Energy in Croatia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Croatia.
Croatia satisfies its electricity needs largely from hydro and thermal power plants, and partly from the Krško nuclear power plant, which is co-owned by Croatian and Slovenian state-owned power companies.
Hrvatska elektroprivreda (HEP) is the national energy company charged with production, transmission and distribution of electricity.
In 2020, electricity consumption totaled 16.1 terawatt-hours, which is about 11.7% less than in 2019.
Total installed capacity of generating objects built in Croatia amounts to 3557 MW, 2166 MW of which is hydropower and renewable sources share and 1391 MW comes from thermal and nuclear power plants.
In 2020, domestic production amounted to 12510 GWh, which was 67% of total domestic demand. Remaining 33% was covered through trade. Total consumption equaled 18660 GWh, a 10% decrease from 2019.
Croatia have 28 hydropower plants of which 2 are reversible, 2 small size and 1 pumped storage.
|Name||Plum||Production capacity (MW)||Year of commissioning|
|HE Vinodol||area of Gorski Kotar||90.00||1952|
|HE Zeleni Vir||Kupa||1.70||1921|
|HE Senj||Lika and Gacka||216.00||1965|
|HE Gojak||Ogulinska Dobra and Zagorska Mrežnica||56.00||1954|
|HE Lešće||Donja Dobra||42.29||2010|
|HE Ozalj 1||Kupa||3.54||1908|
|HE Ozalj 2||2.20||1952|
|HE Orlovac||Livanjsko Polje||237.00||1973|
There are 7 thermal power plants of which 4 are also heating plants and one is combined cycle power plant.
|Thermal power plants|
|Name||Fuel||Production capacity (netto MW)||Year of commissioning|
|TE Plomin||Stone coal||199.00||1970|
|TE Rijeka||Fuel oil||303.00||1978|
|KTE Jertovec||Natural gas||78.00||1954|
|TE-TO Zagreb||Natural gas and gas oil||300.00||1962|
|EL-TO Zagreb||Natural gas and fuel oil||50.00||1907|
|TE-TO Osijek||Natural gas and fuel oil||89.00||1985|
|TE-TO Sisak||Natural gas and fuel oil||228.73||1970|
Two biopower plants are now located in Croatia and both are also used for heating purposes.
|Name||Fuel||Production capacity (MW)||Year of commissioning|
|BE-TO Osijek||Woody biomass||3.00||2017|
|BE-TO Sisak||Woody biomass||3.00||2017|
Croatian transmission grid consists of lines on three different rated voltage levels, namely 400, 220 and 110 kV. Total length of high-voltage lines is 7,795 km (4,843.59 mi) while length of medium and low voltage lines is 140,969 km (87,594.08 mi).
The grid was often the target of attacks during Croatian War of Independence, resulting in frequent black-outs during the period. Since then, the grid has been repaired, and reconnected to synchronous grid of Continental Europe synchronous zones 1 and 2, making it an important transit system again.
Under the 2004 Energy law, customers in Croatia are allowed to choose their preferred distributor of electricity. However, HEP Operator distribucijskog sustava or HEP-ODS (a Hrvatska elektroprivreda subsidiary) remains the largest distributor to both industry and households. Its distribution grid is 141,568.6 km (87,966.65 mi) long, with 26 736 transformers installed, totaling 23 172 MVA of power.
In 2020 there were 2 133 525 customers, 95.9% of which were households.
Main article: Krško Nuclear Power Plant
Croatia has no nuclear power plants on its territory. Croatia co-owns the Krško Nuclear Power Plant together with Slovenia; the Krško plant was built in the era of Yugoslavia on the territory of present-day Slovenia. As of 2008, 17% of Croatia's electric energy consumption is supplied by Krško plant, which has had a licence extension till 2043.
In 1978, the Adriatic island of Vir was selected as a location for a future nuclear power plant, but these plans were abandoned.
According to reports, since 2009 Croatia has been discussing the option of building a nuclear power plant with Albania, in a location on the shore of Shkodër Lake, on the border with Albania and Montenegro. In April 2009 Croatian government denied that any agreement had been signed.
In a 2012 poll among 447 Croatian citizens, who were asked "Do you think it is justified to use nuclear energy for the production of electricity?", 42% answered "yes" and 44% answered "no".
In 2021 the Slovenian government has issued an energy permit to GEN Energija for the planning and construction of the second unit of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant,followed by a statement by the Minister of Economy and Sustainable Development of Croatia Tomislav Ćorić that Croatia "will not look benevolently at the construction of the new bloc".