Romania elects on a national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature. The president is elected for a five-year term by the people (after a change from four-year terms after the 2004 election). The Romanian Parliament (Romanian: Parlamentul României) has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies (Romanian: Camera Deputaţilor) has currently 330 members (after the last legislative elections), elected for a four-year term by party-list proportional representation on closed lists. The Senate (Romanian: Senatul) has currently 136 members (after the last legislative elections), elected for a four-year term by party-list proportional representation on closed lists.

Romania has a multi-party system, with numerous parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

On 25 November 2007, for the first time, Romanians elected their representatives to the European Parliament.

Electoral system


The President is elected in a two-round system for a five-year term. Candidates obtaining a majority of 50%+1 of all registered voters in the first round are declared the winner. If none of the candidates achieve this, then a run-off is held between the two contenders with the top scores in the first round. The candidate who obtains any majority of votes in the run-off is declared the winner.

The term of the president is five years. Between 1992 and 2004 the term was of four years, but was increased following the 2003 Constitutional referendum. One person can serve a maximum of two terms, that may be consecutive.

In order to be able to run for the Office of President a candidate must fulfill the following conditions: be a Romanian citizen, be at least 35 years of age (at least on the day of the election), and not have held the office for two terms since 1992, when the 1991 Constitution took effect.[1]


The former (2008-2012) electoral colleges of the constituencies for the Chamber of Deputies
The former (2008-2012) electoral colleges of the constituencies for the Senate

The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate are elected in constituencies, by universal, equal, direct, secret, and freely expressed suffrage, on the basis of a list system and independent candidatures, according to the principle of closed party list proportional representation. The option for an identical election system of the two Chambers of Parliament confers them the same legitimacy, as both of them are the expression of the will of the same electoral body.

The two Chambers have different numbers of members: the Chamber of Deputies is composed of 330 Deputies, and the Senate of 136 Senators. This differentiation is possible owing to the legal provision of a representation norm differing from one Chamber to the other and due to the seats allotted to the national minorities (a seat in the Chamber of Deputies for each minority) and to the Romanians living abroad (4 seats in the Chamber and 2 in the Senate). Thus, for the election of the Chamber of Deputies the representation norm is of one Deputy to 73,000 inhabitants,[2] and for the election of the Senate, of one Senator to 168,000 inhabitants.[2]

The number of Deputies and Senators to be elected in each constituency is determined on the basis of the representation norm, by relating the number of inhabitants in each constituency to the representation norm. There are 43 constituencies: 1 for each county and the Municipality of Bucharest, and 1 for the Romanians living abroad.[2] In a constituency, the number of Deputies cannot be less than four, and that of Senators, less than two. The number of inhabitants taken into account is that existing on 1 January of the previous year,[2] published in the Statistical Yearbook of Romania. If, at least five months before the election date, a general census has taken place, the number of inhabitants taken into account is that resulting from the census.

The electoral threshold is for parties or candidates running individually 5% on national level or 20% in at least 4 constituencies, and 8-10% for coalitions or electoral alliances.[2]

The Constitution of Romania and the Election Law grant to legally constituted organizations of citizens belonging to national minorities, in case these could not obtain at the election at least one Deputy or Senator mandate, the right to a Deputy mandate, if they have obtained throughout the country a number of votes equal to at least 5% out of the average number of votes validly expressed throughout the country for the election of one Deputy.

The mandates assigned, under the conditions of the Election Law, to organizations of citizens belonging to national minorities are added to the Deputy mandates resulted from the representation norm.

European Parliament

To elect the 33 MEPs (35 MEPs between 2007 and 2009, 32 between 2014 and 2019), Romania is considered a single constituency. The system used is closed party list proportional representation, with a 5% threshold of the votes.

Local elections

To elect the mayors the first past the post is used since 2012. The candidate who wins most of the votes is declared elected. A runoff is organised if the top two candidates have an equal number of votes.

For the office of Presidents of the County Councils, between 2008 and 2012, and again since 2024, the first pass the post system was used. Until 2008 and again since 2016,[3] the County Council Presidents have been indirectly elected by each County Council.

To elect the Local, and County Councils, the closed party list proportional representation, with a 5% threshold of the votes at the constituency level (city, commune or county).

Voting procedures

Irrespective of the type of election, the vote is done by using paper and manual counting. The voter is required to prove his/hers identity using the Identity card (or the previous version, the Identity bulletin), or, for special reasons, the military ID or the passport. After (s)he signs in the permanent, supplemental, or special electoral list, (s)he is handed a voting ballot (buletin de vot) and a stamp that reads VOTAT YYYY TTT (voted); YYYY stands for the year the election is held, and TTT for the type of elections to be held: L for local elections (including partial), P presidential elections, PE for European Parliament election, R for referendums (R.V.U. was used in 2007). For the general election, up to now, there was no additional type indicator, as it is granted most importance.

For the local and parliamentary elections, the voter can vote only at the polling station where (s)he has the permanent address (domiciliu), or the temporary residence (flotant) at least three months old. For the local election, the Romanians outside Romania cannot vote. For the parliamentary election they vote the candidates for the 43rd constituency. For the European Parliament and presidential elections the voters can vote at a different pooling station than the local and parliamentary elections, but only if (s)he is not in the home-town the voting day. Since the 2016 legislative election the Romanian electors residing abroad will be able to cast their vote via mail.[4]

The voting ballot is printed on newspaper paper, monochrome. All the candidates (or the full candidate list) are listed in a lottery type established order (first the parliamentary parties, than the non-parliamentary parties, and at the end, the independent candidates), each in a clearly designated rectangular that consists of the full party/alliance name and logo, and the full candidate name (or full list of candidates' names). Voters express their choice by stamping the rectangle of the party or independent candidate (s)he wishes to vote for. For referendums the same voting procedure is used. Each of the two options (YES – DA and NO – NU) are in a 5×5 cm square, YES on top and NO at the bottom, and the question voted for in the middle of the voting ballot.

Future elections

Election schedule

Election type Date Second round date
Local June 9, 2024
Legislative December 8, 2024
European June 9, 2024
Presidential September 8, 2024 September 22, 2024
(if needed)

Latest elections


Main article: 2019 Romanian presidential election

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Klaus Iohannis National Liberal Party 3,485,292 37.82 6,509,135 66.09
Viorica Dăncilă Social Democratic Party 2,051,725 22.26 3,339,922 33.91
Dan Barna 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance 1,384,450 15.02
Mircea Diaconu Alliance for "One Man" (PROALDE) 815,201 8.85
Theodor Paleologu People's Movement Party 527,098 5.72
Hunor Kelemen Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 357,014 3.87
Ramona Bruynseels Humanist Power Party 244,275 2.65
Alexandru Cumpănașu Independent 141,316 1.53
Viorel Cataramă Liberal Right Party 48,662 0.53
Bogdan Stanoevici Independent 39,192 0.42
Cătălin Ivan Alternative for National Dignity 32,787 0.36
Ninel Peia Romanian Nationhood Party 30,884 0.34
Sebastian Popescu New Romania Party 30,850 0.33
John Ion Banu Romanian Nation Party 27,769 0.30
Invalid/blank votes 142,961 182,648
Total 9,359,673 100 10,031,705 100
Registered voters/turnout 18,286,865 51.18 18,217,411 55.07
Sources: BEC (first round); BEC (second round)

European Parliament

Main article: 2019 European Parliament election in Romania

Summary of the May 2019 European Parliament election results in Romania
Party No. of
Votes Elected Change
in seats
% of seats % of votes
National Party EU Party EP Group
National Liberal Party[a]
(Romanian: Partidul Naţional Liberal)
EPP[a] EPP Group[a] 43 2,449,068 10 Increase 30.30% 27.00%
Social Democratic Party
(Romanian: Partidul Social Democrat)
PES S&D 43 2,040,765 9 Decrease 27.27% 22.50%
2020 USR-PLUS Alliance
(Romanian: Alianța 2020 USR-PLUS)
ALDE&R[c] 40[g] 2,028,236 8 Increase 8 24.24% 22.36%
PRO Romania
(Romanian: PRO România)
EDP S&D[e]


43 583,916 2 Steady 0 6.06% 6.44%
People's Movement Party
(Romanian: Partidul Mișcarea Populară)
EPP Group 43 522,104 2 Increase 2 6.06% 5.76%
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania
(Romanian: Uniunea Democrată a Maghiarilor din România)
EPP EPP Group 43 476,777 2 Steady 0 6.06% 5.26%
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
(Romanian: Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților)
ALDE 43 372,760 0 Decrease 2 0% 4.11%
Independent candidate: Peter Costea 1 131,021 0 Steady 0 0% 1.44%
Independent candidate: George-Nicolae Simion 1 117,141 0 Steady 0 0% 1.29%
Independent candidate: Gregoriana Carmen Tudoran 1 100,669 0 Steady 0 0% 1.11%
National Union for the Progress of Romania
(Romanian: Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României)
No MEPs 43 54,942 0 Steady 0 0% 0.61%
Prodemo Party
(Romanian: Partidul Prodemo)
No MEPs 26 53,351 0 Steady 0 0% 0.59%
United Romania Party
(Romanian: Partidul România Unită)
No MEPs 30 51,787 0 Steady 0 0% 0.57%
Romanian Socialist Party
(Romanian: Partidul Socialist Român)
No MEPs 28 40,135 0 Steady 0 0% 0.44%
Independent Social Democratic Party
(Romanian: Partidul Social Democrat Independent)
No MEPs 43 26,439 0 Steady 0 0% 0.29%
National Unity Block - NUB
(Romanian: Blocul Unității Naționale - BUN)
No MEPs 12 20,411 0 Steady 0 0% 0.23%
Total: 18,267,256 expected voters (turnout – 51.20%) 483 9,352,472 33 Increase 1 100% 100%
Source: Summary of the results


  1. ^ After the 2014 election, PNL merged with PD-L/PDL and joined the EPP, and EPP Group.
  2. ^ Prior to the 2019 election, Save Romania Union had no MEPs, and no European affiliation.
  3. ^ According to the website of the ALDE Group, USR Plus will be part of its new group called "ALDE plus Renaissance plus USR Plus.
  4. ^ Monica Macovei, the founder of the M10 party, was ousted.
  5. ^ Daciana Sârbu sits with the S&D.
  6. ^ Laurențiu Rebega sits with the ECR.
  7. ^ After the lists have been approved by the Central Electoral Bureau, three candidates of the 2020 USR-PLUS Alliance have renounced their candidacy. The Central Electoral Bureau ruled the elimination of said positions on the list.[5]


Main article: 2020 Romanian legislative election

The Social Democratic Party (PSD) won the general election with a little bit over 29% of the seats in both houses of Parliament, but remained in opposition. PNL, USR-PLUS, and UDMR forming a coalition government.

This election saw the return of the county (and Bucharest) level lists, replacing the previous mixed member election. In addition, it also maintained special seats for Romanians living abroad (i.e. the Romanian diaspora), in both houses.

Chamber of Deputies

Social Democratic Party1,705,77728.90110–44
National Liberal Party1,486,40125.1993+24
2020 USR-PLUS Alliance906,96215.3755+25
Alliance for the Union of Romanians535,8289.0833New
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania339,0305.74210
People's Movement Party284,5014.820–18
PRO Romania Social Liberal241,2674.090–20
Ecologist Party of Romania65,8071.1200
Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal)59,4651.0100
Greater Romania Party32,6540.5500
National Rebirth Alliance21,6620.370New
Green Party20,6140.3500
Romanian Socialist Party19,6930.3300
Party of the Roma "Pro Europe"14,5230.2510
New Romania Party14,0890.2400
League of Albanians of Romania9,0290.1510
Democratic Forum of Germans7,5820.1310
Association of Macedonians of Romania7,1440.1210
Hellenic Union of Romania6,0960.1010
Union of the Ukrainians of Romania5,4570.0910
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania5,3860.0910
Community of the Lipovan Russians5,1460.0910
Bulgarian Union of Banat–Romania4,8530.0810
Union of Serbs of Romania4,6910.0810
Association of Italians of Romania4,1700.0710
Union of Armenians of Romania3,8200.0610
Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania3,7790.0610
Union of Poles of Romania3,7500.0610
New Right Party3,5510.0600
Democratic Turkish Union of Romania3,5390.0610
Federation of the Jewish Communities in Romania3,5090.0610
Union of Croatians of Romania3,3450.0610
Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars2,8620.051+1
National Peasant Party Maniu-Mihalache2,7270.0500
Right Alternative2,0050.030New
Social Democratic Workers' Party1,9120.030New
Romanian Nation Party1,7520.030New
Re:Start Romania Party5370.010New
National Unity Bloc2930.0000
Communists' Party2130.000New
National Force Party1480.000New
Valid votes5,901,91597.43
Invalid/blank votes155,8592.57
Total votes6,057,774100.00
Registered voters/turnout18,964,64231.94
Source: BEC


Social Democratic Party1,732,27629.3247–20
National Liberal Party1,511,22525.5841+11
2020 USR-PLUS Alliance936,86215.8625+12
Alliance for the Union of Romanians541,9359.1714New
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania348,2625.8990
People's Movement Party291,4844.930–8
PRO Romania Social Liberal244,2254.130–9
Ecologist Party of Romania78,6541.3300
Humanist Power Party (Social-Liberal)70,5361.1900
Greater Romania Party38,4740.6500
National Rebirth Alliance23,7730.400New
Romanian Socialist Party23,0930.3900
Green Party23,0850.3900
New Romania Party19,5160.3300
New Right Party4,3450.0700
Social Democratic Workers' Party3,8550.070New
National Peasant Party Maniu-Mihalache2,8030.050New
Right Alternative2,2330.040New
Romanian Nation Party2,0610.030New
Communists' Party7630.010New
Re:Start Romania Party7530.010New
National Unity Bloc4100.0100
National Force2680.000New
Valid votes5,908,33197.53
Invalid/blank votes149,4292.47
Total votes6,057,760100.00
Registered voters/turnout18,964,64231.94
Source: BEC


Main article: 2020 Romanian local elections

Summary of the 2020 Romanian local elections results
Party Mayor of Bucharest (PGMB) Mayors (P) Local Councils
seats (CL)
County Councils
seats (CJ)
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
National Liberal Party
(Romanian: Partidul Național Liberal - PNL)

(with USR-PLUS)


(with USR-PLUS)

1 2,578,820 34.58% 1,232 2,420,413 32.88% 14,182 2,212,904 30.76% 474
Social Democratic Party
(Romanian: Partidul Social Democrat - PSD)
250,690 37.97% 0 2,262,791 30.34% 1,362 2,090,777 28.40% 13,820 1,605,721 22.32% 362
(Romanian: Alianța 2020 USR-PLUS - USR-PLUS)

(with PNL)


(with PNL)

1 490,362 6.58% 28 504,563 6.85% 1,207 478,659 6.65% 65
People's Movement Party
(Romanian: Partidul Mișcarea Populară - PMP)
72,556 10.99% 0 353,005 4.73% 50 420,791 5.72% 2,137 423,147 5.88% 67
PRO Romania
(Romanian: PRO România - PRO RO)
5,315 0.80% 0 331,878 4.45% 36 381,535 5.18% 1,885 356,030 4.95% 56
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania
(Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România - UDMR)
- - - 299,334 4.01% 199 362,442 4.92% 2,360 379,924 5.28% 92
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
(Romanian: Alianța Liberalilor și Democraților - ALDE)
9,892 1.49% 0 124,649 1.67% 15 189,665 2.58% 861 209,411 2.91% 15
Other political parties and contenders, local alliances 39,034 5.91% 0 1,140,903 15.30% 282 1,086,907 14.76% 3,448 1,528,189 21.24% 209
Total: 660,118 100 1 7,457,093 100 3,176 7,361,818 100 39,900 7,193,985 100 1,340
Sources: Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority


The Constitution of Romania defines that a referendum has to be called to:[6]

Moreover, the Constitution defines that a referendum can be called on matters of national interest by the President of Romania after consultation with Parliament (article 90).

There were 8 referendums (and 1 local one) in post-communist Romania:

There was also 1 referendum in the Socialist Republic of Romania, 3 referendums in the Kingdom of Romania and 2 referendums in the Romanian United Principalities.

See also


  2. ^ a b c d e "Legea nr. 208 din 20 iulie 2015 privind alegerea Senatului şi a Camerei Deputaţilor, precum şi pentru organizarea şi funcţionarea Autorităţii Electorale Permanente" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  3. ^ "Legea alegerilor locale, modificată: Primarii, aleşi într-un singur tur. Preşedinţii CJ, aleşi de către membrii CJ" (in Romanian). 6 May 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Legea votului prin corespondenţă a fost PROMULGATĂ de preşedintele Klaus Iohannis". (in Romanian). 19 November 2015.
  5. ^ Central Electoral Bureau decision no. 57
  6. ^ "Constitution of Romania" (PDF). Party Law in Modern Europe. Retrieved 5 November 2013.