Scene from a polling booth in Bangladesh

Bangladesh elects on national level a legislature with one house or chamber. The unicameral Jatiyo Sangshad, meaning national parliament, has 350 members of which 300 members are directly elected through a national election for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies while 50 memberships are reserved for the women who are selected by the ruling party or coalition. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The president who is the head of the state is elected by the National Parliament. The president of Bangladesh is a ceremonial post and does not exercise any control over the running of the state.

Bangladesh has an unofficial two-party system which has evolved over time since the election of 1991. It means that there are two dominant political parties or coalitions, one headed by Bangladesh Awami League and the other by Bangladesh Nationalist Party, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party in terms of achieving a majority. However, the Jatiya Party (Ershad) also has gained electoral success over the years, winning several local and mayoral elections and being the primary opposition party since 2014 following the boycott of BNP.

Historical Overview

The constitution was adopted in 1972 and declared Bangladesh as a parliamentary republic. However, in 1975 executive powers were transferred to the Presidency, reducing the Jatiyo Sangshad and the Prime Minister to legislative powers only. This system was maintained until 1991 when the Twelfth Amendment was passed, returning the state to a parliamentary system. Since 1971, 11 parliamentary elections have been held and three Presidential elections have been held by popular vote.

Parliamentary elections

Electoral system

See also: Jatiya Sangsad and Government of Bangladesh

Facade of building across artificial lake
Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban

The Parliament of Bangladesh (Jatiya Sangsad) consists of 350 members elected to five-year terms. Of that number, 300 are elected in single-member territorial constituencies according to the first-past-the-post electoral system. The remaining 50 seats are reserved for women, and are filled on the basis of proportional representation by a vote of the 300 members. The number of reserved seats has been revised over the years, increasing from 30 to 45 under the 8th parliament and 45 to 50 under the 9th parliament.[1]

General elections

Since independence in 1971, 11 general elections have been held in Bangladesh to elect members of the Jatiya Sangsad:


1970 Pakistani general election

Main articles: 1970 Pakistani general election and 1970 Pakistani general election in East Pakistan

The 1970 Pakistani National Assembly election was held on 7 December 1970. In East Pakistan, The total number of voters were 29,479,386. The number of casting votes was 17,005,163 (57.68%), the valid casting votes was 16,454,278.[2]

Party Votes % Seats
Awami League 12,338,921 74.9 160
Jamaat-e-Islami 991,908 6.0 0
Pakistan Democratic Party 483,571 2.9 1
Convention Muslim League 464,185 2.8 0
National Awami Party (Wali) 310,986 1.8 0
Council Muslim League 274,453 1.6 0
Pakistan Muslim League (Qayyum) 175,822 1.0 0
Independent 561,083 3.4 1

1970 East Pakistan Provincial Assembly election

Main article: 1970 East Pakistan Provincial Assembly election

The 1970 East Pakistan Provincial Assembly election was held on 17 December 1970. The percentage of casting votes was (57.69%), and the number of reserved women seat was 10.[3]

Main article: 1970 East Pakistan Provincial Assembly election

Awami League288
Pakistan Democratic Party2
National Awami Party (Wali)1
Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan1
Nizam-e-Islam Party1
Source: Baxter[4]


Main article: 1973 Bangladeshi general election

The 1973 general election was held on 7 March 1973. There were 15 seats reserved for women.[5]

Awami League13,798,71773.2029315308+10
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)1,569,2998.32000New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal1,229,1106.52101New
National Awami Party (Bhashani)1,002,7715.32000New
Bangladesh Jatiya League62,3540.33101+1
Bangla Jatiya League53,0970.28000New
Communist Party of Bangladesh47,2110.25000New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal38,4210.20000New
Bangladesh Communist Party (Leninist)18,6190.10000New
Bangladesh Shramik Federation17,2710.09000New
Banglar Communist Party11,9110.06000New
Bangla Chattra Union7,5640.04000New
Bangladesh Jatiya Congress3,7610.02000New
Jatiya Ganatantrik Dal1,8180.01000New
Valid votes18,851,80897.53
Invalid/blank votes477,8752.47
Total votes19,329,683100.00
Registered voters/turnout35,205,64254.91
Source: Nohlen et al., Government of Bangladesh, Kumar Panday


Main article: 1979 Bangladeshi general election

The 1979 general election was held on 18 February 1979.[6] There were 30 seats reserved for women.[7]

Bangladesh Nationalist Party7,934,23641.1720730237New
Awami League4,734,27724.5639039–269
Bangladesh Muslim LeagueIslamic Democratic League1,941,39410.0720020New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal931,8514.83808+7
Awami League (Mizan)535,4262.78202New
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)432,5142.24101New
United Peoples' Party170,9550.89000New
Bangladesh Gono Front115,6220.60202New
National Awami Party (Nurur-Zahid)88,3850.46000New
Communist Party of Bangladesh75,4550.390000
Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist)74,7710.39101New
Bangladesh Jatiya League69,3190.36202+1
Jatiya Ekata Party44,4590.23101New
Bangladesh Ganatantrik Andolan34,2590.18101New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal27,2590.14000New
National Awami Party (Naser)25,3360.13000New
Bangladesh Janata Dal18,7480.10000New
National Republican Party for Parity14,4290.07000New
Jatiya Janata Party10,9320.06000New
Bangladesh Labour Party7,7380.04000New
People's Democratic Party5,7030.03000New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal4,9540.03000New
Bangladesh Democratic Party3,5640.02000New
Bangladesh Jatiya Mukti Party3,3630.02000New
Bangladesh Tanti Samity1,8340.01000New
Bangladesh Nezam-e-Islam Party1,5750.01000New
Gano Azadi League1,3780.01000New
United Republican Party3890.00000New
Bangladesh Ganatantrik Chashi Dal1300.00000New
Valid votes19,273,60097.95
Invalid/blank votes402,5242.05
Total votes19,676,124100.00
Registered voters/turnout38,363,85851.29
Source: Nohlen et al., IPU, Government of Bangladesh


Main article: 1986 Bangladeshi general election

The 1986 general election was held on 7 May 1986. There were 30 seats reserved for women.[8]

Jatiya Party12,079,25942.3415330183New
Awami League7,462,15726.1676076+37
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami1,314,0574.6110010New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)725,3032.54404New
Bangladesh Muslim League412,7651.45404+4
National Awami Party369,8241.30505+5
Communist Party of Bangladesh259,7280.91505+5
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Siraj)248,7050.87303New
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)202,5200.71202+1
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League191,1070.67303New
Workers Party of Bangladesh151,8280.53303New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan123,3060.43000New
Jana Dal98,1000.34000New
Bangladesh Nagarik Sanghati68,2900.24000New
Islami Jukta Front50,5090.18000New
Jatiya Janata Party (Odud)46,7040.16000New
Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (M-L)36,9440.13000New
Gano Azadi League23,6320.080000
Bangladesh Islamic Andolan22,9310.08000New
Jamaaiatay Olamaya Islam5,6760.02000New
Jamaaiatay Olamaya Islam-Nezam-e-Islami party5,5720.02000New
Pragotishil Jatiyatabadi Dal2,9970.01000New
Jatiya Janata Party (Sujat)1,9880.01000New
Bangladesh Jayita League1,9850.01000–2
Bangladesh Hindu Oikkya Front1,3380.00000New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal1490.000000
Young Muslim Society1410.00000New
Bangladesh Islamic Republican Party1100.00000New
Valid votes28,526,65098.69
Invalid/blank votes377,2091.31
Total votes28,903,859100.00
Registered voters/turnout47,305,88661.10
Source: Nohlen et al., IPU, Government of Bangladesh


Main article: 1988 Bangladeshi general election

The 1988 general election was held on 3 March 1988. There were 30 seats reserved for women.[9]

Jatiya Party17,680,13368.44251+98
Combined Opposition Party3,263,34012.6319New
Bangladesh Freedom Party850,2843.292New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Siraj)309,6661.2030
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan105,9100.4100
23-Party Alliance102,9300.400New
Ganatantra Bastabayan Party4,2090.020New
Jana Dal28,9290.1100
Source: Nohlen, Government of Bangladesh


Main article: 1991 Bangladeshi general election

The 1991 general election was held on 13 January 1991. There were 30 seats reserved for women.[10]

Bangladesh Nationalist Party10,507,54930.8114028168New
Awami League10,259,86630.0888088New
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami4,136,66112.1318220New
Jatiya Party4,063,53711.9235035–216
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League616,0141.81505New
Zaker Party417,7371.22000New
Communist Party of Bangladesh407,5151.19505New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)269,4510.79000New
Islami Oikya Jote269,4340.79101New
National Awami Party (Muzaffar)259,9780.76101New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Inu)171,0110.50000New
Ganatantri Party152,5290.45101New
National Democratic Party121,9180.36101New
Bangladesh Janata Dal120,7290.35000New
United Communist League of Bangladesh110,5170.32000New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan93,0490.270000
Bangladesh Freedom Party90,7810.27000–2
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Siraj)84,2760.25101–2
Bangladesh Muslim League (Ainuddin)66,5650.20000New
Workers Party of Bangladesh63,4340.19101New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Khaliquzzaman)34,8680.10000New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Kader)32,6930.10000New
Janata Mukti Party30,9620.09000New
Jatiya Ganotantrik Party24,7610.07000New
Bangladesh Inquilab Party24,3100.07000New
Jatiya Oikkya Front21,6240.06000New
Jatiya Janata Party–Ganatantrik Oikkya Jote20,5680.06000New
Jomiyatay Wulamayya Islami Party15,0730.04000New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Mahbub)13,4130.04000New
Bangladesh Hindu League11,9410.04000New
Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (Marxist-Leninist)11,2750.03000New
Oikkya Prakriyya11,0740.03000New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Matin)11,0730.03000New
National Awami Party (Bhashani)9,1290.03000New
Pragotishil Jatiyatabadi Dal6,6770.02000New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal6,3960.02000New
Jatiya Biplobi Front3,6710.01000New
Pragotishil Ganatantrik Sakt3,5980.01000New
Jatiya Janata Party (Ashraf)3,1870.01000New
Bangladesh Jatiya Tanti Dal3,1150.01000New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Yusuf)2,7570.01000New
Jatiya Jukta Front2,6680.01000New
Jatiya Janata Party (Asad)1,5700.00000New
Bangladesh National Congress1,4210.00000New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Chhashi Dal1,3170.00000New
Gano Azadi League (Samad)1,3140.00000New
Janasakti Party1,2630.00000New
Bangladesh Nezam-e-Islam Party1,2360.00000New
Islamic Samajtantrik Dal Bangladesh1,0390.00000New
Bangladesh Freedom League1,0340.00000New
Peoples Democratic Party8790.00000New
Bangladesh People's League (Goariobi Newaz)7420.00000New
Jatiya Mukti Dal7230.00000New
Bangladesh Jana Parishad6860.00000New
Muslim Peoples Party5150.00000New
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Mukti Andolan5030.00000New
Bangladesh National Hindu Party5020.00000New
Jatiyatabadi Ganatantrik Dal4960.00000New
Democratic League4530.00000New
Humanitarian organization for the prevention of smoking and drug abuse (JIFSA)4530.00000New
Jatiya Tarun Sangha4170.00000New
Bangladesh Labour Party3180.00000New
Bangladesh Manobatabadi Dal2940.00000New
Ideal Party2510.00000New
National Awami Party (Sadequr Rahman)2480.00000New
Bangladesh Khilafat Party2410.00000New
Bangladesh Islamic Biplobi Parishad2140.00000New
Bangladesh Islami Front2020.00000New
Bangladesh Bekar Samaj1820.00000New
Bangladesh Adarsha Krishak Dal1540.00000New
Bangladesh Islamic Revolutionary Party1380.00000New
Bangladesh Bekar Party390.00000New
Jatiya Sramajibi Party280.00000New
National Awami Party (Nur Mohammad Kazi)270.00000New
Bangladesh Jatiya People's Party250.00000New
Valid votes34,103,67798.92
Invalid/blank votes374,0261.08
Total votes34,477,703100.00
Registered voters/turnout62,181,74355.45
Source: Nohlen et al., Bangladesh Election Commission, Kumar Panday


Main articles: February 1996 Bangladeshi general election and June 1996 Bangladeshi general election

Following boycotts by the main opposition party, the Bangladesh Awami League, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party won the uncontested February 1996 general election. However, amidst protests, they were made to cave in to Awami League's original demands, dissolve the parliament, and hold elections under a neutral caretaker government after the enactment of the 13th amendment.

Bangladesh Nationalist Party27830308+140
Bangladesh Freedom Party1010
Total votes11,776,481
Registered voters/turnout56,149,18220.97
Source: Nohlen et al., Kumar Panday

Bangladesh Awami League won the June 1996 general election for the first time since 1973 by forming a coalition government, since they fell 5 seats short of a majority.

Awami League15,882,79237.4414627173New
Bangladesh Nationalist Party14,255,98633.611160116–192
Jatiya Party6,954,98116.4032335New
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami3,653,0138.61303New
Islami Oikya Jote461,5171.09101New
Zaker Party167,5970.40000New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)97,9160.23101New
Workers Party of Bangladesh56,4040.13000New
Gano Forum54,2500.13000New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Inu)50,9440.12000New
Communist Party of Bangladesh48,5490.11000New
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh45,5850.11000New
Sammilita Sangram Parishad40,8030.10000New
Bangladesh Freedom Party38,9740.09000New
Samridhya Bangladesh Andolon27,0830.06000New
Bangladesh Islami Front23,6960.06000New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan18,3970.04000New
Bangladesh Jatiyabadi Awami League11,1900.03000New
Islami Shasantantra Andolon11,1590.03000New
Bangladesher Samajtantrik Dal (Khalekuzzaman)10,2340.02000New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal (Mahbub)6,7910.02000New
Bangladesh National Awami Party (NAP Bashani)5,9480.01000New
Bangladesh Muslim League (Jamir Ali)4,5800.01000New
Ganatantri Party4,1140.01000New
Bangladesh National Awami Party (NAP)3,6200.01000New
Democratic Republican Party3,6050.01000New
Bangladesh Janata Party3,3640.01000New
Jatiya Janata Party (Nurul Islam)2,9860.01000New
Jatiya Janata Party (Sheikh Asad)2,3950.01000New
Social Democratic Party1,9380.00000New
Bangladesh Gano Azadi League1,6830.00000New
Progotisil Jatiata Badi Dal1,5150.00000New
Hak Kathar Mancha1,3400.00000New
Bangladesh Samyabadi Dal (Marxist-Leninist)1,1480.00000New
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal9640.00000New
Communist Kendra8880.00000New
Jatiya Biplobi Front6310.00000New
Saat Dalya Jote (Mirpur)6020.00000New
Bangladesh Hindu League5700.00000New
Bangladesh Peoples Party5580.00000New
Bangladesh Bekar Samaj5480.00000New
Bangladesh Tafsil Jati Federation (S.K. Mandal)5370.00000New
Desh Prem Party5320.00000New
Ganotantrik Sarbahara Party5020.00000New
Bangladesh Jatiya League (Sobhan)4180.00000New
Jana Dal3950.00000New
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Mahiuddin)3930.00000New
Jatiya Seba Dal3650.00000New
National Democratic Party3530.00000New
Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Janata Party2940.00000New
Islami Al Zihad Dal2880.00000New
Bangladesh Sarbahara Party2480.00000New
Jatiya Daridra Party2440.00000New
Sramajibi Oikya Forum2290.00000New
Islamic Dal Bangladesh (Saifur)2210.00000New
Bangladesh People's League2130.00000New
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Samsad (Darshan Shava)2090.00000New
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Mukti Andolon1890.00000New
Gano Oikkya Front (Guff)1860.00000New
Bangladesh Mehanati Front1730.00000New
Bangladesh Tafsili Federation (Sudir)1500.00000New
People's Muslim League1400.00000New
National Awami Party (NAP Bhashani)1380.00000New
Quran Dorshion Sangshta Bangladesh1370.00000New
Progatishil Gonotantrik Shakti1340.00000New
Bangladesh Islami Party1320.00000New
Bangladesh Jatiya Agragati Party1310.00000New
Oikya Prokria1120.00000New
Bangladesh Bashani Adarsha Bastabayan Parishad1070.00000New
Bangladesh Bastuhara Parishad1050.00000New
Bangladesh National Congress990.00000New
Quran Sunna Bastabayan Party820.00000New
Bangladesh Tanjimul Muslimin810.00000New
Samridhya Bangladesh Babosai Samproday480.00000New
Bashani Front450.00000New
Bangladesh Krishak Raj Islami Party330.00000New
National Patriotic Party310.00000New
Bangladesh Islami Biplobi Parishad290.00000New
Taherikay Olama-e-Bangladesh290.00000New
United Peoples' Party260.00000New
Bangladesh Manabodjikar Dal200.00000New
Valid votes42,418,27498.92
Invalid/blank votes462,3021.08
Total votes42,880,576100.00
Registered voters/turnout56,716,93575.60
Source: Bangladesh Election Commission, Kumar Panday


Main article: 2001 Bangladeshi general election

BNP won two-thirds majority in the parliament and won the 2001 general election.

Bangladesh Nationalist Party22,833,97840.97193
Awami League22,365,51640.1362
Islami Jatiya Oikya Front4,038,4537.2514
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami2,385,3614.2817
Bangladesh Jatiya Party621,7721.124
Islami Oikya Jote376,3430.682
Krishak Sramik Janata League261,3440.471
Jatiya Party (Manju)243,6170.441
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal119,3820.210
Communist Party of Bangladesh56,9910.100
Workers Party of Bangladesh40,4840.070
Bangladesh Islami Front30,7610.060
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh19,2560.030
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan13,4720.020
Gano Forum8,4940.020
Islami Shasantantra Andolon5,9440.010
Liberal Party Bangladesh3,9760.010
National Awami Party (NAP)3,8010.010
Bangladesh Progressive Party3,7340.010
Ganatantri Party3,1900.010
Bangladesh Samajtantrik Dal2,3080.000
Bangladesh Janata Party1,7030.000
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Mukti Andolon1,2480.000
Jaker Party1,1810.000
Bangladesh Peoples Congress1,1550.000
Communist Kendra1,0420.000
Communist Party of Bangladesh (Marxist–Leninist)9720.000
Bangladesh Hindu League9220.000
Gano Azadi League7800.000
Jatiyo Janata Party (Adv. Nurul Islam Khan)6570.000
Bangladesh Muslim League (Jamir Ali)5820.000
National Patriotic Party5510.000
National Awami Party (Bhashani)4420.000
Bangladesh Jatiya Tanti Dal4410.000
Samridha Bangladesh Andolon4290.000
Sramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal3910.000
Bangladesh Peoples Party3820.000
Desh Prem Party3660.000
Democratic Republican Party3640.000
Bangladesh Manabadhikar Dal2370.000
Bangladesh Krisak Sramik Janata Party1970.000
Liberal Democrats Party1700.000
Quran Darshan Sangstha Bangladesh1610.000
Jatiya Janata Party (Sheik Asad)1480.000
Pragatishil Ganotantrik Shakti1360.000
Sama-Samaj Ganotantri Party1310.000
National Awami Party (NAP-Bhashani Mushtaq)790.000
Quran and Sunnah Bastabayan Party770.000
Bhashani Front760.000
Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League590.000
Bangladesh Bhashani Adarsha Bastabayan Parishad580.000
Bangladesh Sarbahara Party440.000
Jatiya Janata Party (Hafizur)300.000
Valid votes55,736,62599.20
Invalid/blank votes449,0820.80
Total votes56,185,707100.00
Registered voters/turnout74,946,36474.97
Source: ECB


Main article: 2008 Bangladeshi general election

Bangladesh Awami League won two-thirds majority in the parliament and won the 2008 general election.

General seats results by alliance (left) and party (right)
Party or allianceVotes%Seats
Grand AllianceAwami League33,634,62948.0423036266+204
Jatiya Party (Ershad)4,926,3607.0427431+17
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal506,6050.72303+3
Workers Party of Bangladesh262,0930.37202+2
Liberal Democratic Party191,6790.27101New
Four Party
Bangladesh Nationalist Party22,757,10132.5030535–158
Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami3,289,9674.70202–15
Bangladesh Jatiya Party173,2920.25101–3
Islami Oikya Jote108,4150.15000–2
Islami Andolan Bangladesh658,2540.940000
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh175,2450.250000
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh146,8270.21000New
Zaker Party134,9330.190000
Jatiya Ganotantrik Party107,7960.15000New
Krishak Sramik Janata League102,8790.15000–1
Gano Forum72,9110.100000
Communist Party of Bangladesh42,3310.060000
Socialist Party of Bangladesh38,6430.060000
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)37,3500.05000New
Bangladesh Islami Front31,7850.050000
Khelafat Majlish27,9210.04000New
Bangladesh National Awami Party24,1410.03000New
Bangladesh Kalayan Party21,6090.03000New
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation19,9050.03000New
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan16,9440.020000
Progressive Democratic Party14,2280.02000New
National People's Party10,3480.01000New
Bangladesh Jatiya Party8,3830.01000New
Jatiya Party (Manju)7,8180.01000–1
Bangladesh NAP4,3650.01000New
People's Front4,0090.01000New
United Citizens Movement3,5420.01000New
Ganatantri Party2,5500.000000
Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh2,0210.00000New
Bangladesh Muslim League1,1130.000000
Islamic Front Bangladesh1,0200.00000New
Bangladesh Freedom Party5660.00000New
Communist Party of Bangladesh (ML)2970.000000
None of the above381,9240.55
Valid votes70,012,19199.10
Invalid/blank votes636,2940.90
Total votes70,648,485100.00
Registered voters/turnout81,087,00387.13
Source: ECB, Asian Tribune


Main article: 2014 Bangladeshi general election

In the 2014 general election the Awami League was declared victors in 127 of the 154 uncontested seats by default on 5 January 2014.[11] Of the remaining uncontested seats, the Jatiya Party led by Rowshan Ershad won 20, the JSD won three, the Workers Party won two and the Jatiya Party (Manju) won one.[12]

As a result of violence and the opposition boycott voter turnout was 22%.[13][14] Results of 139 seats out of 147 were released, with the Awami League winning 105, the Jatiya Party winning 13, the Workers Party winning four, the JSD winning two and the Tarikat Federation and BNF winning one each.[12] The remaining 8 constituencies election were suspended due to violence and re-election to be held.[12] The newly elected MPs were sworn in on 9 January.[15]

Awami League12,357,37472.1423439273
Jatiya Party1,199,7277.0034640
Workers Party of Bangladesh359,6202.10617
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal203,7991.19516
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation177,4491.04202
Jatiya Party (Manju)124,3890.73202
Bangladesh Nationalist Front107,9900.63101
Bangladesh National Awami Party7,1200.04000
Khelafat Majlish5,7250.03000
Gano Front2,7170.02000
Bangladesh Islami Front2,5850.02000
Ganatantri Party2,0310.01000
Valid votes17,129,85098.49
Invalid/blank votes263,0371.51
Total votes17,392,887100.00
Registered voters/turnout43,943,18439.58
Source: Parliament, Election Commission, IPU


Main article: 2018 Bangladeshi general election

The 2018 general election held on 30 December 2018, voter turnout was 80%. Bangladesh Awami League under the leadership of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina won their 4th term as the ruling party with 302 seats. The Jatiya Party became the main opposition party with only 26 seats.[16]

Awami League[i][ii]63,805,37974.96303+30
Bangladesh Nationalist Party[iii]9,985,20211.737+7
Jatiya Party4,443,3515.2226–8
Islami Andolan Bangladesh1,255,3731.470
Workers Party of Bangladesh[iv]646,0640.764–2
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal[v]610,0440.722–3
Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh[vi]565,9400.662+2
Gano Forum[vii]501,7370.592+2
Bangladesh Tarikat Federation[viii]429,9550.511–1
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam Bangladesh[ix]218,0090.260
Jatiya Party (Manju)182,6110.211–1
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (Rab)[x]155,9860.180
Krishak Sramik Janata League[xi]144,1150.170
Khelafat Majlish[xii]117,1100.140
Zaker Party109,4400.130
Bangladesh Islami Front60,3720.070
Communist Party of Bangladesh55,4210.070
Liberal Democratic Party[xiii]54,0310.060
Bangladesh Kallyan Party[xiv]44,4360.050
Bangladesh Jatiya Party[xv]38,7500.050
National People's Party36,6110.040
Islamic Front Bangladesh31,4680.040
Revolutionary Workers Party of Bangladesh[xvi]18,0430.020
Socialist Party of Bangladesh17,5910.020
Bangladesh Muslim League[xvii]15,1160.020
Bangladesh Nationalist Front13,2890.020–1
Islami Oikya Jote11,3280.010
Bangladesh Khilafat Andolan9,7960.010
Bangladesh National Awami Party8,3670.010
Progressive Democratic Party6,1130.010
Gano Front5,2770.010
Bangladesh National Awami Party-Bangladesh NAP5,1760.010
Bangladesh Jatiya Party (Mukit)4,6060.010
Jatiya Ganotantrik Party3,7980.000
Bangladesh Khelafat Majlish2,8990.000
Ganatantri Party1,6410.000
Bangladesh Cultural Liberation Front (Muktijote)1,2190.000
Communist Party of Bangladesh (M-L)3870.000
Bangladesh Muslim League-BML2280.000
Registered voters/turnout104,142,38180.20
Source: ECS, ECS, ECS,
Daily Star, Financial Express, Dhaka Tribune,
Daily Star, Daily Star,, IFES [1]


Main article: 2024 Bangladeshi general election

The 2024 general election held on 7 January 2024, voter turnout was 40% (whilst rumors suggest turnout to be below 10%) as a result of opposition boycott. Bangladesh Awami League under the leadership of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina won their 5th term as the ruling party with 223 seats with two other parties(jatiya party and trinamul BNP) securing 6 seats. Other than the political parties, independents won a total of 63 seats.[17]

Presidential elections

Main article: Presidential elections in Bangladesh

From independence until constitutional reform in 1991, the President was elected by popular vote, although this only happened on three occasions – 1978, 1981 and 1986.

Following constitutional reform and a return to a parliamentary democracy in 1991, the office of the President has been largely a ceremonial one. The President is elected by a vote in the Jatiya Sangsad. A Presidential term is for five-years, although they remain in office until their successor is elected. Elections under this system have taken place in 1991, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2009, 2013 and 2018.


Main article: 1978 Bangladeshi presidential election

The 1978 Bangladeshi presidential elections were held on 3 June 1978. They were the first direct elections for the post President, as the post had previously been elected by the Jatiya Sangsad. The result was a victory for Ziaur Rahman, who won 76.6% of the vote. Turnout was 54.3%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Ziaur Rahman Bangladesh Jatiyatabadi Front 15,733,807 76.6
M. A. G. Osmani Ganatantrik Oikkya Jote 4,455,200 21.7
Eight other candidates 342,554 1.7
Invalid/blank votes 354,010
Total 20,885,571 100


Main article: 1981 Bangladeshi presidential election

The 1981 Bangladeshi presidential elections were held on 15 November 1981. The result was a victory for the incumbent acting President Abdus Sattar of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), who received 65.5% of the vote, beating his principal challenger Kamal Hossain of the Awami League. Voter turnout was 54.3%.

Candidate Party Votes %
Abdus Sattar Bangladesh Nationalist Party 14,203,958 65.5
Kamal Hossain Bangladesh Awami League 5,636,113 26.0
Maulana Mohammudullah Independent 388,741 1.8
M. A. G. Osmani Independent 293,637 1.4
M. A. Jalil Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal 248,769 1.1
Muzaffar Ahmed NAP (M)-CPB 224,188 1.0
33 other candidates 682,154 3.2
Invalid/blank votes 332,524
Total 22,010,084 100


Main article: 1986 Bangladeshi presidential election

The 1986 Bangladeshi presidential elections were held on 15 October 1986. The result was a victory for incumbent Hussain Muhammad Ershad, who had assumed the office in 1983 following a military coup. Ershad reportedly won 84.1% of the vote with a voter turnout of 54.9%. However the elections were controversial as they were boycotted by all major opposition candidates and there were reports of irregularities.

Candidate Party Votes %
Hussain Muhammad Ershad Jatiya Party 21,795,337 84.1
Mauluna Mohammadullah Independent 1,510,456 5.8
Syed Faruque Rahman Bangladesh Freedom Party 1,202,303 4.6
Nine other candidates 1,408,195 5.4
Invalid/blank votes 380,745
Total 26,297,337 100

See also


  1. ^ The voting figures of the Awami League does not include the votes for 13 candidates of allied registered parties who contested on the Awami League 'boat' symbol
  2. ^ Bangladesh Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal's Mayeen Uddin Khan Badal ran as a Awami League candidate in Chattogram-8 an won the seat with 282,313 votes.
  3. ^ The voting figures of the BNP does not include the votes for 25 candidates of allied registered parties who contested on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol
  4. ^ WPB fielded three candidates on its 'hammer' election symbol, who received 1,729 votes, and five candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 644,335 votes.
  5. ^ JASAD fielded nine candidates on its 'torch' election symbol, who received 39,104 votes, and three candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 570,940 votes.
  6. ^ Bikalpdhara Bangladesh fielded 23 candidates on its 'winnowing fan' election symbol, who received 18,183 votes, and three candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 547,757 votes.
  7. ^ GaFo fielded twenty candidates on its 'rising sun' election symbol, who received 103,535 votes, and seven candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 398,202 votes.
  8. ^ Bangladesh Tarikat Federation fielded 16 candidates on its 'winnowing fan' election symbol, who received 6,087 votes, and two candidates on the Awami League 'boat' symbol, who received 423,868 votes.
  9. ^ JUIB fielded five candidates on its 'date palm' election symbol, who received 2,351 votes, and three candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 215,658 votes.
  10. ^ JSD fielded fifteen candidates on its 'star' election symbol, who received 3,119 votes, and four candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 152,867 votes.
  11. ^ KSJL fielded five candidates on its 'gamchha' election symbol, who received 597 votes, and three candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 143,518 votes.
  12. ^ KM fielded ten candidates on its 'wall-clock' election symbol, who received 11,203 votes, and two candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 105,907 votes.
  13. ^ LDP fielded four candidates on its 'umbrella' election symbol, who received 25,152 votes, and four candidates on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 28,879 votes.
  14. ^ BKP fielded one candidate on its 'wrist-watch' election symbol, who received 55 votes, and one candidate on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 44,381 votes.
  15. ^ BJP fielded two candidates on its 'cow cart' election symbol, who received 111 votes, and one candidate on the BNP 'sheaf of paddy' symbol, who received 38,639 votes.
  16. ^ Unregistered member political parties of the Left Democratic Alliance like the Ganasamhati Andolan fielded candidates on RWPB's 'hoe' election symbol.
  17. ^ Some unregistered political parties, most notably the Nationalist Democratic Movement (NDM) led by Bobby Hajjaj, contested under Muslim League’s 'lantern' election symbol. The alliance of these parties held the name 'Gano Oikya Jote' (lit. Mass Unity Alliance).


  1. ^ Reserved parliamentary seats for women gets 25-year extension|Dhaka Tribune|8 July 2018
  2. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970-2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-23
  3. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970–2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-25
  4. ^ Craig Baxter (1971) "Pakistan Votes – 1970 Asian Survey, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp197–218
  5. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970–2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-27
  6. ^ "The Rule of General Zia". Bangladesh Awami League. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  7. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970–2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-30
  8. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970–2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-33
  9. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970–2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page-36
  10. ^ Bangladesher Nirbachan 1970–2001 by A S M Samsul Arefin, Bangladesh Research and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003, page 40
  11. ^ "Clashes and boycott mar Bangladesh election". BBC News. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b c "Repolls ordered in 8 constituencies". 14 September 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  13. ^ Barry, Ellen (5 January 2014). "Low Turnout in Bangladesh Elections Amid Boycott and Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  14. ^ Barry, Ellen (6 January 2014). "Bangladesh ruling party wins after boycotted vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  15. ^ "Newly elected Bangladesh MPs sworn in". Al Jazeera English.
  16. ^ Hasan, Rashidul (5 January 2019). "Never-ending drama in JP". The Daily Star.
  17. ^ Mahmud, Faisal (9 January 2024). "Sheikh Hasina wins fifth term in Bangladesh amidst turnout controversy". Al Jazeera.