Emotional competence and Emotional capital refer to the essential set of personal and social skills to recognize, interpret, and respond constructively to emotions in oneself and others.[1] The term implies an ease around others and determines one's ability to effectively and successfully lead and express.[2]


Emotional competence refers to an important set of personal and social skills for identifying, interpreting, and constructively responding to emotions in oneself and others. The term implies ease in getting along with others and determines one's ability to lead and express effectively and successfully. Psychologists define emotional competence as the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions.[3]


Emotional competence is another term for emotional intelligence.[2] It describes a person's ability to express their emotions completely freely, and it comes from emotional intelligence, the ability to recognize emotions. Individual’s emotional competence (EC) is considered to be an important predictor of their ability to adapt to their environment, and it refers primarily to their ability to identification, understanding, expression, regulation, and use their own and other’s emotions.[4]Emotional competence is often referred to in social contexts, and is considered a capability of recognizing their own emotions, as well as those of others and expressing them in socially acceptable ways.[5] Competence is the level of skill at which a person interacts constructively with others. This personal emotional capacity is based on a person's perception of their emotions and how they affect others, as well as the ability to maintain control and adaptation of emotions.


In 1999, Carolyn Saarni wrote a book named The Development of Emotional Competence.[6] Saarni believes that emotional abilities are not innate, but are cultivated and developed through children's interactions with others, especially family members and peers. Saarni defines emotional capacity as the functional ability of humans to achieve goals after experiencing an emotion-eliciting encounter. She defines emotion as a component of self-efficacy, and she describes the use of emotions as a set of skills that lead to the development of emotional capacity.


Understand others - to be aware of other people's feelings and perspectives.

Develop others - Be aware of the development needs of others and enhance their capabilities.

Service orientation - anticipate, recognize and meet customer needs.

Leverage diversity - nurture opportunities through different types of people.

Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Quotient

Intelligence Quotient(IQ) is a measure of a person’s reasoning ability, which is first introduced by the German psychologist Louis William Stern, as a qualitative methods of assessing individual difference. Emotional Quotient (EQ) is a measure of a self-emotional control ability, which is first introduced in American psychologist Peter Salovey in 1991. The emotional quotient is commonly referred to in the field of psychology as emotional intelligence[7](also known as emotional competence or emotional skills). IQ reflects a person's cognitive and observational abilities and how quickly they can use reasoning to solve problems. EQ, on the other hand, is an index of a person's ability to manage their own emotions and to manage the emotions of others.

Daniel Goleman’s five components of EQ

In Daniel Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence(published in 1995), he introduced five components of EQ, self-awareness, self regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills.[8]

EI and the Four-Branch Model

Psychologists see emotional competence as a continuum, ranging from lower levels of emotional competence to perform mental functions to complex emotional competence for personal self-control and management. The higher levels of emotional competence, on the other hand, comprise four branches:[9]

Each branch describes a set of skills that make up overall emotional intelligence, ranging from low to high complexity. For example, perceiving emotions usually begins with the ability to perceive basic emotions from faces and vocal tones, and may progress to the accurate perception of emotional blends and the capture and understanding of facial micro-expressions.[10]


Main article: Assertiveness

Building up emotional competence is one way of learning to handle manipulative or passive-aggressive behavior in which the manipulator exploits the feelings of another to try to get what they want.[11][verification needed]

See also

Self-Awareness – Know one’s internal states, preferences, resources and intuitions. The competencies in this category include:

  1. Emotional Awareness – Recognize one’s emotions and their effects
  2. Accurate Self-Assessment – Know one’s strengths and limits
  3. Self-Confidence – A strong sense of one’s self-worth and abilities
  4. Self-Regulation – Manage one’s internal states, impulses and resources.
  1. Empathy – Awareness of others’ feelings, needs and concerns. The competencies in this category include:
  1. Understand Others – Sense others’ feelings and perspectives
  2. Develop Others – Sense others’ development needs and bolstering their abilities
  3. Service Orientation – Anticipate, recognize and meet customers’ needs
  4. Leverage Diversity – Cultivate opportunities through different kinds of people
  5. Political Awareness – Read a group’s emotional currents and power relationships


  1. ^ Leland R. Beaumont. "Emotional Competency Web Site". Retrieved 2009-12-16.
  2. ^ a b Air War College (2000-09-21). "Emotional Competence and Leadership". Air War College. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  3. ^ Mayer, John D (2008). "Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?". The American Psychologist. 63 (6): 503–517. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503. PMID 18793038.
  4. ^ Brasseur, Sophie (May 6, 2013). "The profile of Emotional Competence (PEC):Development and Validation of a Self-Reported Measure that Fits Dimensions of Emotional Competence Theory". PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e62635. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062635. PMC 3646043. PMID 23671616.
  5. ^ Mikolajczak, Moira (February 8, 2014). "Measuring intrapersonal and interpersonal EQ: The Short Profile of Emotional Competence (S-PEC)". Personality and Individual Differences. 65: 42–46. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.023.
  6. ^ Saarni, Carolyn (1999). The development of Emotional Competence.
  7. ^ Mayer, John D (2008). "Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits". The American Psychologist. 63 (6): 503–517. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503. PMID 18793038.
  8. ^ Goleman, Daniel (1995). Emotional Intelligence [M]. Bantam Books. ISBN 055384007X.
  9. ^ Mayer, John D (2008). "Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?". The American Psychologist. 63 (6): 503–517. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503. PMID 18793038.
  10. ^ Mayer, John D (2008). "Emotional Intelligence: New Ability or Eclectic Traits?". The American Psychologist. 63 (6): 503–517. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503. PMID 18793038.
  11. ^ Dickson, Anne (1982). A Woman in Your Own Right. Quartet Books. ISBN 0-7043-3420-8.
  12. ^ Goleman, Daniel (1999). Emotional Intelligence.