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Environmental impact design (EID) is the design of development projects so as to achieve positive environmental objectives that benefit the environment and raise the stock of public goods.[1][2]

Examples

Examples of EID include:[2][3]

Types

Environmental impact design impacts can be broken down into three types:

Environmental impacts of design must consider the site of the project.

Environmental Impact Design should address issues revealed by Environmental impact assessments (EIA). EID looks for ways to minimize costs to the developer, while maximizing the benefit to the environment.[9]

Construction

Historically in construction, the needs of the owner were paramount, as constrained by local laws and policies, such as building safety and zoning. EID broadens those concerns to encompass environmental impacts.[10] Low impact development and ecologically focused building practices originated in Germany following World War II. The widespread destruction and a large homeless population gave Germans the chance to refocus building practices. Prefabrication was adopted in both East and West Germany where, in the 1950s and 60s, modular construction systems were developed for residential buildings.[10][11]

International programs

In 1992, at the Earth Summit, policy makers adopted Agenda 21, which focused on sustainable development. In 1996, the UN Conference on Human Settlements Habitat II discussed transferring sustainable building practices to an urban scale. From 1999 to 2003, the U.S. Green Building Council kick-started the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design or (LEED) which is now the most well-known standard for green building.

Building life cycle

The "building life cycle" is an approach to design that considers environmental impacts such as pollution and energy consumption over the life of the building. This theory evolved into the idea of cradle-to-cradle design, which adds the notion that at the end of a building's life, it should be disposed of without environment impact. The Triple Zero standard requires lowering energy, emissions and waste to zero. A successful life cycle building adopts approaches such as the use of recycled materials in the construction process as well as green energy. [10]

See also

References

  1. ^ Turner, Tom (1998). Landscape Planning And Environmental Impact Design. 11. p. 112. (link: Google Books). Retrieved November 20, 2017 – via ProQuest.CS1 maint: location (link)
  2. ^ a b EID Landscape architecture environmental impact analysis, landscape assessment and environmental impact design.” Gardenvisit.com - the Garden Landscape Guide
  3. ^ Environmental Issues & Building Design.” Autodesk: Sustainability Workshop
  4. ^ World Bank. 1998. China - National Afforestation Project. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  5. ^ World Bank. 2013. Guinea-Bissau - Coastal And Biodiversity Management Project. Washington, DC: World Bank Group.
  6. ^ World Bank. 2007. Argentina - Flood Protection. Washington, DC: World Bank Group
  7. ^ Imhoff, Cory, and David M. Taylor. "Environmental Benefits of Concrete Bridges." ASPIREBridge, Fall 2008. Accessed December 1, 2017
  8. ^ Tsunokawa, Koji, Hoban Christopher [editors. “Roads and the environment: a handbook” Page 60-64. The World Bank, 1 July 2010]
  9. ^ "Environmental impact design EID". landscapearchitecture.org.uk. 4 July 2016.
  10. ^ a b c Khouli, Sebastian El; John, Viola; Zeumer, Martin (2015). Sustainable Construction Techniques: From Structural Design to Interior Fit-out : Assessing and Improving the Environmental Impact of Buildings. DETAIL, Institut für internationale Architektur-Dokumentation. p. 58. ISBN 978-3-95553-238-3.
  11. ^ Roaf, Susan, et al. Ecohouse : A Design Guide. vol. 3rd ed, Taylor & Francis [CAM, 2007. pg 49. EBSCOhost]