Belarus electricity supply by source
Belarus electricity supply by source
Map of power plants
Map of power plants
Lukoml power station
Power lines (220, 330 и 750 kv) in Belarus
Power lines (220, 330 и 750 kv) in Belarus

Energy in Belarus describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Belarus. Belarus is a net energy importer. According to IEA, the energy import vastly exceeded the energy production in 2015, describing Belarus as one of the world's least energy sufficient countries in the world.[1] Belarus is very dependent on Russia.[2]

Total energy consumption (measured by total primary energy supply) in Belarus was 27.0 Mtoe in 2018, similar to consumption in Norway and Hungary.[1] Primary energy use in Belarus was 327 TWh or 34 TWh per million persons in 2008.[3]

Primary energy use per capita in Belarus in 2009 (34 MWh) was slightly more than in Portugal (26 MWh) and about half of the use in Belgium (64 MWh) or Sweden (62 MWh).[3]


Energy in Belarus[4]
Prim. energy
2004 9.82 311 42 272 30.9 60.6
2007 9.70 326 47 276 32.5 62.7
2008 9.68 327 47 287 33.2 64.2
2009 9.66 311 47 258 31.4 60.8
2012 9.47 343 50 286 34.4 66.0
2012R 9.46 355 47.9 309 35.0 71.1
2013 9.47 317 46.4 274 34.5 58.3
Change 2004-09 -1.6% -0.1% 11.9% -5.0% 1.6% 0.2%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses

2012R = CO2 calculation criteria changed, numbers updated

Power plants

Name Region/city Capacity, MW[5]
Lukoml GRES Viciebsk Region 2,889
Byaroza GRES Brest Region 1,095
Minsk thermal No. 4 Minsk city 1,035
Minsk thermal No. 5 Minsk Region 719.6
Homiel thermal No. 2 Homiel city 544
Minsk thermal No. 3 Minsk city 442
Mahilioŭ thermal No. 2 Mahilioŭ city 347
Hrodna thermal No. 2 Hrodna city 302.5
Navapolack thermal Navapolack city 270
Mazyr thermal Mazyr city 205
Babruysk thermal No. 2 Babruysk city 182.6
Svietlahorsk thermal Svietlahorsk city 155
Minsk thermal No. 2 Minsk city 94
Viciebsk thermal Viciebsk city 80
Orša thermal Orša city 79.8
Barysaŭ thermal Barysaŭ city 65
Žodzina thermal Žodzina city 54
Lida thermal Lida city 43
Viciebsk hydro Viciebsk Region 40
Mahilioŭ thermal No. 1 Mahilioŭ city 38.5
Homiel thermal No. 1 Homiel city 37.3
Žlobin thermal Žlobin city 26.2
Pinsk thermal Pinsk city 22
Polack hydro Viciebsk Region 21.7
Mahilioŭ thermal No. 3 Mahilioŭ city 19.5
Baranavičy thermal Baranavičy city 18
Hrodna hydro Hrodna Region 17
Brest thermal Brest city 12
Babruysk thermal No. 1 Babruysk city 12

The Astravets Nuclear Power Plant is under construction, with the first unit of two expected to come online in 2020.[6]

Natural gas

The country is one of the world’s largest importers of natural gas with estimates for 2018 being about 17 Mtoe (20 billion cubic metres [bcm]) of natural gas, making it the leading importer among the so-called EU4Energy countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. In 2018 almost all generated electricity came from natural gas (97%, or 39 terawatt hours [TWh]).[1] In 1990, the IEA reported natural gas as constituting 52% of electricity generation, with oil generating 48%.[7]

There are two large gas pipes running through Belarus, the Yamal–Europe pipeline and Northern Lights. In addition there is the Minsk–Kaliningrad Interconnection that connects to Kaliningrad.


Oil refineries, oil and gas pipelines in Belarus
Oil refineries, oil and gas pipelines in Belarus

Belarus is a large oil refiner, listed 36th in the world, at 19 Mt of oil products in 2018 by the IEA.[1] It has two refineries and oil pipelines built during the Soviet era including the Mozyr Oil Refinery.

Renewable energy

Main article: Renewable energy in Belarus

Renewable energy generation accounted for 6% of Belarus’s energy in 2018, mostly from biofuels and waste. Renewables share in electricity generation was 2% in 2018 (0.8 TWh).[1]


Because non-nuclear thermal power plants are ramped up and down depending on heat requirements, and nuclear is not very flexible, increased battery storage has been suggested.[8]


Fossil fuelled heat is heavily subsidized.[9]: 62 

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Belarus energy profile, International Energy Agency, retrieved May 26, 2021
  2. ^ The Economic Aspects of the Energy Sector in CIS Countries (PDF), European Commission, retrieved May 26, 2021
  3. ^ a b IEA Key energy statistics 2010 Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine Page: Country specific indicator numbers from page 48
  4. ^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2015 Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, 2014 (2012R as in November 2015 Archived 2015-04-05 at the Wayback Machine + 2012 as in March 2014 is comparable to previous years statistical calculation criteria, 2013 Archived 2014-09-02 at the Wayback Machine, 2012 Archived 2013-03-09 at the Wayback Machine, 2011 Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine, 2010 Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine, 2009 Archived 2013-10-07 at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived 2009-10-12 at the Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15
  5. ^ Установленная мощность, кВт (in Russian)
  6. ^ "Hot tests completed at Ostrovets unit 1". World Nuclear News. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  7. ^ IEA statistics: Belarus 1990, archived from the original on 2014
  8. ^ "How the energy system of Belarus should develop in order to stay beneficial. Forecast". Retrieved 2021-12-23.
  9. ^ "Renewables Readiness Assessment: Belarus". /publications/2021/Jul/Renewables-Readiness-Assessment-Belarus. Retrieved 2021-12-23.
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