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Enterprise systems engineering (ESE) is the discipline that applies systems engineering to the design of an enterprise.[1] As a discipline, it includes a body of knowledge, principles, and processes tailored to the design of enterprise systems. An enterprise is a complex, socio-technical system that comprises interdependent resources of people, information, and technology that must interact to fulfill a common mission.[1]

Enterprise systems engineering incorporates all the tasks of traditional systems engineering but is further informed by an expansive view of the context POET (political, operational, economic, technological) in which the system(s) under consideration are developed, acquired, modified, maintained, or disposed.[citation needed][2]

Enterprise systems engineering may be required when the complexity of the enterprise breaks down the assumptions upon which textbook systems engineering is based. Traditional systems engineering assumptions include requirements being relatively stable and well understood, a system configuration that can be controlled, and a small, easily discernible set of stakeholders.[citation needed]

An enterprise system engineer must produce a different kind of analysis on the people, technology, components of the company to see the whole picture of the enterprise. As the enterprise becomes more complex with more problems and people involved, it is important to integrate the system to reach a higher standard or level for the business.[3]


There are four important elements for enterprise system engineering to work. It includes development through adaption, strategic technical planning, enterprise governance, and ESE processes (with different stages).[4]

Development through adaptation

Development through adaptation is a way to compromise with the problems and obstacles in complex systems. As time goes by, the environment will change and it needs adaptation to develop continuously. To develop through adaption, something experiences different stages. For example, the mobile phone has gone through quite a few adaptations in its evolutionary development from the past. When it was first released, the size of a mobile phone was enormous, but as they passed through generations of development phones became smaller. The development of mobile data from 1G to 4G has made using phones faster and more convenient.[5] To sum up, this refers to the process of creating diverse and innovative ideas and choices for the enterprise and selecting the one that will be most successful for the next generation.

Strategic technical planning

See also: Strategic technology plan

Strategic technical planning (STP) gives the enterprise the picture of their aim and objectives in the future and also an assessment on the process of organization. It brings a balance of assimilation and modernization to the enterprise. It has different components for STP.[6][7]

Enterprise governance

It is defined as 'the set of responsibilities and practices exercised by the board and executive management to provide strategic direction, ensure that objectives are achieved, ascertain that risks are managed appropriately and verify that the organization's resources are used responsibly,' according to CIMA Official Terminology, 2005.[8] Enterprise governance includes two aspects which are corporate governance (conformance) and business governance (performance). It is essential to understand the company and to know what must be done to succeed. It allows one to make the right decision on the choice of CEO and executives for the company, and also to identify the risks of the company.[9]


There are four different steps in the enterprise system engineering process. It includes technology planning (TP), capabilities-based engineering analysis (CBEA), enterprise architecture (EA), and enterprise analysis and assessment (EA&A).[10][3]

Technology planning

This is a step that searches and looks for key technologies for the enterprise. This step aims to determine and associate all the innovative ideas and choose the technology that is useful for the enterprise to develop in a sustainable way.[citation needed]

Technology needs

One must identify and look for the trend of the technology to decide what technology the company needs. It is important to understand what each of the technology can be achieved and will the character of the technology fits in the company well. There are loads of technology-based decisions need to be taken by the company such as deciding which computers to use, which software is suitable and useful for the company, how to build up a system to back up all the customer data or essential statistics for the company with high security.[11]

Capabilities-based engineering analysis

It is an analysis method that focus on the essential elements that whole enterprise needs. It is a scheme that target the innovation and evolution of the capabilities.[12] There is a set of essential steps for the analysis. The activities are dependent and it is conducted iteratively.

Purpose formulation

Exploratory analysis

Evolutionary planning

Enterprise architecture

The prospective of Enterprise Architecture
The prospective of Enterprise Architecture

It is a model that illustrates the vision, network and framework of an organization. There are four aspects according to Microsoft's Michael Platt which are the prospective of business, application, information and technology.[13] The diagram beside shows that structure of the Enterprise Architecture. The benefits of this step are improvement of the decision making for enterprise, increases the efficiency on the IT aspects and also minimize the loss of the organization.[14]

All the elements are dependent and rely on each other in order to build the infrastructure.[15]

Enterprise analysis and assessment

Enterprise analysis and assessment aim to find out if the enterprise is going in the right direction and help to do the correct decisions for the organization. It is strongly advised to link with enterprise opportunity and risk assessment. Some qualities are required for this step such as being aware of the suitable and capable technologies, knowing and understand about C2 (Command and Control) issues, and also the background picture of Modeling and simulation.[16]

There are various activities and actions for this event.

  1. Multi-scale analysis
  2. Early and continuous war fighter operational assessment
  3. Lightweight, portable M&S-based C2 capability representations
  4. Developmental software versions available for assessment
  5. Minimal infrastructure
  6. Flexible modeling and simulation (M&S), operator-in-the-loop (OITL), and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) capabilities
  7. In-line, continuous performance monitoring and selective forensics.

Traditional systems engineering (TSE)

TSE refers to traditional systems engineering, which is a term to be defined as an engineering sub-system.[17][18]


There are differences between TSE and ESE. There are survey results comparing both of them.[19] The survey result shown that TSE and ESE is complementary and interdependent with each other which ESE has a higher rating while TSE could also be a hidden element for ESE. So the combination of TSE and ESE will be ideal for an enterprise in this generation.


There are two types of ESE application: Information Enterprise Systems Engineering and Social Enterprise Systems Engineering.

Information Enterprise Systems Engineering (IESE)

It is a system that builds up to meet the requirements and expectations of different stakeholders in the organization. There must be an input device to collect the information and output device to satisfy the information needs.[20]

There are three different aspects for the framework of IESE:

Also, there are different rules for the IESE model.[21]

Social Enterprise System Engineering

This is a framework that involves planning, analyzing, mapping, and drawing a network of the process for enterprises and stakeholders. Moreover, it creates social value for entrepreneurship and explores and focuses on social and societal issues. It forms a connection between social enterprise and system engineering. There is a Social Enterprise Systems Engineering V-model, in which two or more social elements are established based on the system engineering framework—for example, more social interface analysis that reviews stakeholders' requirements, and more activities and interactions between stakeholders to exchange opinion.[22]

Opportunity and risk management

There are opportunities and risks in ESE and they have to be aggressive in seeking opportunities and also finding ways to avoid or minimize the risks. Opportunity is a trigger element that may lead to the accomplishment of objectives. Risk is a potential occurrence and will affect the performance of the entire system.[23] There are several reasons for the importance of risk management.[24]

  1. To identify the risks before head which can prepare actions to prevent or minimize the risks
  2. Since risks can cost the enterprise, determining the risk events can reduce the amount of loss
  3. Help to know how to allocate the human or technology resources in order avoid the most critical risks

There are few steps in Enterprise risk and opportunity Management Process

See also


  1. ^ a b R.E. Giachetti (2010). Design of Enterprise Systems: Theory, Architecture, and Methods, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p. 3
  2. ^ "Tools to Enable a Comprehensive Viewpoint". 28 August 2013.
  3. ^ a b Joannou, Paul (2007). "Enterprise, Systems, and Software Engineering--The Need for Integration". Computer. 40 (5): 103–5. doi:10.1109/mc.2007.167. S2CID 1856609.
  4. ^ Enterprise Systems Engineering: Advances in the Theory and Practice. Boca Raton ; London : CRC Press. 2011. p. 8. ISBN 978-1420073294.
  5. ^ "1G, 2G, 3G, 4G: The evolution of wireless generations". Phone Arena. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
  6. ^ Strategic Technology Plan
  7. ^ "What is strategic planning? - Definition from". SearchCIO. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
  8. ^ Lees, Gillian (June 2007). "Enterprise Governance" (PDF). CIMA. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  9. ^ "Enterprise Governance – A CIMA discussion paper" (PDF). CIMA. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  10. ^ Crider, Kimberly A.; Derosa, Joseph K. (2007). "Findings of Case Studies in Enterprise Systems Engineering". 2007 1st Annual IEEE Systems Conference. pp. 1–6. doi:10.1109/SYSTEMS.2007.374650. ISBN 978-1-4244-1040-8. S2CID 12525506.
  11. ^ "(NetAction)". Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  12. ^ Webb, Mike. "Capabilities-Based Engineering Analysis (CBEA)" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  13. ^ "What is enterprise architecture (EA)? - Definition from". SearchCIO. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  14. ^ "Enterprise Architecture | Centric". Centric Consulting. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  15. ^ "DTS Enterprise Architecture". Retrieved 2015-11-02.
  16. ^ Roberts, John (2006). "Enterprise Analysis and Assessment of Complex Military Command and Control Environments" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  17. ^ Hybertson, Duane (2009). Model-oriented systems engineering science : a unifying framework for traditional and complex systems. Boca Raton ; London : CRC Press. pp. 2. ISBN 9781420072518.
  18. ^ Rebovich, George (November 2005). "Enterprise Systems Engineering Theory and Practice Volume 2: Systems Thinking for the Enterprise: New and Emerging Perspectives" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  19. ^ White, Brian. "On the Pursuit of Enterprise Systems Engineering Ideas" (PDF). The MITRE Corporation. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  20. ^ Snoeck, Monique (2014-09-20). Enterprise Information Systems Engineering: The MERODE Approach. Springer. p. 70. ISBN 9783319101453.
  21. ^ Nikolaidou, M. and Alexopoulou, N. (2007). Enterprise Information System Engineering: A Model-based Approach based on the Zachman Framework. 1st ed. [pdf] Department of Informatics & Telecommunications, University of Athens, Athens, Greece: arokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece, pp.1-10. Available at: [Accessed 3 Nov. 2015].
  22. ^ Mason, James (2015). "Social Enterprise Systems Engineering". Procedia Computer Science. 44: 135–46. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.067.
  23. ^ White, B. (2006). Enterprise Opportunity and Risk. 1st ed. [pdf] 202 Burlington Road Bedford, MA: INCOSE, pp.3-6. Available at: [Accessed 3 Nov. 2015].
  24. ^ Pinto, Cesar Ariel; Garvey, Paul R. (2012-10-08). Advanced Risk Analysis in Engineering Enterprise Systems. CRC Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781439826157.

Further reading