Dubrava Hydroelectric Power Plant

Energy in Croatia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Croatia.

Croatia satisfies its electricity needs largely from hydro and thermal power plants, and partly from the Krško nuclear power plant, which is co-owned by Croatian and Slovenian state-owned power companies.

Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) is the national energy company charged with production, transmission and distribution of electricity.

In 2020, electricity consumption totaled 16.1 terawatt-hours, which is about 11.7% less than in 2019.[1]

Electricity

Production

Energy production in Croatia
Energy production in Croatia

Total installed capacity of generating objects built in Croatia amounts to 3557 MW, 2166 MW of which is hydropower and renewable sources share and 1391 MW comes from thermal and nuclear power plants.[1]

In 2020, domestic production amounted to 12510 GWh, which was 67% of total domestic demand. Remaining 33% was covered through trade. Total consumption equaled 18660 GWh, a 10% decrease from 2019.[1]

Croatia have 28 hydropower plants of which 2 are reversible, 2 small size and 1 pumped storage.

Hydropower plants
Name Plum Production capacity (MW) Year of commissioning
HE Varaždin Drava 94.635 1975
HE Čakovec 77.44 1982
HE Dubrava 79.78 1989
HE Rijeka Rječina 36.80 1968
HE Vinodol area of Gorski Kotar 90.00 1952
CHE Fužine 4.50/-6.50 1957
RHE Lepenica 0.80/-1.20 1985
HE Zeleni Vir Kupa 1.70 1921
HE Senj Lika and Gacka 216.00 1965
HE Sklope Lika 22.50 1970
HE Gojak Ogulinska Dobra and Zagorska Mrežnica 56.00 1954
HE Lešće Donja Dobra 42.29 2010
HE Ozalj 1 Kupa 3.54 1908
HE Ozalj 2 2.20 1952
RHE Velebit Zrmanja 276.00/-240.00 1984
HE Miljacka Krka 20.00 1906
MHE Krčić 0.375 1988
HE Golubić 6.54 1981
HE Jaruga 7.20 1903
HE Peruća Cetina 60.00 1960
HE Orlovac Livanjsko Polje 237.00 1973
HE Đale Cetina 40.80 1989
HE Zakučac 538.00 1961
MHE Prančevići 1.15 2017
HE Kraljevac 46.4 1912
HE Dubrovnik Trebišnjica 126.00 1965
HE Zavrelje Zavrelje 2.00 1953

There are 7 thermal power plants of which 4 are also heating plants and one is combined cycle power plant.

Thermal power plants
Name Fuel Production capacity (netto MW) Year of commissioning
TE Plomin Stone coal 199.00 1970
TE Rijeka Fuel oil 303.00 1978
KTE Jertovec Natural gas 78.00 1954
TE-TO Zagreb Natural gas and gas oil 300.00 1962
EL-TO Zagreb Natural gas and fuel oil 50.00 1907
TE-TO Osijek Natural gas and fuel oil 89.00 1985
TE-TO Sisak Natural gas and fuel oil 228.73 1970

Two biopower plants are now located in Croatia and both are also used for heating purposes.

Biopower plants
Name Fuel Production capacity (MW) Year of commissioning
BE-TO Osijek Woody biomass 3.00 2017
BE-TO Sisak Woody biomass 3.00 2017

Transmission

Croatian transmission grid consists of lines on three different rated voltage levels, namely 400, 220 and 110 kV. Total length of high-voltage lines is 7,795 km (4,843.59 mi) while length of medium and low voltage lines is 140,969 km (87,594.08 mi).[1]

The grid was often the target of attacks during Croatian War of Independence, resulting in frequent black-outs during the period. Since then, the grid has been repaired, and reconnected to synchronous grid of Continental Europe synchronous zones 1 and 2, making it an important transit system again.[2]

Distribution

Under the 2004 Energy law, customers in Croatia are allowed to choose their preferred distributor of electricity. However, HEP Operator distribucijskog sustava or HEP-ODS (a Hrvatska elektroprivreda subsidiary) remains the largest distributor to both industry and households. Its distribution grid is 141,568.6 km (87,966.65 mi) long, with 26 736 transformers installed, totaling 23 172 MVA of power.[3]

In 2020 there were 2 133 525 customers, 95.9% of which were households.[1]

Nuclear power

Main article: Krško Nuclear Power Plant

Croatia has no nuclear power plants on its territory. Croatia co-owns the Krško Nuclear Power Plant together with Slovenia; the Krško plant was built in the era of Yugoslavia on the territory of present-day Slovenia. As of 2008, 17% of Croatia's electric energy consumption is supplied by Krško plant,[4] which has had a licence extension till 2043.[5]

In 1978, the Adriatic island of Vir was selected as a location for a future nuclear power plant, but these plans were abandoned.[6]

According to reports, since 2009 Croatia has been discussing the option of building a nuclear power plant with Albania, in a location on the shore of Shkodër Lake, on the border with Albania and Montenegro. In April 2009 Croatian government denied that any agreement had been signed.[7]

In a 2012 poll among 447 Croatian citizens, who were asked "Do you think it is justified to use nuclear energy for the production of electricity?", 42% answered "yes" and 44% answered "no".[8]

In 2021 the Slovenian government has issued an energy permit to GEN Energija for the planning and construction of the second unit of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant,followed by a statement by the Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development of Croatia Tomislav Ćorić that Croatia "will not look benevolently at the construction of the new bloc".[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Izvješće o poslovanju i održivosti HEP grupe za 2020. godinu" [Report on operations and sustainability of the HEP Group for 2020] (PDF). HEP grupa (in Croatian). Hrvatska elektroprivreda. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  2. ^ http://www.hep.hr/ops/en/hees/default.aspx HEP Croatian power system
  3. ^ "Godišnje izvješće 2020" [Annual report 2020] (PDF). HEP ODS (in Croatian). 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  4. ^ "2014. Hrvatska bez nuklearke u mraku". Nacional (in Croatian). No. 642. 3 March 2008. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  5. ^ "Nuklearna elektrana". Croatian Encyclopedia (in Croatian). Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  6. ^ "Rajski otok za divlju gradnju". Nacional (in Croatian). No. 441. 27 April 2004. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  7. ^ "Croatia Denies Nuclear Plant Contract". climatesceptics.org. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  8. ^ "Stav javnosti o potrebi izgradnje odlagališta radioaktivnog otpada u Republici Hrvatskoj" [Public opinion on necessity for construction of repository in the Republic of Croatia] (PDF). Rudarsko-geološko-naftni Zbornik (in Croatian). Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, University of Zagreb. 24 (1): 73–80. July 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  9. ^ Oharek, Tomislav (22 July 2021). "Slovenci izdali dozvolu za novi blok nuklearke u Krškom, Austrijanci kipte od bijesa. A gdje je tu Hrvatska? Zasad - izvan igre" [Slovenians issued a permit for a new block of nuclear power plant in Krško, Austrians are boiling with rage. And where is Croatia? For now - out of the game]. tportal.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 19 September 2021.