Expansionist nationalism,[1] is an aggressive radical form of nationalism or ethnic nationalism (ethnonationalism) that incorporates autonomous, heightened ethnic consciousness and patriotic sentiments with atavistic fears and hatreds focused on "other" or foreign peoples, framing a belief in expansion or recovery of formerly owned territories through militaristic means.[2][3][4]

History

The term was coined during the late nineteenth century[5][original research?] as European powers indulged in the "Scramble for Africa" (1880s onwards) in the name of national glory, but has been most associated[by whom?] with militarist governments during the 20th century,[4][failed verification] including Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, the Japanese Empire, and the Central and Eastern European countries of Albania (Greater Albania), Bulgaria (Greater Bulgaria), Croatia (Greater Croatia), Hungary (Greater Hungary), Romania (Greater Romania) and Serbia (Greater Serbia).[1]

Ideology

Expansionist nationalism is distinguished from liberal nationalism by its advocacy of chauvinism and racialism, its belief in the superiority of one's own nation and dominance combined with the exclusive right of self-determination. Nations are not considered equal with regard to their right of self-determination, rather some nations are believed to possess characteristics or qualities that make them superior to others. Expansionist nationalism therefore asserts the state's right to increase its borders at the expense of its neighbors.[2][4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Salih Bicakcic (2011). "Vol.2, Part V: Political Thought; Chapter 74: Nationalism". In Ishiyama, John T.; Breuning, Marijke (eds.). 21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook. SAGE. pp. 633–638. ISBN 9781412969017. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  2. ^ a b Heywood, Andrew (2017). "Chapter 6: Nationalism; 6.4.3.: Expansionist Nationalism". Political Ideologies: An Introduction (6th ed.). PALGRAVE; Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 176–187. ISBN 9781137606044. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  3. ^ Heywood, Andrew (2015). "Chapter 4 Sovereignty, the Nation and Transnationalism; 4.1. Nationalism". Political Theory: An Introduction. Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 95–99. ISBN 9781137437280. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b c "Nationalism Theory - Politics A-Level - Revision World". revisionworld.com. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  5. ^ Compare frequency of the term "expansionist nationalism".