There are five types of elections in England: elections to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elections to the devolved London Assembly, local council elections, metro mayor elections, and the Police and crime commissioner elections, in addition to by-elections for each aforementioned election. Elections are held on Election Day, which is conventionally a Thursday. Since the passing of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 for UK general elections, all five types of elections are held after fixed periods, though early elections to the UK parliament can occur in certain situations. The three electoral systems used for elections in England are: first-past-the-post (for UK elections and local elections, though individual local authorities are able to move to STV under recent legislation), the additional member system (for Mayor and London Assembly elections) and the supplementary vote (for Police and Crime Commissioner elections; although proposals by the UK Government to change Assembly, Mayor and PCC elections to FPTP have been made).[1]

UK Parliament

Since 1918, the Conservative Party has predominantly received the most English votes in UK general elections, winning a plurality 21 times out of 28. The other seven elections (1945, 1950, 1951, 1966, October 1974, 1997 and 2001) saw the popular vote in England being won by the Labour Party.[2]

1918

Main article: 1918 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 315 N/A 65.0 ~3,140,000 39.5 N/A
Liberal 107 22.1 ~2,140,000 26.4
Labour 42 8.7 ~1,810,000 22.5
Other parties 21 2.5 ~690,000 8.5
485 100 ~8,050,000 100

1922

Main article: 1922 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 307 N/A Decrease8 63.3 ~4,810,000 41.1 N/A
Labour 95 Increase43 19.6 ~3,370,000 28.8
Liberal 75 Decrease32 15.5 ~3,210,000 27.2
Other parties 8 Decrease13 1.6 ~310,000 2.5
485 N/A 100 ~11,700,000 100

1923

Main article: 1923 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 221 N/A Decrease86 45.6 ~4,730,000 39.8 N/A
Labour 138 Increase43 28.5 ~3,550,000 29.7
Liberal 123 Increase48 25.4 ~3,570,000 29.9
Other parties 3 Decrease5 0.62 ~70,000 0.6
485 N/A 100 ~11,930,000 100

1924

Main article: 1924 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 347 N/A Increase126 71.5 ~6,460,000 47.7 N/A
Labour 109 Decrease29 22.4 ~4,470,000 32.8
Liberal 19 Decrease104 3.9 ~3,390,000 17.6
Other parties 10 Increase7 1.9 ~250,000 0.6
485 N/A 100 ~13,560,000 100

1929

Main article: 1929 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Labour 226 N/A Increase117 46.6 ~6,850,000 36.9 N/A
Conservative 221 Decrease126 45.5 ~7,180,000 38.8
Liberal 35 Increase16 7.2 ~4,340,000 23.6
Other parties 3 Decrease7 2.0 ~130,000 0.7
485 N/A 100 ~18,500,000 100

1931

Main article: 1931 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 436 N/A Increase215 89.9 ~11,480,000 63.3 N/A
Labour 29 Decrease197 5.98 ~7,180,000 30.2
Liberal 19 Decrease16 3.91 ~1,040,000 6.0
Other parties 1 Decrease2 0.2 ~100,000 0.5
485 N/A 100 ~18,080,000 100

1935

Main article: 1935 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 357 N/A Decrease81 73.6 ~9,990,000 54.5 N/A
Labour 116 Increase87 23.9 ~7,050,000 38.5
Liberal 11 Decrease16 2.26 ~1,110,000 6.3
Other parties 1 Decrease2 0.2 ~120,000 0.7
485 N/A 100 ~18,270,000 100

1945

Main article: 1945 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Labour 331 N/A Increase215 64.9 ~9,970,000 48.5 N/A
Conservative 167 Decrease190 32.7 ~8,270,000 40.2
Liberal 5 Decrease6 0.98 ~1,910,000 9.4
Other parties 7 Increase6 1.37 ~380,000 1.9
510 N/A 100 ~20,540,000 100

1950

Main article: 1950 United Kingdom general election

Party Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Labour 251 N/A Decrease80 46.1 ~11,050,000 48.5 N/A
Conservative 253 Increase86 43.8 ~10,500,000 40.2
Liberal 2 Decrease3 0.98 ~2,250,000 9.4
Other parties 0 Decrease7 1.37 ~160,000 1.9
506 N/A 100 ~23,950,000 100

1951

Main article: 1951 United Kingdom general election

1955

Main article: 1955 United Kingdom general election

1959

Main article: 1959 United Kingdom general election

1964

Main article: 1964 United Kingdom general election

1966

Main article: 1966 United Kingdom general election

1970

Main article: 1970 United Kingdom general election

February 1974

Main article: February 1974 United Kingdom general election

October 1974

Main article: October 1974 United Kingdom general election

1979

Main article: 1979 United Kingdom general election in England

1983

Main article: 1983 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[3] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 362 N/A N/A Increase37 69.2 11,711,519 46.0 Decrease1.2
Labour 148 N/A N/A Decrease45 28.3 6,862,422 26.8 Decrease9.8
Alliance 13 N/A N/A Increase8 2.5 6,714,957 26.4 Increase11.5
Other parties 0 N/A N/A Steady 183,748 0.7 Decrease0.5
25,472,646 72.5
Popular vote
Conservative
46.0%
Labour
26.8%
SDP–Liberal Alliance
26.4%
Other
0.7%
Parliament seats
Conservative
69.2%
Labour
28.3%
SDP–Liberal Alliance
2.5%

1987

Main article: 1987 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[4] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 358 9 13 Decrease4 68.5 12,546,186 46.2 Increase0.2
Labour 155 13 6 Increase7 29.6 8,006,466 29.5 Increase2.5
Alliance 10 2 5 Decrease3 1.9 6,467,350 23.8 Decrease2.4
Other parties 0 0 0 Steady 113,520 0.4 Decrease0.3
27,133,522 75.4 Increase2.9
Popular vote
Conservative
46.2%
Labour
29.5%
SDP–Liberal Alliance
23.8%
Other
0.4%
Parliament seats
Conservative
68.5%
Labour
29.6%
SDP–Liberal Alliance
1.9%

1992

Main article: 1992 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[5] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 319 1 40 Decrease39 60.9 12,796,772 45.5 Decrease0.8
Labour 195 40 0 Increase40 37.2 9,551,910 33.9 Increase4.4
Liberal Democrats 10 4 4 Steady 1.9 5,398,293 19.2 Decrease4.7
Other parties 0 0 0 Steady 401,531 1.4 Increase1.0
28,148,506 78.0
Popular vote
Conservative
45.5%
Labour
33.9%
Liberal Democrats
19.2%
Other
1.4%
Parliament seats
Conservative
60.9%
Labour
37.2%
Liberal Democrats
1.9%

1997

Main article: 1997 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[6] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Labour 328 133 1 Increase132 62.0 11,347,882 43.5 Increase9.6
Conservative 165 0 159 Decrease159 31.2 8,780,881 33.7 Decrease11.8
Liberal Democrats 34 26 1 Increase25 6.4 4,677,565 18.0 Decrease1.3
Referendum 0 0 0 Steady 746,624 2.9 N/A
UKIP 0 0 0 Steady 103,521 0.4 N/A
Independent 1 1 0 Increase1 0.2 69,464 0.3 Increase0.2
Green 0 0 0 Steady 60,013 0.2 Decrease0.4
Liberal 0 0 0 Steady 44,516 0.2 Steady
Socialist Labour 0 0 0 Steady 44,114 0.2 N/A
BNP 0 0 0 Steady 35,181 0.1 Increase0.1
Natural Law 0 0 0 Steady 25,958 0.1 Decrease0.1
Independent Labour 0 0 0 Steady 24,447 0.1 Steady
Speaker 1 1 0 Increase1 0.2 24,447 0.1 N/A
Ind. Conservative 0 0 0 Steady 18,667 0.1 Steady
Prolife Alliance 0 0 0 Steady 13,890 0.1 N/A
Other parties 0 0 0 Steady 42,020 0.2 N/A
26,058,712 71.5 Decrease6.5
Popular vote
Labour
43.5%
Conservative
33.7%
Liberal Democrats
18.0%
Referendum
2.9%
Other
2.1%
Parliament seats
Labour
62.0%
Conservative
31.2%
Liberal Democrats
6.4%
Other
0.4%

2001

Main article: 2001 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[7] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Labour 323 1 6 Decrease5 61.1 9,056,824 41.4 Decrease2.1
Conservative 165 8 8 Steady 31.2 7,705,870 35.2 Increase1.5
Liberal Democrats 40 8 2 Increase6 8.1 4,246,853 19.4 Increase1.5
UKIP 0 0 0 Steady 374,775 1.7 Increase1.3
Green 0 0 0 Steady 158,173 0.7 Increase0.5
Independent 0 0 1 Decrease1 79,559 0.4 Increase0.1
Socialist Alliance 0 0 0 Steady 55,295 0.3 N/A
Socialist Labour 0 0 0 Steady 51,299 0.2 Increase0.1
BNP 0 0 0 Steady 46,851 0.2 Increase0.1
Health Concern 1 1 0 Increase1 0.2 28,487 0.1 N/A
Liberal 0 0 0 Steady 13,302 0.1 Decrease0.1
Other parties 0 0 0 Decrease1 53,474 0.2 N/A
21,870,762 59.1 Decrease12.2
Popular vote
Labour
41.4%
Conservative
35.2%
Liberal Democrats
19.4%
UKIP
1.7%
Other
1.5%
Parliament seats
Labour
61.1%
Conservative
31.2%
Liberal Democrats
7.6%
Other
0.2%

2005

Main article: 2005 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[8] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Labour 286 0 37 Decrease37 54.1 8,043,461 35.4 Decrease6.0
Conservative 194 32 3 Increase29 36.7 8,116,005 35.7 Increase0.5
Liberal Democrats 47 12 5 Increase7 8.9 5,201,286 22.9 Increase3.6
Respect 1 1 0 Increase1 0.2 67,422 0.3 Increase0.3
Health Concern 1 0 0 Steady 0.2 18,739 0.1 Steady
UKIP 0 0 0 Steady 0.0 592,417 2.6 Increase0.9
Green 0 0 0 Steady 0.0 251,051 1.1 Increase0.4
BNP 0 0 0 Steady 0.0 189,570 0.8 Increase0.6
Veritas 0 0 0 Steady 0.0 39,044 0.2 New
Liberal 0 0 0 Steady 0.0 17,547 0.1 Steady
Others 0 0 0 Steady 0.0 177,343 0.8 N/A
22,713,855 61.0 Increase1.9
Popular vote
Conservative
35.7%
Labour
35.4%
Liberal Democrats
22.9%
UKIP
2.6%
Greens
1.1%
Other
2.3%
Parliament seats
Labour
54.1%
Conservative
36.7%
Liberal Democrats
8.9%
Respect
0.2%
ICHC
0.2%

2010

Main article: 2010 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[9] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 297 95 4 Increase91 55.7 9,908,169 39.5 Increase3.8
Labour 191 2 89 Decrease87 35.8 7,042,398 28.1 Decrease7.4
Liberal Democrats 43 8 12 Decrease4 8.1 6,076,189 24.2 Increase1.3
UKIP 0 0 0 Steady 866,633 3.5 Increase0.9
BNP 0 0 0 Steady 532,333 2.1 Increase1.3
Green 1 0 0 Increase1 0.2 258,954 1.0 Decrease0.1
English Democrat 0 0 0 Steady 64,826 0.3 Increase0.2
Respect 0 0 0 Decrease1 33,251 0.1 Decrease0.2
Speaker 1 1 0 Increase1 0.2 22,860 0.1 Steady
Health Concern 0 0 0 Decrease1 16,150 0.1 Steady
Christian 0 0 0 0 15,841 0.1 N/A
National Front 0 0 0 0 10,400 0.0 Steady
TUSC 0 0 0 0 8,404 0.0 N/A
Socialist Labour 0 0 0 0 4,368 0.0 Steady
Other parties 0 0 0 0 224,341 0.9 Steady
25,085,097 65.5 Increase4.5
Popular vote
Conservative
39.5%
Labour
28.1%
Liberal Democrats
24.2%
UKIP
3.5%
BNP
2.1%
Greens
1.0%
Other
1.5%
Parliament seats
Conservative
55.7%
Labour
35.8%
Liberal Democrats
8.1%
Greens
0.2%
Speaker
0.2%

2015

Main article: 2015 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[10] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 318 32 11 Increase21 59.7 10,483,261 40.9 Increase1.4
Labour 206 21 6 Increase15 38.6 8,087,684 31.6 Increase3.6
UKIP 1 1 0 Increase1 0.2 3,611,367 14.1 Increase10.7
Liberal Democrats 6 0 37 Decrease37 1.1 2,098,404 8.2 Decrease16.0
Green 1 0 0 Steady 0.2 1,073,242 4.2 Increase3.2
Speaker 1 0 0 Steady 0.2 34,617 0.1 Steady
TUSC 0 0 0 Steady 32,868 0.1 Increase0.1
National Health Action 0 0 0 Steady 20,210 0.1 New
Respect 0 0 0 Steady 9,989 0.0 Decrease0.1
Yorkshire First 0 0 0 Steady 6,811 0.0 New
English Democrat 0 0 0 Steady 6,431 0.0 Decrease0.2
CISTA 0 0 0 Steady 4,569 0.0 New
Monster Raving Loony 0 0 0 Steady 3,432 0.0 Steady
CPA 0 0 0 Steady 3,260 0.0 Steady
BNP 0 0 0 Steady 1,667 0.0 Decrease2.1
Class War 0 0 0 Steady 526 0.0 New
Other parties 0 0 0 Steady 127,133 0.5 Decrease0.2
25,571,204 65.9 Increase0.4
Popular vote
Conservative
40.9%
Labour
31.6%
UKIP
14.1%
Liberal Democrats
8.2%
Greens
4.2%
Other
0.9%
Parliament seats
Conservative
59.7%
Labour
38.6%
Liberal Democrats
1.1%
UKIP
0.2%
Greens
0.2%
Speaker
0.2%

2017

Main article: 2017 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[11] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 296 8 30 Decrease22 55.5 12,344,901 45.4 Increase4.4
Labour 227 27 6 Increase21 42.6 11,390,099 41.9 Increase10.3
Liberal Democrats 8 5 3 Increase2 1.5 2,121,810 7.8 Decrease0.4
UKIP 0 0 1 Decrease1 557,390 2.1 Decrease12.1
Green 1 0 0 Steady 0.2 506,969 1.9 Decrease2.3
Speaker 1 0 0 Steady 0.2 34,299 0.1 Steady
Yorkshire 0 0 0 Steady 20,958 0.1 Increase0.1
National Health Action 0 0 0 Steady 16,119 0.1 Steady
CPA 0 0 0 Steady 5,869 0.0 Steady
BNP 0 0 0 Steady 4,642 0.0 Steady
Monster Raving Loony 0 0 0 Steady 3,733 0.0 Steady
Women's Equality 0 0 0 Steady 3,066 0.0 Steady
English Democrat 0 0 0 Steady 1,913 0.0 Steady
Pirate 0 0 0 Steady 1,875 0.0 Steady
Workers Revolutionary 0 0 0 Steady 771 0.0 Steady
SDP 0 0 0 Steady 321 0.0 Steady
  Others 0 0 0 Steady 151,054 0.6 Increase0.4
Total 533 27,165,789 Turnout 69.1
Popular vote
Conservative
45.4%
Labour
41.9%
Liberal Democrats
7.8%
UKIP
2.1%
Green
1.9%
Other
0.9%
Parliament seats
Conservative
55.5%
Labour
42.6%
Liberal Democrats
1.5%
Green
0.2%
Speaker
0.2%

2019

Main article: 2019 United Kingdom general election in England

Party[12] Seats Votes
Total Gains Losses Net +/- % seats Total votes % votes Change
Conservative 345 52 3 Increase49 64.7 12,710,845 47.2 Increase1.7
Labour 180 1 48 Decrease47 33.7 9,152,034 34.0 Decrease7.9
Liberal Democrats 7 2 3 Decrease1 1.3 3,340,835 12.4 Increase4.6
Green 1 0 0 Steady 0.2 819,751 3.0 Increase1.2
Brexit Party 0 0 0 545,172 2.0 Increase2.0
Yorkshire 0 0 0 Steady 29,201 0.1 Steady
UKIP 0 0 0 Steady 18,891 0.1 Decrease2.0
Liberal 0 0 0 Steady 10,876 0.0 Steady
Change UK 0 0 0 Steady 10,006 0.0 new
Monster Raving Loony 0 0 0 Steady 9,394 0.0 Steady
CPA 0 0 0 Steady 6,246 0.0 Steady
Animal Welfare 0 0 0 Steady 3,086 0.0 Steady
SDP 0 0 0 Steady 3,000 0.0 Steady
English Democrat 0 0 0 Steady 1,987 0.0 Steady
Libertarian 0 0 0 Steady 1,375 0.0 Steady
Workers Revolutionary 0 0 0 Steady 524 0.0 Steady
Advance 0 0 0 Steady 351 0.0 new
Others 0 0 0 Steady 246,094 0.9 Increase0.8
26,909,668 67.4 Decrease1.7

Note: the above figures include the Speaker being counted in the Labour totals, despite the Speaker being non-partisan.

Popular vote
Conservative
47.2%
Labour
34.0%
Liberal Democrats
12.4%
Green
3.0%
Brexit Party
2.0%
Other
1.4%
Parliament seats
Conservative
64.7%
Labour
33.7%
Liberal Democrats
1.3%
Green
0.2%

London mayor

Main article: London mayoral elections

The mayor of London is elected by the supplementary vote method for a fixed term of four years, with elections taking place in May. As with most elected posts in the United Kingdom, there is a deposit (in this case of £10,000), which is returnable on the candidate's winning of at least 5% of the first-choice votes cast.

See also

References

  1. ^ Woodcock, Andrew (16 March 2021). "Priti Patel under fire over plan to change voting system for London mayor". The Independent. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  2. ^ Pilling, Sam; Cracknell, Richard (18 August 2021). "UK Election Statistics: 1918-2021: A Century of Elections" (PDF). House of Commons Library. pp. 20–21. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
  3. ^ "GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS, 9 JUNE 1983" (PDF). 1984. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  4. ^ "GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS, 11 JUNE 1987" (PDF). 1989. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  5. ^ "GENERAL ELECTION RESULTS, 9 APRIL 1992" (PDF). 1993. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  6. ^ "General election results 1 May 1997". 9 May 1997. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  7. ^ Morgan, Bryn (12 June 2021). "General election results, 7 June 2001" (PDF): 12. Retrieved 6 October 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ "Election 2005 | Results | England". BBC News. 10 May 2005. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  9. ^ "Election 2010 Results England". BBC News.
  10. ^ Election 2015 Results England BBC News
  11. ^ "England Results". BBC News.
  12. ^ "Results of the 2019 General Election in England". BBC News.