elected Bangladesh MPs sworn in". Al Jazeera English.
  16. ^ Hasan, Rashidul (5 January 2019). "Never-ending drama in JP". The Daily Star.