|Native to||Italy, San Marino|
|Region||Primarily Emilia-Romagna, Marche, San Marino|
|Unknown (4.4 million population):|
|ISO 639-3||(code eml deprecated in 2009)|
Emilian-Romagnol is a linguistic continuum part of the Gallo-Romance languages spoken in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. It is divided into two main varieties: Emilian and Romagnol.
While first registered under a single code in ISO standard 639-3, in 2009 this was retired in favour of two distinct codes for the two varieties, due to the cultural and literary split between the two parts of the region, making Emilian and Romagnol distinct ethnolinguistic entities. Since 2015, Emilian and Romagnol are considered, with separated entries, definitely endangered languages according to the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger.
As part of the Gallo-Italic languages, Emilian-Romagnol is most closely related to the Lombard, Piedmontese and Ligurian languages, all of which are spoken in neighboring regions.
Among other Gallo-Italic languages, Emilian-Romagnol is characterized by systematic raising and diphthongization of latin stressed vowels in open syllables, as well as widespread syncope of unstressed vowels other than /a/ and use of vowel gradation in the formation of plurals and certain verb tenses.
Native speakers reject the suggestion to consider Emilian-Romagnol as one language, which is perceived as an artifice imposed top-down by academics, and much rather prefer identify as speakers of distinct Emilian or Romagnol languages (especially in Romagna), or directly of the local variants of the two.