|Sesame Street character|
|First appearance||1980 (season 11)|
|Portrayed by||Principal performers|
Kevin Clash (1985–2012)
Ryan Dillon (2013–present)
see all below
|Species||Sesame Street Muppet Monster|
|Family||Louie and Mae (parents)|
Cousin Pepe (cousin from Mexico)
Elmonosuke (cousin from Japan)
Elmer (cousin from Texas)
Elmo's Grandma and Grandpa
Elmo's Great Grandmother
Elmo (great-great grandfather and namesake)
Chester's parents (aunt and uncle)
Funella Furchester (aunt)
Furgus Fuzz (uncle)
Phoebe Furchester-Fuzz (cousin)
Elmo is a red Muppet character on the long-running PBS/HBO children's television show Sesame Street. A furry red monster with a falsetto voice, he has illeism, and also hosts the last full fifteen-minute segment (five minutes since 2017) on Sesame Street, "Elmo's World", which is aimed at toddlers. He was most often puppeteered by Kevin Clash, but since his resignation in late 2012, he has been puppeteered by Ryan Dillon.
Elmo is self-described as three-and-a-half years old and his birthday is on February 3. Elmo characteristically avoids pronouns in reference to himself, instead referring to himself in the third person (e.g. saying "Elmo wants this" instead of "I want this"). Sesame Street staff writer Nancy Sans once described Elmo's origins: "There was this extra red puppet lying around and the cast would pick him up sometimes and try to create a personality, but nothing seemed to materialize."
The character of Elmo was originally conceived as a supporting character and background character in the late 1970s. It first appeared in the 1980 Sesame Street song, "We Are Monsters". Elmo then eventually became a recurring character on Sesame Street, and later appeared as a supporting character appearing in segments in later episodes of the show. From 1980 to 1981, the character was performed by Jerry Nelson. Brian Muehl performed Elmo from 1980 to 1984, and Richard Hunt from 1984 to 1985. However in 1985, Hunt was so frustrated with the puppet, he squeezed it and threw it at Kevin Clash, who then performed Elmo. He said that Elmo should be a character who is kind and a loving character. Sans continues that "one day in 1985, Kevin Clash, a talented puppeteer, raised him up and brought energy and life into Elmo and from that day forward we would all write for Elmo. Kevin's performance inspired the writers to develop Elmo's character". John Tartaglia, Matt Vogel, and Jim Martin have all been secondary performers for the character, providing movement for Elmo's arms and legs, particularly in green-screen shots.
Alongside Cookie Monster, Elmo has appeared in The Furchester Hotel, where he is taking an extended stay because of his fascination with the Furchester Hotel. His father Louie is the brother of Funella Furchester.
On May 27, 2020, The Not Too Late Show with Elmo premiered on HBO Max. The series stars Elmo as the host of his own late-night talk show.
After becoming a regular guest on The Rosie O'Donnell Show, Elmo began touring the talk-show circuit. He has appeared on Martha Stewart Living and Martha, The Tony Danza Show, Rove Live, Wait Wait...Don't Tell Me!, and The View. Elmo and a developmental expert gave babysitting tips on the June 18, 2005, episode of Teen Kids News. He has also appeared on Emeril Live, helping Emeril make (non-alcoholic) eggnog during a Holiday Special shown in December 2008. Kevin Clash and Aaron Neville were also guests on this show. On a special episode of Oprah called "The Faces Behind the Famous Names", Kevin Clash and Elmo appeared at the same time.
Elmo was the star of the 1999 full-length, theatrically released motion picture The Adventures of Elmo in Grouchland. He also starred in the film Elmo Saves Christmas.
Elmo also appeared in a fifth-season episode of The West Wing along with his friends Zoe and Big Bird. In that episode, Elmo receives a medical checkup from Abbey Bartlet, the First Lady (who is making a guest appearance on Sesame Street), and cheekily questions her about the validity of her medical license.
Elmo also appeared in the eighth season episode of Scrubs, "My ABC's", along with Oscar the Grouch, Grover, and an Anything Muppet named "Ex Ray". All four characters are in separate fantasies of J.D.'s in the episode.
At the request and with the assistance of Rep. Duke Cunningham, he testified before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services and Education in April 2002, urging support for increased funding in music education.
Emeril and Elmo's Healthy Start was a special featuring Elmo and Emeril Lagasse that aired on November 4, 2005 at 8 p.m. as part of the Food Network's second annual "Cook With Your Kids Week". The special was produced in conjunction with Sesame Workshop's Healthy Habits for Life program.
In 1996, a Tickle Me Elmo doll became a fad toy.
Elmo has also made many appearances on The Simpsons. In "Missionary: Impossible", he chases Homer Simpson. In "Bart-Mangled Banner", he is Bill Clinton's cellmate. In "Stop or My Dog Will Shoot!", Chief Clancy Wiggum shows a shirt where Big Bird is killing Elmo. In the episode "How the Test Was Won", Clancy's son Ralph finds a rat and says "I'm playing with Elmo". In the episode "The Color Yellow", Ralph has a drawing of himself with Elmo and Buzz Lightyear from the Toy Story franchise.
Fans of Sesame Street have complained that Elmo's prominent status has caused roles to be greatly reduced for some older characters, such as Oscar the Grouch, Big Bird, Count von Count, Prairie Dawn, Grover, and Cookie Monster. Elmo has been referred to as the "Little Red Menace" by Sesame Street traditionalists. Some fans also blame Elmo for the permanent departure of Kermit the Frog from Sesame Street.
In its FAQ, the Sesame Workshop addresses the allegation that Elmo referring to himself in the third person will teach children improper English, by stating that this behavior "mimics the behavior of many preschoolers. Like 3-year-olds, he doesn't always have the skills or knowledge to speak proper English."