Embolemidae
Temporal range: Barremian–Recent
Embolemus nearcticus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfamily: Chrysidoidea
Family: Embolemidae
Förster, 1856
Genera

Embolemidae is a small family of around 64 species and 3 genera distributed around the world.[1] They are small solitary parasitoid wasps, and are parasites on planthopper nymphs of the families Achilidae and Cixiidae.[2]

Biology

Females are wingless while males have wings, and in temperate regions emerge later than the females, which overwinter as adults.[3] The wingless females have been recorded from the nests of ants and small mammal burrows,[1] or under stones in pastures and grasslands and they appear to act as ant mimics. A Palearctic species, Embolemus ruddii, has been found in association with the ant species Formica fusca and Lasius flavus, while in Japan, Embolemus walkeri was taken in a nest of another ant, from the genus Myrmica.[4] A Nearctic species, Embolemus confusus, has been reared from nymphs of a planthopper in the family Achilidae, where the host fed on fungi beneath the bark of rotting logs. The wasp larva lives in a bulging sac attached to the host nymph between the second and third segments.[4][5]

Fossil species

After[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Simon van Noort (2017). "Embolemidae". WaspWeb: Hymenoptera of the Afrotropical region. Iziko Museums of South Africa. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b Perkovsky, Evgeny E.; Olmi, Massimo; Müller, Patrick; Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Capradossi, Leonardo; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P. (November 2020). "A review of the fossil Embolemidae (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with description of seven new species and history of the family". Cretaceous Research: 104708. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104708.
  3. ^ J.T. Burn (1997). "Embolemus ruddii (Westwood,1833)". Bees, Wasps and Ants Recording Society. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  4. ^ a b C. van Achterberg; R.J.M. van Kats (2000). "Revision of the Palaearctic Embolemidae (Hymenoptera)". Zoologische Mededelingen. 74: 251–269.
  5. ^ "HYMENOPTERA, Embolemidae (Chrysidoidea) (formerly Bethyloidea)". University of California, Riverside. Retrieved 8 July 2017.