The President of India is indirectly elected with Instant-runoff voting[1] by means of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of the Parliament of India and the Legislative assemblies of the States of India and the Union territories (having an elected assembly). The number and value of votes are based on the population in 1971 rather than the current population, as a result of the 42nd Amendment, and extended by the 84th Amendment,[2] with the intention to encourage family planning programs in the states by ensuring that states are not penalised for lowering their population growth and development.

The Vice-President is elected by a different electoral college, consisting of members (elected as well as nominated) of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Composition

The presidential electoral college is made up of the following:

Weighing of votes

The value of votes cast by elected members of the state legislative assemblies and both houses of parliament are determined by the provisions of article 55(2) of the Constitution of India.[4] The details of number of voters and votes for the presidential election are given below.[5] Per the 84th Amendment, the 1971 census is used, and will continue to be used until 2026.[2]

The formula for determining the number of votes held by an MLA is:



That is, the average constituency size, determined by the 1971 census, in his/her state or union territory, divided by 1,000.

The number of votes for MLAs are as follows:

Name of the State/Union Territory Number of State Legislative Assembly seats (elective) Population (1971 Census)[5] Value of the vote of each MLA Total value of votes for the State/Union Territory
Andhra Pradesh 175 27,800,586 159 27,825
Arunachal Pradesh 60 467,511 8 480
Assam 126 14,625,152 116 14,616
Bihar 243 42,126,236 173 42,039
Chhattisgarh 90 11,637,494 129 11,610
Delhi 70 4,065,698 58 4,060
Goa 40 795,120 20 800
Gujarat 182 26,697,475 147 26,754
Haryana 90 10,036,808 112 10,080
Himachal Pradesh 68 3,460,434 51 3468
Jammu and Kashmir[6] 87 6,300,000 72 6,264
Jharkhand 81 14,227,133 176 14,256
Karnataka 224 29,299,014 131 29,344
Kerala 140 21,347,375 152 21,280
Madhya Pradesh 230 30,016,625 131 30,130
Maharashtra 288 50,412,235 175 50,400
Manipur 60 1,072,753 18 1,080
Meghalaya 60 1,011,699 17 1,020
Mizoram 40 332,390 8 320
Nagaland 60 516,499 9 540
Odisha 147 21,944,615 149 21,903
Puducherry 30 471,707 16 480
Punjab 117 13,551,060 116 13,572
Rajasthan 200 25,765,806 129 25,800
Sikkim 32 209,843 7 224
Tamil Nadu 234 41,199,168 176 41,184
Telangana 119 15,702,122 132 15,708
Tripura 60 1,556,342 26 1,560
Uttar Pradesh 403 83,849,905 208 83,824
Uttarakhand 70 4,491,239 64 4,480
West Bengal 294 44,312,011 151 44,394
Total 4,120 549,302,005 549,495

Note:- http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/ElectoralLaws/HandBooks/President_Election_08062017.pdf.

The value of an MP's vote is calculated by dividing the total value of all MLAs' votes by the number of MPs. The formula for determining the number of votes held by an MP is:



That is, the total Members of Parliament (Elected) = Lok Sabha (543) + Rajya Sabha (233) = 776

Value of each vote = 549,495 / 776 = 708.11, rounded to 708
Total value of votes of Parliament = 776 × 708 = 549,408

The number of votes for MPs are as follows:

Name of the House Number of Parliamentary seats (elective) Value of the vote of each MP Total value of votes for the House
Lok Sabha 543 708 384,444
Rajya Sabha 233 708 164,964
Total 776 708 549,408

Total number of votes for presidential electors are as follows:

Elector Total number of electors Total value of votes
Members of Legislative Assemblies (elected) 4,120 549,495
Members of Parliament (elected) 776 549,408
Total 4,896 1,098,903

References

  1. ^ The Constitution of 1950 use the term Single transferable vote, which is now used for a system with multiple-member constituencies. When there is only one of the latter, the system is now called Instant-runoff voting
  2. ^ a b 84th Amendment
  3. ^ Mishra, Soni (19 May 2020). "'J&K not included in electoral college for Presidential election'". The Week. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  4. ^ "Section 55 of the Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  5. ^ a b Election to the Office of President, 2012
  6. ^ Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order