Enterprise systems engineering (ESE) is the discipline that applies systems engineering to the design of an enterprise. As a discipline, it includes a body of knowledge, principles, and processes tailored to the design of enterprise systems. An enterprise is a complex, socio-technical system that comprises interdependent resources of people, information, and technology that must interact to fulfill a common mission.
Enterprise systems engineering incorporates all the tasks of traditional systems engineering but is further informed by an expansive view of the context POET (political, operational, economic, technological) in which the system(s) under consideration are developed, acquired, modified, maintained, or disposed.
Enterprise systems engineering may be required when the complexity of the enterprise breaks down the assumptions upon which textbook systems engineering is based. Traditional systems engineering assumptions include requirements being relatively stable and well understood, a system configuration that can be controlled, and a small, easily discernible set of stakeholders.
An enterprise system engineer must produce a different kind of analysis on the people, technology, components of the company to see the whole picture of the enterprise. As the enterprise becomes more complex with more problems and people involved, it is important to integrate the system to reach a higher standard or level for the business.
There are four important elements for enterprise system engineering to work. It includes development through adaption, strategic technical planning, enterprise governance, and ESE processes (with different stages).
Development through adaptation is a way to compromise with the problems and obstacles in complex systems. As time goes by, the environment will change and it needs adaptation to develop continuously. To develop through adaption, something experiences different stages. For example, the mobile phone has gone through quite a few adaptations in its evolutionary development from the past. When it was first released, the size of a mobile phone was enormous, but as they passed through generations of development phones became smaller. The development of mobile data from 1G to 4G has made using phones faster and more convenient. To sum up, this refers to the process of creating diverse and innovative ideas and choices for the enterprise and selecting the one that will be most successful for the next generation.
See also: Strategic technology plan
Strategic technical planning (STP) gives the enterprise the picture of their aim and objectives in the future and also an assessment on the process of organization. It brings a balance of assimilation and modernization to the enterprise. It has different components for STP.
It is defined as 'the set of responsibilities and practices exercised by the board and executive management to provide strategic direction, ensure that objectives are achieved, ascertain that risks are managed appropriately and verify that the organization's resources are used responsibly,' according to CIMA Official Terminology, 2005. Enterprise governance includes two aspects which are corporate governance (conformance) and business governance (performance). It is essential to understand the company and to know what must be done to succeed. It allows one to make the right decision on the choice of CEO and executives for the company, and also to identify the risks of the company.
There are four different steps in the enterprise system engineering process. It includes technology planning (TP), capabilities-based engineering analysis (CBEA), enterprise architecture (EA), and enterprise analysis and assessment (EA&A).
This is a step that searches and looks for key technologies for the enterprise. This step aims to determine and associate all the innovative ideas and choose the technology that is useful for the enterprise to develop in a sustainable way.
One must identify and look for the trend of the technology to decide what technology the company needs. It is important to understand what each of the technology can be achieved and will the character of the technology fits in the company well. There are loads of technology-based decisions need to be taken by the company such as deciding which computers to use, which software is suitable and useful for the company, how to build up a system to back up all the customer data or essential statistics for the company with high security.
It is an analysis method that focus on the essential elements that whole enterprise needs. It is a scheme that target the innovation and evolution of the capabilities. There is a set of essential steps for the analysis. The activities are dependent and it is conducted iteratively.
It is a model that illustrates the vision, network and framework of an organization. There are four aspects according to Microsoft's Michael Platt which are the prospective of business, application, information and technology. The diagram beside shows that structure of the Enterprise Architecture. The benefits of this step are improvement of the decision making for enterprise, increases the efficiency on the IT aspects and also minimize the loss of the organization.
All the elements are dependent and rely on each other in order to build the infrastructure.
Enterprise analysis and assessment aim to find out if the enterprise is going in the right direction and help to do the correct decisions for the organization. It is strongly advised to link with enterprise opportunity and risk assessment. Some qualities are required for this step such as being aware of the suitable and capable technologies, knowing and understand about C2 (Command and Control) issues, and also the background picture of Modeling and simulation.
There are various activities and actions for this event.
TSE refers to traditional systems engineering, which is a term to be defined as an engineering sub-system.
There are differences between TSE and ESE. There are survey results comparing both of them. The survey result shown that TSE and ESE is complementary and interdependent with each other which ESE has a higher rating while TSE could also be a hidden element for ESE. So the combination of TSE and ESE will be ideal for an enterprise in this generation.
There are two types of ESE application: Information Enterprise Systems Engineering and Social Enterprise Systems Engineering.
It is a system that builds up to meet the requirements and expectations of different stakeholders in the organization. There must be an input device to collect the information and output device to satisfy the information needs.
There are three different aspects for the framework of IESE:
Also, there are different rules for the IESE model.
This is a framework that involves planning, analyzing, mapping, and drawing a network of the process for enterprises and stakeholders. Moreover, it creates social value for entrepreneurship and explores and focuses on social and societal issues. It forms a connection between social enterprise and system engineering. There is a Social Enterprise Systems Engineering V-model, in which two or more social elements are established based on the system engineering framework—for example, more social interface analysis that reviews stakeholders' requirements, and more activities and interactions between stakeholders to exchange opinion.
There are opportunities and risks in ESE and they have to be aggressive in seeking opportunities and also finding ways to avoid or minimize the risks. Opportunity is a trigger element that may lead to the accomplishment of objectives. Risk is a potential occurrence and will affect the performance of the entire system. There are several reasons for the importance of risk management.
There are few steps in Enterprise risk and opportunity Management Process