Ernest Nagel
Ernest Nagel (c. 1955)
Born(1901-11-16)November 16, 1901
DiedSeptember 20, 1985(1985-09-20) (aged 83)
EducationCCNY (BSc, 1923)
Columbia University (PhD, 1931)
ChildrenAlexander Nagel
Sidney R. Nagel
Era20th-century philosophy
RegionWestern philosophy
InstitutionsColumbia University
Doctoral advisorJohn Dewey
Doctoral studentsMorton White
Patrick Suppes
Isaac Levi
Henry E. Kyburg Jr.
Main interests
Philosophy of science

Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901 – September 20, 1985) was an American philosopher of science.[1][2] Along with Rudolf Carnap, Hans Reichenbach, and Carl Hempel, he is sometimes seen as one of the major figures of the logical positivist movement. His 1961 book The Structure of Science is considered a foundational work in the logic of scientific explanation.

Life and career

Nagel was born in Nové Mesto nad Váhom (now in Slovakia, then Vágújhely and part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire) to Jewish parents.[1] His mother, Frida Weiss, was from the nearby town of Vrbové (or Verbo).[3]

He emigrated to the United States at the age of 10 and became a U.S. citizen in 1919. He received a BSc from the City College of New York in 1923, and earned his PhD from Columbia University in 1931,[4] with a dissertation on the concept of measurement.

Through the award of a Guggeheim Fellowship he was able to spend a year in Europe (from August 1934 to July 1935) to learn about the new trends in philosophy on the continent.[5]

Except for one year (1966-1967) at Rockefeller University, Nagel spent his entire academic career at Columbia. He became the first John Dewey Professor of Philosophy there in 1955.[6] And then University Professor from 1967 until his retirement in 1970, after which he continued to teach. In 1977, he was one of the few philosophers elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

His work concerned the philosophy of mathematical fields such as geometry and probability, quantum mechanics, and the status of reductive and inductive theories of science. His book The Structure of Science (1961) practically inaugurated the field of analytic philosophy of science. He expounded the different kinds of explanation in different fields, and was sceptical about attempts to unify the nature of scientific laws or explanations. He was the first to propose that by positing analytic equivalencies (or "bridge laws") between the terms of different sciences, one could eliminate all ontological commitments except those required by the most basic science. He also upheld the view that social sciences are scientific, and should adopt the same standards as natural sciences.

Nagel wrote An Introduction to Logic and the Scientific Method with Morris Raphael Cohen, his CCNY teacher[4] in 1934. In 1958, he published with James R. Newman Gödel's proof, a short book explicating Gödel's incompleteness theorems to those not well trained in mathematical logic. He edited the Journal of Philosophy (1939–1956) and the Journal of Symbolic Logic (1940-1946).

As a public intellectual, he supported a skeptical approach to claims of the paranormal, becoming one of the first sponsors and fellows of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry in 1976, along with 24 other notable philosophers like W. V. Quine. The committee posthumously inducted him into their "Pantheon of Skeptics" in recognition of Nagel's contributions to the cause of scientific skepticism.[7][8][9] Nagel was an atheist.[10]

Nagel was an elected member of the American Philosophical Society (1962)[11] and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1981).[12]

He died in New York. He had two sons, Alexander Nagel (professor of mathematics at the University of Wisconsin) and Sidney Nagel (professor of physics at the University of Chicago).

Nagel's doctoral students include Morton White, Patrick Suppes, Henry Kyburg, Isaac Levi, and Kenneth Schaffner.

A festschrift, Philosophy, Science and Method: Essays in Honor of Ernest Nagel, was published in 1969.[13]

Select works


  1. ^ a b Suppes, Patrick (1999). Biographical memoir of Ernest Nagel. In American National Biography (Vol. 16, pp. 216-218). New York: Oxford University Press. [Author eprint]
  2. ^ Suppes, Patrick (1994). "Ernest Nagel" (PDF). Biographical memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  3. ^ Nagel, Y. (2022). "Ernest Nagel: A Biography." In: Neuber, M., Tuboly, A.T. (eds) Ernest Nagel: Philosophy of Science and the Fight for Clarity. Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science, vol 53. Springer, Cham.
  4. ^ a b Ernest Nagel at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  5. ^ Neuber, Matthias; Tuboly, Adam Tamas (2021-09-21). Ernest Nagel: Philosophy of Science and the Fight for Clarity. Springer Nature. pp. 53–56. ISBN 978-3-030-81010-8.
  6. ^ "Columbia Daily Spectator 9 December 1955 — Columbia Spectator". Retrieved 2019-09-27.
  7. ^ "The Pantheon of Skeptics". CSI. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  8. ^ Kurtz, Paul (2001). "Skeptical Inquirer: W.V. Quine (1908-2000)". No. March/April 2001. p. 8.
  9. ^ "List of Fellows". Skeptical Inquirer. IV (1): Inside Cover. Fall 1981. ISSN 0194-6730.
  10. ^ Nagel, Ernest, “A Defense of Atheism” In: Paul Edwards and Arthur Pap, eds., A Modern Introduction to Philosophy, revised edition, The Free Press, MacMillan, New York, 1967.
  11. ^ "APS Member History". Retrieved 2022-11-18.
  12. ^ "Ernest Nagel". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2022-11-18.
  13. ^ Hesse, Mary (1974-12-01). "Philosophy, Science, and Method. Essays in Honor of Ernest Nagel. Sidney Morgenbesser, Patrick Suppes, Morton White". Isis. 65 (4): 528–529. doi:10.1086/351353. ISSN 0021-1753.
  14. ^ Costello, Harry T. (1932). "Review of On the Logic of Measurement". The Journal of Philosophy. 29 (17): 469–473. doi:10.2307/2016000. ISSN 0022-362X. JSTOR 2016000.
  15. ^ Nagel, Ernest (1939). "The Formation of Modern Conceptions of Formal Logic in the Development of Geometry". Osiris. 7: 142–223. doi:10.1086/368504. ISSN 0369-7827. JSTOR 301542. S2CID 120668376.
  16. ^ SCHAFFNER, KENNETH F. (2012). "Ernest Nagel and Reduction". The Journal of Philosophy. 109 (8/9): 534–565. doi:10.5840/jphil20121098/926. ISSN 0022-362X. JSTOR 43820725.

Further reading