Enniskillen
Enniskillen castle
Enniskillen is located in Northern Ireland
Enniskillen
Enniskillen
Location within Northern Ireland
Population14,086 (2021 Census)
Irish grid referenceH240440
• Belfast88 miles (142 km)
• Dublin89 mi (143 km)
District
County
CountryNorthern Ireland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townENNISKILLEN
Postcode districtBT74, BT92-94
Dialling code028
PoliceNorthern Ireland
FireNorthern Ireland
AmbulanceNorthern Ireland
UK Parliament
NI Assembly
Websitewww.enniskillen.com
List of places
UK
Northern Ireland
Fermanagh
54°20′41″N 07°38′20″W / 54.34472°N 7.63889°W / 54.34472; -7.63889

Enniskillen (/ˌɛnɪsˈkɪlən/ EN-iss-KIL-ən, from Irish: Inis Ceithleann[2] [ˈɪnʲɪʃ ˈcɛlʲən̪ˠ], 'Ceithlenn's island') is the largest town in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. It is in the middle of the county, between the Upper and Lower sections of Lough Erne. It had a population of 14,086 at the 2011 Census.[3] Enniskillen Castle was built in the 15th century as a stronghold of the Maguires, before coming under English control in the early 17th century. The castle and town were expanded during the Plantation of Ulster. It was the seat of local government for the former Fermanagh District Council, and is the county town of Fermanagh.

Toponymy

The town's name comes from the Irish: Inis Ceithleann. This refers to Cethlenn, a figure in Irish mythology who may have been a goddess. Local legend has it that Cethlenn was wounded in battle by an arrow and attempted to swim across the River Erne, which surrounds the island, but she never reached the other side, so the island was named in reference to her. It has been anglicised many ways over the centuries – Iniskellen, Iniskellin, Iniskillin, Iniskillen, Inishkellen, Inishkellin, Inishkillin, Inishkillen and so on.[2]

History

The town's oldest building is Enniskillen Castle, built by Hugh (Maguire) the Hospitable who died in 1428.[11] An earthwork, the Skonce on the shore of Lough Erne, may be the remains of an earlier motte. The castle was the stronghold of the junior branch of the Maguires.[12] The first watergate was built around 1580 by Cú Chonnacht Maguire, though subsequent lowering of the level of the lough has left it without water. The strategic position of the castle made its capture important for the English in 1593, to support their plans for the control of Ulster. The castle was besieged three times in 1594–95. The English, led by a Captain Dowdall, captured it in February 1594. Maguire then laid siege to it, and defeated a relieving force at the Battle of the Ford of the Biscuits at Drumane Bridge on the Arney River. Although the defenders were relieved, Maguire gained possession of the castle from 1595 to 1598 and it was not finally captured by the English until 1607.

This was part of a wider campaign to bring the province of Ulster under English control; the final capture of Enniskillen Castle in 1607 was followed by the Plantation of Ulster, during which the lands of the native Irish were seized and handed over to planters loyal to the English Crown. The Maguires were supplanted by William Cole, originally from Devon, who was appointed by James I to build an English settlement there in 1612.

Captain Cole was installed as Constable and strengthened the castle wall and built a "fair house" on the old foundation as the centre point of the county town. The first Protestant parish church was erected on the hilltop in 1627. By 1630 the town had around 180 inhabitants, mostly comprising English and Scottish settlers.[13] The Royal Free School of Fermanagh was moved onto the island in 1643. The first bridges were drawbridges; permanent bridges were not installed before 1688.

By 1689 the town had grown significantly. During the conflict which resulted from the ousting of King James II by his Protestant rival, William III, Enniskillen and Derry were the focus of Williamite resistance in Ireland, including the nearby Battle of Newtownbutler.[14]

Enniskillen and Derry were the two garrisons in Ulster that were not wholly loyal to James II, and it was the last town to fall before the Siege of Derry. As a direct result of this conflict, Enniskillen developed not only as a market town but also as a garrison, which became home to two regiments.

The former site of Fermanagh College at Gaol Square (the college has now moved to the old Erne Hospital site) was the former Enniskillen Gaol. Many people were tried and hanged in the square during the times of public execution. Part of the old goal is still standing. Enniskillen Town Hall was designed by William Scott and completed in 1901.[15]

Military history

Enniskillen is the site of the foundation of two British Army regiments:

The town's name (with the archaic spelling) continues to form part of the title to The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment). Enniskillen Castle features on the cap badge of both regiments.

The Troubles

Main article: The Troubles in Enniskillen

Enniskillen was the site of several events during The Troubles, the most notable being the Remembrance Day bombing in which 11 people were killed. Bill Clinton opened The Clinton Centre in 2002 on the site of the bombing. The Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed responsibility for the attack.

Alleged sexual abuse and assault

In 2019, at least nine men reported to the police and the press and said in public forums that, in the 1980s and 90s, when they were children, they were repeatedly molested and raped by a paedophile ring of at least 20 men in the Enniskillen area.[16][17][18][19] Investigations are continuing.

Miscellaneous

Demography

National Identity of Enniskillen residents (2021)[22][23][24]
Nationality Per cent
Irish
37.4%
Northern Irish
29.6%
British
28.4%

2021 Census

On Census day 2021 there were 14,086 people living in Enniskillen.[3] Of these:

2011 Census

On Census day (27 March 2011) there were 13,823 people living in Enniskillen (5,733 households),[5] accounting for 0.76% of the NI total and representing an increase of 1.6% on the Census 2001 population of 13,599.[27] Of these:

Places of interest

Churches

There are four churches in the town centre. These are:

There are several other churches outside the town centre.

Historic Buildings

Some of these buildings are outside the town.

Natural Phenomena

Other

Gallery

Sports

Association football

As of season 2023/24, the town has five association football teams, Enniskillen Rangers, Enniskillen Town United F.C., Enniskillen Athletic, Enniskillen Galaxy and Enniskillen Rovers. Founded in 1953, Enniskillen Rangers are the oldest and most successful of these, having won the Irish Junior Cup four times, most recently in season 2018/19, when they defeated Tummery Athletic 1–0 in the National Football Stadium at Windsor Park, the Fermanagh & Western Division One title 18 times and the Mulhern Cup 16 times.[34] They play their home games at The Ball Range.

Enniskillen Rangers have several notable former players including Sandy Fulton and Jim Cleary.

Enniskillen Town United F.C. currently play in the Fermanagh & Western 1st Division. Their most notable former player is Michael McGovern who won 32 senior caps for Northern Ireland and as of January 2024 was on loan at Livingston F.C. from parent club Heart of Midlothian F.C.. Enniskillen Town United F.C. currently play their home games at St Michael's GS Pavilion in Enniskillen.

Rugby

Enniskillen Rugby Football Club was founded in 1925 and plays its home games at Mullaghmeen. The club currently[when?] fields 4 senior men's teams, a senior ladies' team, a range of male and female youth teams, a vibrant mini section and a disability tag team called The Enniskillen Elks. Enniskillen XV won the Ulster Towns Cup in the 2018/19 season, defeating Ballyclare 19–0. The team currently play in Kukri Ulster Rugby Championship Division 1.[35]

The rugby club was formed on 28 August 1925, when 37 attended a meeting in Enniskillen Town Hall. The name Enniskillen Rugby Club was agreed and the club adopted the rules of the Dublin University Football Club. The first match was played on 30 September 1925 against Ballyshannon in County Donegal.[36]

Gaelic games

Enniskillen Gaels is a Gaelic Athletic Association club founded in 1927. It is based at Brewster Park, Enniskillen. The club has had success in both Gaelic football and hurling winning in both county and provincial competitions.

International events

Enniskillen was the venue of the 39th G8 summit which was held on 17 and 18 June 2013. It was held at the Lough Erne Resort, a five-star hotel and golf resort on the shore of Lough Erne. The gathering was the biggest international diplomatic gathering ever held in Northern Ireland. Among the G8 leaders who attended were British Prime Minister David Cameron, United States President Barack Obama, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, and Russian President Vladimir Putin.[37]

In the past, Enniskillen has hosted an array of international events, most notably stages of the World Waterski World Cup, annually from 2005 to 2007 at the Broadmeadow.[38] Despite its success, Enniskillen was not chosen as a World Cup Stop for 2008.

In January 2009, Enniskillen hosted the ceremonial start of Rally Ireland 2009, the first stage of the WRC FIA World Rally Championship 2009 Calendar.[39]

Enniskillen has hosted the Happy Days arts festival since 2012, which celebrates "the work and influence of Nobel Prize-winning writer Samuel Beckett" and is the "first annual, international, multi-arts festival to be held in Northern Ireland since the launch of the Ulster Bank Belfast Festival at Queen's in 1962".[40]

Notable natives and residents

See also: Category:People from Enniskillen

Arts and Media

Business

Medicine and Science

Military

Politics

Religion

Sports

Education

The old Enniskillen Model School, now used as the Fermanagh office of the Western Education and Library Board (WELB)

There are numerous schools and colleges in and around the Enniskillen area, from primary level to secondary level, including some further education colleges such as the technical college.

Primary level

Secondary level

Colleges

Transport

Rail – historic

Railway lines from Enniskillen railway station linked the town with Derry from 1854, Dundalk from 1861, Bundoran from 1868 and Sligo from 1882.[88] By 1883 the Great Northern Railway (Ireland) absorbed all the lines except the Sligo, Leitrim and Northern Counties Railway, which remained independent throughout its existence. In October 1957 the Government of Northern Ireland closed the GNR line, which made it impossible for the SL&NCR to continue and forced it also to close.[89]

Rail – current

The nearest railway station to Enniskillen is Sligo station which is served by multiple trains to Dublin Connolly and is operated by Iarnród Éireann. The Dublin-Sligo railway line has a two-hourly service run by Iarnród Éireann. A connecting bus from Sligo via Manorhamilton to Enniskillen is operated by Bus Éireann.

Bus

Bus service to Enniskillen is provided by both Ulsterbus and Bus Éireann, from Enniskillen bus station. Number 261, 261b and X261 Goldline buses run from Belfast to Enniskillen. Bus Éireann Route 30 runs from Donegal to Dublin Airport/Dublin City via Enniskillen.

Air

Enniskillen has a World War II-era airport, Enniskillen/St Angelo Airport. The airport had scheduled flights in the past but now serves mainly private traffic.

Road

The town is on the main A4/N16 route linking Belfast and Sligo, and on the main Dublin to Ballyshannon route, the N3/A46/A509.

Twinning

Enniskillen was originally twinned with Brackwede – a Bielefeld suburb – where the Inniskilling Dragoon Guards were stationed in the late 1950s when the twinning was initiated; however, this suburb was incorporated into Stadt Bielefeld in 1973, the city with which Enniskillen is now officially twinned.[90][91]

Though the twinning arrangements are still operational, at a meeting of the Regeneration and Community Committee, in February 2018, it was agreed that the twinning arrangements would be formally terminated at the end of the Council term in June 2018. However, Fermanagh and Omagh District Council still have plans to send representatives to Brackwede for the 60th-anniversary celebrations of the twinning. Therefore, the future of the twinning is now somewhat unclear.[92]

Climate

Enniskillen has a maritime climate with a narrow range of temperatures and rainfall. The nearest official Met Office weather station for which online records are available is at Lough Navar Forest,[93] about 8+12 mi (14 km) northwest of Enniskillen. Data has also more recently been collected from Enniskillen/St Angelo Airport, under 4 mi (6 km) north of the town centre, which should in time give a more accurate representation of the climate of the Enniskillen area.

The absolute maximum temperature is 29.8 °C (85.6 °F), recorded during July 2006.[94] In an 'average' year, the warmest day is 25.5 °C (77.9 °F)[95] and only 2.4 days[96] a year should rise to 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above. The respective absolute maximum for St Angelo is 29.4 °C (84.9 °F)[97]

The absolute minimum temperature is −12.9 °C (8.8 °F), recorded during January 1984.[98] In an 'average' year, the coldest night should fall to −8.2 °C (17.2 °F). Lough Navar is a frosty location, with some 76 air frosts recorded in a typical year.[98] It is likely that Enniskillen town centre is significantly less frosty than this. The absolute minimum at St Angelo is −14.5 °C (5.9 °F), reported during the record cold month of December 2010.[98]

The warmest month on record at St Angelo was August 1995 with a mean temperature of 18.8 °C (65.8 °F)[99] (mean maximum 23.3 °C (73.9 °F), mean minimum 12.9 °C (55.2 °F)), while the coldest month was December 2010, with a mean temperature of −1.8 °C (28.8 °F)[100] (mean maximum 2.9 °C (37.2 °F), mean minimum −5.9 °C (21.4 °F)).

Rainfall is high, averaging over 1500 mm. 212 days of the year report at least 1 mm of precipitation, ranging from 15 days during April, May and June, to 20 days in October, November, December, January and March.

The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[101]

Climate data for Lough Navar Forest: 126 m (413 ft) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1960–2019
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68.0)
23.2
(73.8)
26.5
(79.7)
29.7
(85.5)
29.8
(85.6)
28.0
(82.4)
23.2
(73.8)
19.5
(67.1)
16.8
(62.2)
14.3
(57.7)
29.8
(85.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.5
(45.5)
9.6
(49.3)
12.3
(54.1)
15.3
(59.5)
17.4
(63.3)
18.6
(65.5)
18.3
(64.9)
16.1
(61.0)
12.5
(54.5)
9.2
(48.6)
7.1
(44.8)
12.6
(54.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
4.1
(39.4)
5.4
(41.7)
7.4
(45.3)
10.2
(50.4)
12.5
(54.5)
14.2
(57.6)
13.9
(57.0)
11.7
(53.1)
8.7
(47.7)
5.9
(42.6)
3.9
(39.0)
8.5
(47.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.6
(33.1)
0.6
(33.1)
1.3
(34.3)
2.5
(36.5)
5.0
(41.0)
7.8
(46.0)
9.7
(49.5)
9.4
(48.9)
7.3
(45.1)
4.9
(40.8)
2.6
(36.7)
0.8
(33.4)
4.4
(39.9)
Record low °C (°F) −12.9
(8.8)
−10.5
(13.1)
−11.6
(11.1)
−7.3
(18.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.0
(33.8)
0.2
(32.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.2
(19.0)
−8.4
(16.9)
−14.5
(5.9)
−14.5
(5.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 172.0
(6.77)
131.6
(5.18)
121.6
(4.79)
108.9
(4.29)
103.5
(4.07)
96.8
(3.81)
115.0
(4.53)
122.9
(4.84)
116.5
(4.59)
153.7
(6.05)
172.6
(6.80)
180.9
(7.12)
1,596.3
(62.85)
Average precipitation days 19.8 17.8 17.8 16.5 15.8 14.9 17.7 18.0 16.9 18.0 20.4 19.8 213.4
Source 1: Météo Climat[102]
Source 2: KNMI (extremes)[103]
Climate data for Lough Navar Forest 126m asl 1961–1990, extremes 1960– (weather station 8.5 miles (14 km) north-west of Enniskillen)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
15.4
(59.7)
20.0
(68.0)
23.2
(73.8)
26.1
(79.0)
28.8
(83.8)
29.8
(85.6)
28.0
(82.4)
23.2
(73.8)
19.5
(67.1)
16.8
(62.2)
13.8
(56.8)
29.8
(85.6)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
7.0
(44.6)
8.9
(48.0)
11.5
(52.7)
14.5
(58.1)
16.6
(61.9)
18.3
(64.9)
18.1
(64.6)
15.6
(60.1)
12.2
(54.0)
8.8
(47.8)
7.0
(44.6)
12.1
(53.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.5
(32.9)
1.4
(34.5)
2.2
(36.0)
4.3
(39.7)
7.4
(45.3)
9.7
(49.5)
9.2
(48.6)
7.1
(44.8)
5.1
(41.2)
2.1
(35.8)
1.2
(34.2)
4.2
(39.6)
Record low °C (°F) −12.9
(8.8)
−10.5
(13.1)
−11.6
(11.1)
−7.3
(18.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.0
(33.8)
0.2
(32.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.2
(19.0)
−8.4
(16.9)
−12.8
(9.0)
−12.9
(8.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 163.38
(6.43)
123.19
(4.85)
136.81
(5.39)
93.85
(3.69)
87.4
(3.44)
93.39
(3.68)
101.37
(3.99)
117.45
(4.62)
123.94
(4.88)
155.7
(6.13)
157.26
(6.19)
169.1
(6.66)
1,522.84
(59.95)
Average precipitation days 20 16 19 14 14 15 16 16 17 19 19 20 205
Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[104]
Source 2: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute[105]

See also

References

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